iii. migrations

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  • 1. PATTERNS OF MIGRATIONSSeven Laws of Migration according to Ravenstein (1885):1. Migrants usually move a short distance (distance decay factor)2. Migration is a step-by-step process (one group moves on and is replaced by a new group)3. Immigration somewhere means emigration somewhere else4. Immigration waves encourages a counter-current of emigration (balance = net migration)5. Long-distance migrants are more likely to move to major urban centers6. Rural residents are more likely to migrate than urban residents7. Females or more likely to migrate than males within the country, but males more likely to another country.Recent geographers have added more observations, such as: Growth of large cities is triggered by migration more than by natural increase Migration is primarily due to economic reasons Most migrants are aged 20-35 Migrations increase as cities, industry and transport develop Many migrants cannot find work and eventually return to where they came fromPush/Pull Factors according to Lee (1966): Push factors are negative features that cause a person to move away from place (ex: unemployment, low wages, war, natural hazards, persecution, famine, lack of opportunities) Pull factors are the attractions (real or imagined!) that exist in the destination (ex: higher wages, better jobs, good schools, higher quality of life, protection from natural hazards, perception of abundance, etc) Restraining factors can be an obstacle to pull factors: distance, cost, linguistic /cultural differences, loneliness, lack of human rights (Gulf countries)Limitations of models: Not all people are actually free to migrate (ex: kids, mortgage, etc) Some people do not have the skills, education or qualifications required to move Distance, age, race, class, income, language or gender can be barriers to migrations 1
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  • 3. Highway near theUS-Mexico border Foreign oil companies In Nigeria need highly skilled and well paid Western engineers Rural migrants arriving At the Beijing train station (China) Most workers who support the real estate boom in Dubai come from Pakistan and Bengladesh Infrared satellite photo Of rural colonization in Rondnia (Brazil interior) Refugee camp in Chad, near the border with Sudan 3
  • 4. Number of foreign immigrants living in each country 4
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  • 9. Brain drainMEDC Highly qualified workers RetireesNorth Poor, unqualified Expats, contractors migrant workers Highly qualified workers + some skilled workers (temporary) Poor, unqualifiedLEDC migrant workers,South war refugees International Migrations 9
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