in technology size does matter

53
In Technology Size Does Matter In the world of Microchip design and fabrication the industry is constantly pushing for smaller, more viable structures. Bradley Smrstick Physics Teacher TBT HS 2003

Upload: leandra-buchanan

Post on 02-Jan-2016

22 views

Category:

Documents


0 download

DESCRIPTION

In Technology Size Does Matter. In the world of Microchip design and fabrication the industry is constantly pushing for smaller, more viable structures. Bradley Smrstick Physics Teacher TBT HS 2003. In Technology the Atom is big. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

TRANSCRIPT

Page 1: In Technology Size Does Matter

In Technology Size Does Matter

In the world of Microchip design and fabrication the industry is constantly pushing for smaller, more viable structures.

Bradley Smrstick

Physics Teacher

TBT HS 2003

Page 2: In Technology Size Does Matter

In Technology the Atom is big.

They are fast approaching atomic sized structures where silicon is the pallet, thin film growth is the process and the atom is the paint.

Page 3: In Technology Size Does Matter

When smaller is better.

Scientists at the University of Illinois have developed a way to produce microscopic pipes capable of transporting fluids in a 3D lattice structure on the order of 10-6 meters.

Page 4: In Technology Size Does Matter
Page 5: In Technology Size Does Matter

Applications in Technology

R&D Magazine reports significant implementation of this technology taking place at;

IBM Infineon TechnologiesMetriGenix & AffymetrixBioRad LaboratoriesUniversity of Illinois

Page 6: In Technology Size Does Matter

In the beginning...

All microchips share the same origin. pure clean silicon wafer.

Page 7: In Technology Size Does Matter

The Processes...

There are actually many different processes used to create a layer.Each method has its pros & cons. The two major methods used are Thin film deposition Thin film growth

Page 8: In Technology Size Does Matter

The deposition process...

Thin film deposition involves a process whereby a layer (thin film) is actually deposited on the surface of the silicon.

Page 9: In Technology Size Does Matter

The growth process...

Thin film growth involves a process whereby a layer (thin film) is actually grown on the surface of the silicon.

Page 10: In Technology Size Does Matter

Both processes ...

This will likely involve a combination of many processes including chemical physical thermodynamic

Page 11: In Technology Size Does Matter

From start to finish

In the image to the right a wafer is shown in three states.

Oxidized BareComplete

Page 12: In Technology Size Does Matter

The Transistor

It takes as many as 300-400 steps to make a Pentium (CMOS)!

Page 13: In Technology Size Does Matter

The Big Picture

Page 14: In Technology Size Does Matter

(A,B) It all starts with a wafer.

Page 15: In Technology Size Does Matter

C) Dielectric Deposition

Page 16: In Technology Size Does Matter

Chemical Vapor Deposition

CVD

Page 17: In Technology Size Does Matter

D) Photolithography

Page 18: In Technology Size Does Matter

Exit to the Masking Process

This process is repeated to generate as many masks as are necessary to complete the microchip in advance of the production phase.They are then saved and loaded into an automated device that will properly place and change the masks where necessary in the process.

Page 19: In Technology Size Does Matter

The Masking Process

Page 20: In Technology Size Does Matter

1) Mask Pattern Generation

Page 21: In Technology Size Does Matter

2) Mask Etching

Page 22: In Technology Size Does Matter

3) Mask Inspection

Page 23: In Technology Size Does Matter

Return from the Masking Process

Continue the process...

Page 24: In Technology Size Does Matter

E) Etching

Page 25: In Technology Size Does Matter

F) Wafer Cleaning

Page 26: In Technology Size Does Matter

G) Ion Implantation

Page 27: In Technology Size Does Matter

H) Rapid Thermal Processing

Page 28: In Technology Size Does Matter

That is only one cycle...

This process repeats many times...

Page 29: In Technology Size Does Matter

Return for the Next Dielectric Deposition

This cycle continues until...

Page 30: In Technology Size Does Matter

The patterning is complete.

It is time to exit this part of the cycle...

Page 31: In Technology Size Does Matter

Metrology and Inspection

Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM)

Page 32: In Technology Size Does Matter

Metrology and Inspection

Many computer aided inspections are necessary

Page 33: In Technology Size Does Matter

What is next?

How can we use this chip?

Page 34: In Technology Size Does Matter

I) We begin a second cycle...

The Copper Interconnect Cycle

Page 35: In Technology Size Does Matter

The Big Picture

Page 36: In Technology Size Does Matter

K) Etching again...

Page 37: In Technology Size Does Matter

L) Metal Deposition

Page 38: In Technology Size Does Matter

M) Electroplating

Page 39: In Technology Size Does Matter

N) Chemical Polishing CMP

Page 40: In Technology Size Does Matter

Is the Process complete?

If not continue to step I...

Page 41: In Technology Size Does Matter

I) Continue with the deposition

This may continue many times...

Page 42: In Technology Size Does Matter

When the process is finally complete?

Exit the Copper Interconnect Cycle

Page 43: In Technology Size Does Matter

The Big Picture

Page 44: In Technology Size Does Matter

Applications in Technology

These and other related technologies are being implemented in toady's high technology laboratories today according to R&D Magazine as recently as in the April and May issues from 2003.

Page 45: In Technology Size Does Matter

Innovation is Key

At IBM the introduction of truly NEW Technologies is a high priority.This lead to the inception of thin polymer films with applications including LCD enhancement, polarizers and reflectors to improve monitor performance characteristics

Page 46: In Technology Size Does Matter
Page 47: In Technology Size Does Matter
Page 48: In Technology Size Does Matter

Saving time is essential.

At MetriGenix a Flow-Thru biochip system has been developed that allows researchers to simultaneously analyze the reaction of up to 400 known genes to a specific substance.

Page 49: In Technology Size Does Matter
Page 50: In Technology Size Does Matter

Saving time is essential.

Using the 4D Array from MetriGenix the scientists at Affymetrix have developed a Gene Chip Scanner that has succeeded in reducing the processing time by a factor of six while requiring significantly less sample and reagent volumes.

Page 51: In Technology Size Does Matter
Page 52: In Technology Size Does Matter

Cost is King!!

If it costs a manufacturer $10,000 to make a 8 inch diameter wafer that contains 200 individual microchips.How much does each microchip cost to produce?How much is each microchip worth in a very competitive microchip market?

Page 53: In Technology Size Does Matter

Acknowledgments

Dr. Drew Hoff USFJoseph D. Hickey USFThe Web authors at http://www.tel.com/eng/Products/spe/chips_made/01.htmlAPPLIED MATERIALS Inc.Lesson Plan