ibt diagnostic test

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[WAEL EL CHEHABI July 20, 2012 WAEL EL CHEHABI TOEFL IBT DIAGNOSTIC TEST 1 [20 minutes each passage] Reading A. Read very carefully through the following passage and then answer the questions that follow it. Write your answers in the following grid. 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 "Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes" Sugar, water, and aluminum are different substances. Each substance has specific properties that do not depend on the quantity of the substance. Properties that can be used to identify or characterize a substanceand distinguish that substance from other substancesare called characteristic properties. They are subdivided into two categories: physical properties and chemical properties. The characteristic physical properties of a substance are those thdt identify the substance without causing a change in the composition of the substance. They do not depend on the quantity of substance. A Color, odor, density, melting point, boiling point, hardness, metallic luster or shininess, ductility, malleability, and viscosity are all characteristic physical properties. For exam-ple, aluminum is a metal that is both ductile and malleable. B Another example of a physical property is water. Whether a small pan of water is raised to its boiling point or a very large kettle of water is raised to its boiling point, the temperature at which the water boils is the same value, 100 degrees C or 212 degrees F. C Similarly, the freezing point of water is 0 degrees C or 32 degrees F. These values are independent of quantity. D Characteristic properties that relate to changes in the composition of a substance or to how it reacts with other substances are called chemical properties. The following questions pertain to the chemical properties of a substance. 1 .Does it burn in air? 2. Does it decompose (break up into smaller substances) when heated? 3. What happens when it is placed in an acid? 4. What other chemicals will it react with, and what substances are obtained from the reaction? Characteristic physical and chemical properties also called intensive propertiesare used to identify a substance. In addition to the characteristic physical properties already mentioned, some intensive physical properties include the tendency to dissolve in water, electrical conductivity, and density, which is the ratio of mass to volume. Additional intensive chemical properties include the tendency of a substance to react with another substance, to tarnish, to corrode, to explode, or to act as a poison or carcinogen (cancer-causing agent). Extensive properties of substances are those that depend on the quantity of the sample, including measurements of mass, volume, and length. Whereas Intensive properties help identify or characterize a particular kind of matter, extensive properties relate to the amount present.

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Page 1: Ibt Diagnostic Test

[WAEL EL CHEHABI July 20, 2012

WAEL EL CHEHABI TOEFL IBT DIAGNOSTIC TEST 1

[20 minutes each passage] Reading A. Read very carefully through the following passage and then answer the questions that follow it. Write

your answers in the following grid.

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

"Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes"

→ Sugar, water, and aluminum are different substances. Each substance has specific properties that

do not depend on the quantity of the substance. Properties that can be used to identify or characterize a substance—and distinguish that substance from other substances—are called

characteristic properties. They are subdivided into two categories: physical properties and chemical properties.

→The characteristic physical properties of a substance are those thdt identify the substance without

causing a change in the composition of the substance. They do not depend on the quantity of substance. A Color, odor, density, melting point, boiling point, hardness, metallic luster or shininess,

ductility, malleability, and viscosity are all characteristic physical properties. For exam-ple, aluminum is a metal that is both ductile and malleable. B Another example of a physical property is water.

Whether a small pan of water is raised to its boiling point or a very large kettle of water is raised to its boiling point, the temperature at which the water boils is the same value, 100 degrees C or 212 degrees F. C Similarly, the freezing point of water is 0 degrees C or 32 degrees F. These

values are independent of quantity. D

Characteristic properties that relate to changes in the composition of a substance or to how it reacts with other substances are called chemical properties. The following questions pertain to the chemical

properties of a substance.

1 .Does it burn in air? 2. Does it decompose (break up into smaller substances) when heated? 3. What happens when it is placed in an acid?

4. What other chemicals will it react with, and what substances are obtained from the reaction?

Characteristic physical and chemical properties— also called intensive properties— are used to identify a substance. In addition to the characteristic physical properties already mentioned, some

intensive physical properties include the tendency to dissolve in water, electrical conductivity, and density, which is the ratio of mass to volume.

Additional intensive chemical properties include the tendency of a substance to react with another substance, to tarnish, to corrode, to explode, or to act as a poison or carcinogen (cancer-causing

agent).

Extensive properties of substances are those that depend on the quantity of the sample, including measurements of mass, volume, and length. Whereas Intensive properties help identify or

characterize a particular kind of matter, extensive properties relate to the amount present.

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WAEL EL CHEHABI TOEFL IBT DIAGNOSTIC TEST 2

If a lump of candle wax is cut or broken into smaller pieces, or if it is melted (a change of state), the sample remaining is still candle wax. When cooled, the molten wax returns to a solid, in these examples, only a physical change has taken place: that is, the composition of the substance was not

affected.

→ When a candle is burned, there are both physical and chemical changes. After the candle is lighted, the solid wax near the burning wick melts. This is a physical change; the composition of the

wax does not change as it goes from solid to liquid. Some of the wax is drawn into the burning wick where a chemical change occurs. Here, wax in the candle flame reacts chemically with oxygen in the

air to form carbon dioxide gas and water vapor, in any chemical change, one or more substances are used up while one or more new substances are formed. The new substances produced have their own unique physical and chemical properties.

The apparent disappearance of something, like the candle wax, however, is not necessarily a sign

that we are observing a chemical change. For example, when water evaporates from a glass and disappears, it has changed from a liquid to a gas (called water vapor), but in both forms it is water.

This is a phase change (liquid to gas), which Is a physical change. When attempting to determine whether a change is physical or chemical, one should ask the critical question: Has the fundamental

composition of the substance changed? In a chemical change (a reaction), it has, but in a physical change, it has not. Glossary

ductility: can be drawn into wire malleability: can be shaped viscosity: thick, resistant to flow

1. According to paragraph 1, what do physical properties and chemical properties have in common? A. They are both used to create most of the substances.

B. They include basic substances like sugar and water. C. They are classified as characteristic properties of substances.

D. They change in proportion to the amount of the substance. Paragraph 1 is marked with an arrow [->].

2. The word pertain in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. compare B. relate

C. explain D. change

3. The word which in the passage refers to

A. properties

B. tendency C. density

D. ratio

4. According to the passage, a carcinogen A. explodes under pressure

B. conducts electricity

C. causes cancer

D. tarnishes in air

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WAEL EL CHEHABI TOEFL IBT DIAGNOSTIC TEST 3

5. Which of the sentences below best expresses the information in the highlighted statement in the

passage? The other choices change the meaning or leave out important information. A. Properties that are classified as intensive identify the type of substance and the extent of it

present in the surrounding matter,

B. The quantity of a substance influences its extensive properties, but the characteristics of the substance define the intensive properties.

C. Where the intensive and extensive properties are found in substances is important in identifying their characteristics,

D. Both intensive and extensive properties tend to have quantitative rather than qualitative characteristics present.

6. In paragraph 8, the author contrasts the concepts of physical and chemical changes by

A. listing several types for each concept

B. providing clear definitions for them C. identifying the common characteristics

D. using a wax candle as an example

Paragraph 8 is marked with an arrow [→].

7. The word unique in the passage is closest in meaning to A. distinctive B. idealized

C. primary D. significant

8. What can be inferred about phase changes?

A. They are always chemical changes. B. They are sometimes physical changes.

C. They are dependent on extensive properties. D. They usually produce new substances.

9. The word critical in the passage is closest in meaning to A. last

B. important

C. difficult

D. simple

10. According to the passage, the classification of characteristic properties as "physical" or

"chemical" is determined by

A. whether there has been a change in the structure of the substance B. what happens when the quantity of the substance is increased

C. their classification as either extensive or intensive samples D. the disappearance of a substance from one form to another

11. All of the following are mentioned as characteristic physical properties EXCEPT

A. dissolving in water

B. carrying an electrical charge C. resisting continuous flow

D. decomposing when heated

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WAEL EL CHEHABI TOEFL IBT DIAGNOSTIC TEST 4

12. Look at the four squares [•] that show where the following sentence could be inserted in the passage.

It can be made into wire or thin, flexible sheets.

Where could the sentence best be added?

13. Directions: Complete the table by matching the phrases on the left with the headings on the right. TWO of the answer choices will NOT be used. This question is worth 3 points.

Properties

Physical Properties

A. Color of the substance

B. Reaction in an acid

C. Decomposition in heat D. Temperature at which it boils Chemical Properties

E. The tendency to shine

F. The inclination to tarnish

G. The shape of the substance

H. Toxic if swallowed or inhaled

I. The relative amount In nature

Physical Properties

Chemical Properties

GO TO THE NEXT PAGE

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WAEL EL CHEHABI TOEFL IBT DIAGNOSTIC TEST 5

B. Read very carefully through the passage and write the answers in the following grid.

Q 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Ans

In Southwest France in the 1940s, playing children discovered Lascaux Grotto, a series of narrow cave chambers that contain huge prehistoric paintings of animals. Many of these beasts are as large

swirl about, othersemn parades, but as 16 feet (almost 5 meters). Some follow each other in solsideways and upside down. The animals are bulls, wild horses, reindeer, bison, and mammoths outlined with charcoal and painted mostly in reds, yellow, and browns. Scientific analysis reveals that

of Methodsron oxides ground into a fine powder. the colors were derived from ocher and other iapplying color varied: some colors were brushed or smeared on rock surfaces and others were

blown or sprayed. It is possible that tubes made from animal bones were used for spraying because hollow bones, some stained with pigment, have been found nearby.

One of the most puzzling aspects of the paintings is their location. Other rock paintings—for example, those of Bushmen in South Africa—are either located near cave entrances or completely in

the open. Cave paintings in France and Spain, however, are in recesses and caverns far

removed from original cave entrances. This means that artists were forced to work in cramped

spaces and without sources of natural light. It also implies that whoever made them did not

want them to be easily found. Since cave dwellers normally lived close to entrances, there must

have been some reason why so many generations of Lascaux cave dwellers hid their art.

Scholars offer three related but different opinions about the mysterious origin and significance of

these paintings. One opinion is that the paintings were a record of seasonal migrations made by them, it is probable that obliteratingherds. Because some paintings were made directly over others,

a painting’s value ended with the migration it pictured. Unfortunately, this explanation fails to

.secret ceremoniesexplain the hidden locations, unless the migrations were celebrated with

Another opinion is that the paintings were directly related to hunting and were an essential part

of a special preparation ceremony. This opinion holds that the pictures and whatever ceremony they were an ancient method of psychologically motivating hunters. It is conceivable that accompanied

before going hunting the hunters would draw or study pictures of animals and imagine a successful hunt. Considerable support exists for this opinion because several animals in the pictures are wounded by arrows and spears. This opinion also attempts to solve the overpainting by explaining

that an animal’s picture had no further use after the hunt.

A third opinion takes psychological motivation much further into the realm of tribal ceremonies

and mystery: the belief that certain animals assumed mythical significance as ancient ancestors or protectors of a given tribe or clan. Two types of images substantiate this theory: the strange,

indecipherable geometric shapes that appear near some animals, and the few drawings of men. Wherever men appear they are crudely drawn and their bodies are elongated and rigid. Some

men are in a prone position and some have bird or animal heads. Advocates for this opinion point to a highly suggestive state of low ,trance statereports from people who have experienced a

consciousness between waking and sleeping. Uniformly, these people experienced weightlessness

and the sensation that their bodies were being stretched lengthwise. Advocates also point to people who believe that the forces of nature are inhabited by spirits, particularly shamans* who believe

that an animal’s spirit and energy is transferred to them while in a trance. One Lascaux narrative

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WAEL EL CHEHABI TOEFL IBT DIAGNOSTIC TEST 6

picture, which shows a man with a birdlike head and a wounded animal, would seem to lend

credence to this third opinion, but there is still much that remains unexplained. For example, where is the proof that the man in the picture is a shaman? He could as easily be a hunter wearing a headmask. Many tribal hunters, including some Native Americans, camouflaged themselves by

wearing animal heads and hides.

Perhaps so much time has passed that there will never be satisfactory answers to the cave

images, but their mystique only adds to their importance. Certainly a great art exists, and by its existence reveals that ancient human beings were not without intelligence, skill, and sensitivity.

*shamans: holy people who act as healers and diviners

in the passage refers to others 1. The word

A. chambers

B. paintings C. beasts

D. parades

in the passage is closest in meaning to Methods2. The word

A. Ways

B. Shades C. Stages

D. Rules

3. What are the bones found in the Lascaux caves believed to indicate?

A. Wild animals sometimes lived in the cave chambers. B. Artists painted pictures on both walls and bones.

C. Artists ground them into a fine powder to make paint. D. Artists developed special techniques for painting the walls.

4. Why does the author mention Bushmen in South Africa in paragraph 2?

A. To suggest that ancient artists from all over the world painted animals on rocks

B. To contrast the location of their rock paintings to those found at Lascaux C. To support the claim that early artists worked in cramped spaces

D. To give an example of other artists who painted in hidden locations

Paragraph 2 is marked with an arrow .

5. What can be inferred from paragraph 2 about cave painters in France and Spain?

A. They also painted rocks outside caves.

B. They did not live close to the cave entrances. C. They developed their own sources of light to use while painting.

D. Their painting practices did not last for many years.

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WAEL EL CHEHABI TOEFL IBT DIAGNOSTIC TEST 7

Paragraph 2 is marked with an arrow .

?secret ceremonies6. Why does the author mention

A. To present a common opinion held by many scholars

B. To suggest a similarity between two opinions held by scholars C. To suggest a possible explanation for a weakness in an opinion expressed in the passage D. To give evidence that contradicts a major opinion expressed in the passage

in the passage is closest in meaning to accompanied7. The word

A. represented

B. developed into C. were associated with

D. came after

8. According to paragraph 4, why do some scholars believe that the paintings were related to

hunting?

A. Because some tools used for painting were also used for hunting

B. Because cave inhabitants were known to prefer animal food rather than plant food

C. Because some of the animals are shown wounded by weapons D. Because many hunters were also typically painters

Paragraph 4 is marked with an arrow .

9. According to paragraph 5, why do some scholars refer to a trance state to help understand the cave paintings?

A. To explain the state of consciousness the artists were in when they painted their pictures

B. To demonstrate the mythical significance of the strange geometric shapes C. To indicate that trance states were often associated with activities that took place inside

caves D. To give a possible reason for the strange appearance of the men painted on the cave walls

Paragraph 5 is marked with an arrow .

10. According to paragraph 5, if the man pictured with the birdlike head is not a shaman, he may have worn the headmask

A. to look like an animal while a hunt took place

B. to frighten off other hunters competing for food

C. to prove that he is not a shaman D. to resist forces of nature thought to be present in animals

Paragraph 5 is marked with an arrow .

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WAEL EL CHEHABI TOEFL IBT DIAGNOSTIC TEST 8

11. According to paragraph 6, why might the puzzling questions about the paintings never be

answered?

A. Keeping the paintings a mystery will increase their importance.

B. The artists hid their tools with great intelligence and skill. C. Too many years have gone by since the images were painted.

D. Answering the questions is not very important to scholars.

Paragraph 6 is marked with an arrow .

12. Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

This made it easy for the artists to paint and display them for the rest of the cave dwellers.

Where would the sentence best fit?

Select the square where the sentence can best be added to the passage.

13. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas

in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 3 points.

Scholars have wondered about the meaning of the subjects, location, and overpainting

of Lascaux cave images.

Answer Choices

A. The paintings may have recorded

information about animal migrations, and may only have been useful for one migration at a

time.

D. Unlike painters of the recently discovered

paintings, other Lascaux cave painters usually painted on rocks near cave entrances or in open

spaces outside the caves.

B. The human figures represented in the paintings appear to be less carefully shaped

than those of animals.

E. Some scholars believe that the paintings motivated hunters by allowing them to picture a

successful hunt.

C. It is possible that the animals in the paintings

were of mythical significance to the tribe, and the paintings reflected an important spiritual practice.

F. Scientific analysis suggests that paintings were

sprayed onto the rock walls with tubes made from animal bones.

GO T OTHE NEXT PAGE

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WAEL EL CHEHABI TOEFL IBT DIAGNOSTIC TEST 9

Integrated Writing

Directions

You have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Your response will be judged on the basis of the

quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the points in the lecture and their

relationship to the reading passage. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words.

Altruism is a type of behavior in which an animal sacrifices its own interest for that of another animal

or group of animals. Altruism is the opposite of selfishness; individuals performing altruistic acts gain

nothing for themselves.

Examples of altruism abound, both among humans and among other mammals. Unselfish acts among

humans range from the sharing of food with strangers to the donation of body organs to family

members, and even to strangers. Such acts are altruistic in that they benefit another, yet provide

little reward to the one performing the act.

In fact, many species of animals appear willing to sacrifice food, or even their life, to assist other

members of their group. The meerkat, which is a mammal that dwells in burrows in grassland areas

of Africa, is often cited as an example. In groups of meerkats, an individual acts as a sentinel,

standing guard and looking out for predators while the others hunt for food or eat food they have

obtained. If the sentinel meerkat sees a predator such as a hawk approaching the group, it gives an

alarm cry alerting the other meerkats to run and seek shelter. By standing guard, the sentinel

meerkat gains nothing—it goes without food while the others eat, and it places itself in grave

danger. After it issues an alarm it has to flee alone, which might make it more at risk to a predator,

since animals in groups are often able to work together to fend off a predator. So the altruistic

sentinel behavior helps ensure the survival of other members of the meerkat’s group.

Now read the transcript of a lecture on the topic you just read about.

Professor

You know, often in science, new findings force us to re-examine earlier beliefs and assumptions. And

a recent study of meerkats is having exactly this effect. The study examined the meerkat’s behavior

quite closely, much more closely than had ever been done before. And some interesting things were

found...like about eating habits...it showed that typically meerkats eat before they stand guard —

so the ones standing guard had a full stomach! And the study also found that since the sentinel is the

first to see a predator coming, it’s the most likely to escape...because it often stands guard near a

burrow, so it can run immediately into the burrow after giving the alarm. The other meerkats, the

ones scattered about looking for food, are actually in greater danger.

And in fact, other studies have suggested that when an animal creates an alarm, the alarm call might

cause the other group members either to gather together or else to move about very quickly,

behaviors that might actually draw the predator’s attention away from the caller, increasing that

animal’s own chances of survival.

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WAEL EL CHEHABI TOEFL IBT DIAGNOSTIC TEST 11

And what about people—what about some human acts that might be considered altruistic? Let’s take

an extreme case, uh, suppose a person donates a kidney to a relative, or even to a complete

stranger. A selfless act, right? But ...doesn’t the donor receive appreciation and approval from the

stranger and from society? Doesn’t the donor gain an increased sense of self worth? Couldn’t such

non-material rewards be considered very valuable to some people?

Question:

Summarize the points made in the lecture you just read, explaining how they cast doubt on

points made in the reading.

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WAEL EL CHEHABI TOEFL IBT DIAGNOSTIC TEST 11

Directions

You have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Your response will be judged on the basis of the

quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the points in the lecture and their

relationship to the reading passage. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words

A truly amazing characteristic of human memory is that all people seem to experience a certain type of very specific amnesia, or the inability to remember events that have occurred in their lives.

This particular type of amnesia, which is apparently experienced quite universally, is the inability to remember events that took place in the first few years of life; even though the first few years of life

are a time when learning is at its highest and tremendous amounts of information are learned, people seem to remember basically nothing from this period. When Freud first noted this interesting aspect of memory in 1805, he referred to it as childhood amnesia.

Since the time that Freud first noted this phenomenon, numerous studies have been conducted to

learn about it, and the results of these studies are that people tend not to remember anything from the first three or five years of their lives. A possible difficulty in this type of study is that one cannot

simply ask people if they remember events from the first five years of life because they may think that they remember things, but there is no way to check whether the remembered events actually occurred. Even when this difficulty is overcome in experiments, at least somewhat, by testing whether

or not subjects can remember events that have been well documented from childhood, such as family celebrations or births of siblings, the results remain constant, that people tend not to remember

anything from the first three or five years of life.

Now read the transcript of a lecture on the topic you just read about.

Professor

Now, I’d like to talk about the cause of childhood amnesia. Though its cause is not known for certain and various explanations have been hypothesized, one explanation is more generally

accepted than others.

The generally accepted explanation for childhood amnesia has to do with a huge difference in the way that young children and adults encode their experiences. Young children simply encode their experiences randomly as they happen, while adults retain their memories in an organized way.

Because a young child encodes events randomly, without forming associations between events or categorizing events in an organized way, the memories of the encoded events of young children

don’t last.

There are most likely numerous causes of the shift from early childhood random encoding to adult encoding in organized patterns. A major factor in this shift is the maturing of the hippocampus. Do

you know what a hippocampus is? It’s a part of the brain that helps organize and consolidate memories, and this part of the brain is not mature for at least the first two or three years of life. As a result, events that take place in the first two or three years can’t be organized and consolidated and

therefore most likely won’t be remembered later in life.

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WAEL EL CHEHABI TOEFL IBT DIAGNOSTIC TEST 12

QUESTION

How does the information in the second passage add to the ideas presented in the first passage?

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WAEL EL CHEHABI TOEFL IBT DIAGNOSTIC TEST 13

Speaking

1- What is the most important thing you would like to change in your country? Give enough reasons and examples to support your response. Do not write more than one paragraph. Your answer must be coherent and unified. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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2- Which do you prefer: studying alone, or studying in a group? Give enough reasons and examples to support your response. Do not write more than one paragraph. Your answer must be coherent and unified. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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3- Do you agree or disagree with the idea that teachers must give students a lot of home assignments? Give enough reasons and examples to support your response. Do not write more than one paragraph. Your answer must be coherent and unified. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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WAEL EL CHEHABI TOEFL IBT DIAGNOSTIC TEST 14

4. Read an article from a campus newspaper. Take notes on the main points of the reading

passage. Reading time: 45 seconds.

Why isn't recycling mandatory on campus?

How does an Ivy League educational institute, such as U of C get away with being so nonchalant

about recycling? After a recent search across campus, volunteers from the U of C Environmental Watch group counted only 10 recycling bins. In comparison, the students counted 30 vending machines, the majority of which carry plastics, cans, and glass bottles. Only one paper recycling bin

was found. This means that almost all of the paper that is discarded on campus, including U of C residences, is being disposed of in the regular garbage. When asked why no recycling bins for

paper have been placed on campus, U of C president, James Wicker, explained that the company the university employs to pick up recycling does not currently recycle paper. When asked why

another company is not used, Wicker sited university finances as an obstacle.

Now listen to two students discuss the article.

M: Hey Lisa, you and your roommate have a recycling bin in your dormitory room, don't you? I'm

sure I've thrown a water bottle in a bin at your place before. W: Sure. Why do you ask Mark? Are you wondering where to go to pick one up. I think they have them available in the housing office.

M: No, it's not that. My roommate and I have one too, and we put it out with our garbage each week. It's just that I read this article in the campus paper today that suggests that none of the

dormitories on campus are recycling. W: Oh, I read that article too. I agree that the writer obviously didn't check her facts. But, she had a

point about the lack of bins for recycling paper. I mean, what type of institution goes through more paper than a university?

M: True. And, like anything, the budget is always to blame. W: What I don't get is how they can charge us student dues for things like live entertainment, which many people don't even use, but they can't charge us for something like a recycling program.

M: Maybe you should write a letter to the editor about that. I for one wouldn't have a problem throwing in a few dollars each year to do my part for the environment and save a few trees.

W: Maybe, but I'm not sure how many other students would share your enthusiasm.

Why does the woman approve of the article? State her opinion and explain the reasons she

gives for holding that opinion.

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WAEL EL CHEHABI TOEFL IBT DIAGNOSTIC TEST 15

5. Read a passage about Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Take notes on the main points of the

reading passage. You have 45 seconds to read the passage. Begin reading now. Reading time: 45 seconds

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

OCD is an anxiety disorder that causes a person to experience obsessive thoughts and to react to these with compulsive behavior or rituals. The obsessions are typically described by OCD sufferers

as persistent thoughts or impulses that cause a great amount of stress. These differ from those stressors that the average person suffers from in daily life, such as work or financial problems, in that they are a product of the imagination. While most OCD sufferers admit to knowing that their

concerns are not real, they cannot control the thoughts from recurring, and they compensate by performing certain repetitive actions. In addition to these symptoms and responses, a true OCD

sufferer spends a large part of the day battling this disease. The debate continues over whether the disease should be classified as a psychological or biological disorder.

Now listen to a talk on the same academic subject.

Professor: The terms "obsessed" and "addicted" are used so loosely these days, that one of the most

serious mental diseases in America is often not taken seriously even by medical professionals. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is in fact one of the most debilitating psychological diseases, though it only affects about 4% of the population. Now, when I say debilitating, I mean, in terms of quality

of life. While very few people die from the symptoms and responses to OCD, if they don't seek any help, which most don't, they become severely depressed and isolated. Holding down a job or

maintaining social relationships are virtually impossible for many OCD sufferers. The term obsession has to be defined properly when making a proper diagnosis. A true obsession for OCD sufferers is

something that is considered abnormal even by the patient himself. So, we're not talking about a passion for golf, or a love of game shows here. To an OCD sufferer, an obsession is generally a

persisting thought with no merit, such as the feeling that one is going to throw oneself into traffic. The rituals and behavior that OCD sufferers engage in, such as repetitive hand washing or excessive checking are usually unrelated to the obsessive thoughts. In other words, someone who can't get the

image of a tree falling on their house out of their mind might engage in an unrelated ritual such as flipping constantly through pages of a certain book.

Explain how the professor's description of OCD expands upon the reading.

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WAEL EL CHEHABI TOEFL IBT DIAGNOSTIC TEST 16

6. Listen to a student asking a professor about dropping a class.

In the conversation, the student has a problem. Describe the problem. What options does the professor suggest to help the student? Which of the options do you prefer? Why?

S: Hi professor Jones. Thanks for agreeing to see me on such short notice. I just realized that the deadline for dropping classes is at the end of this week.

P: I have to assume you are considering dropping my class. I had a quick look at your last two quiz marks. You failed the first and just passed the second one. What is it that is causing you the most trouble?

S: Well, to be honest, I'm only taking statistics because it is a prerequisite for a psychology class I want to take. I really am not very good with numbers.

P: Have you been to all of my classes? S: Yes, every one of them. But to be honest you speak a little bit too quickly for me. I find it difficult

to get detailed notes. P: Well, perhaps you should think about bringing in a tape recorder. That way if you miss something

you can listen to it again when you're studying at home. S: I guess I could try that. I'm not sure if I can afford a tape recorder right now. My student loan hasn't come in yet.

P: Another option is to get a tutor. If you're interested I can recommend someone. She's a tutorial assistant for one of my other classes, but she does private tutoring on the side. She doesn't charge

much because she's really looking for the teaching experience. She wants to be a professor. S: So you don't think I should just drop the class?

P: Well, I guess that depends how important the psychology class is. Sometimes professors make exceptions too. You could always contact the psych professor and ask if it's possible to get in without my course. I'd be willing to sign something to prove that you've at least made a valid attempt.

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WAEL EL CHEHABI TOEFL IBT DIAGNOSTIC TEST 17

[30 minutes] ESSAY WRITING

Write a well-developed essay on the following topic. Your essay must be at least four paragraphs and at maximum five paragraphs. Your response must include a minimum of 300 words.

Topic

Which is better for you to ask a friend of yours to help you carry out your schoolwork, or to refer to a professional tutor? Give enough reasons and examples to support your answer.

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WAEL EL CHEHABI TOEFL IBT DIAGNOSTIC TEST 18

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