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  1. 1. PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA SOCIAL SCIENCE
  2. 2. The physical features of India can be grouped under the following physiographic divisions: (i) The Himalayan Mountains (ii) The Northern Plains (iii) The Peninsular Plateau (iv) The Indian Desert (v) The Coastal Plains (vi) The Islands
  3. 3. THE HIMALAYAN RANGEABhishek singh
  4. 4. THE HIMALAYAN MOUNTAIN:- The Himalayan ranges contain several high peaks. Mount Everest is the highest peak in the world. The Himalayan Mountains stretch in a long curve from Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Arunachal Pradesh in the east. Their length is about 2000 kilometers and width between 230 and 400 kilometers. ABhisheksingh
  5. 5. ADVANTAGES OF THE HIMALAYAS High mountain ranges and peaks act a barrier for enemies and so play a great role in the Defense of India. The Himalayas protect the country against the cold winds blowing from Siberia through central Asia. The Himalayas check rain bearing wind and cause heavy rainfall. The eastern part of the mountain prevents the monsoon clouds from escaping northwards out of India. This causes rain in the whole of northern India. There are dense forests up to an altitude of 1500 meters. Different types of trees, bushes and wild animals are found in these forests. ABhisheksingh
  6. 6. Images of HimalayasImages of Himalayas Higher Himalayan rangeABhishek singh
  7. 7. THE SHIVALIK RANGES The Shivalik Hills or Range are the southernmost and geologically youngest east-west mountain chain of the Himalayas. The Sivalik extends about 1,689 km from southwest Kashmir through northern India into southern Nepal. The Shivaliks crest at 600 to 1,200 metres and have many sub-ranges. They extend 1,600 km from the Teesta River in Sikkim, westward through Nepal and Uttarkhand, continuing into Kashmir and Northern Pakistan.
  8. 8. ADVANTAGES OF SHIVALIK HILLS The physical features and the climatic conditions of this region have played an important role in shaping and making it an important part from the rest of the country. The Shivalik form a belt, which runs continuously from Jammu, Kangra valley, Sirmur district to Dehradun and finally ending up in the Bhabbar tracts of Garhwal and Kumaon.
  9. 9. Images of Shivalik Ranges Kedarnath (Shivalik) A view of Shivalik Range ABhishek singh
  10. 10. NORTHERN PLAINS ABhishek singh
  11. 11. NORTHERN PLAIN It has been made by the three major river systems:- - The Indus - The Ganga -The Brahmaputra It plain is formed by alluvial soil. The area covered by this plain is 7 lakh kilometers. The plain is about 2400 km long and 240 to 320 km broad is a densely physiographic division. ABhisheksingh
  12. 12. NORTHERN PLAIN IS BROADLY DIVIDED INTO THREE SECTIONS- - PUNJAB PLAIN - GANGA PLAIN - BRAMHAPUTRA PLAIN ABhisheksingh
  13. 13. THE PUNJAB PLAIN The Western Part of the northern plain is called the Punjab Plain. It is formed by Indus and its tributaries. The large part of this plain lies in Pakistan. The Indus and its tributaries :-the Ravi, the Chenab. The section of the plain is dominated by Doabs.
  14. 14. THE GANGA PLAIN It extends between Ghaggar and testa river. The Ganga-Yamuna Doab comprising the Rohilkhand and the Avadh Plain is the tile area that is drained by the tributaries of Ganga. The North Bengal Plains: the Plains extending from the foot of Eastern Himalayas to the northern limb of Bengal basin cover an area of 23,000km2.
  15. 15. THE BRAHMAPUTRA PLAIN It spreads over the states of North India , Haryana, Delhi , Bihar, U.P. , Jharkhand ,and West Bengal, particularly in Assam lies the Brahmaputra This is a low level plain, rarely more than 80km broad, surround by High Mountain on all sides except on the west. Significance of the Great Plains: Riverine region, Fertile soil, favorable climate, flat surface, constructions of roads, extensive system of irrigation.
  16. 16. The Peninsular Plateau ABhishek singh
  17. 17. THE PENINSULAR PLAIN The peninsular plateau is a tableland composed of the old crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks. It is formed due to the breaking and drifting of the gondwana land. It has a broad and shallow valleys and rounded hills ABhisheksingh
  18. 18. It consists of two major divisions - Central highlands - Deccan plateau ABhisheksingh
  19. 19. CENTRAL HIGHLAND The part of peninsular plateau lying to the north of the narmada river covering a major area of the malwa plateau is known as the central highlands. The extend of central highlands is from vindhya to aravalli hills. The slope of central highlands is from south- west to north-east
  20. 20. DECCAN PLATAEU The deccan plateau is a triangular landmass that lies to the south of the river narmada. The deccan plateau is higher in the west and slopes gently eastwards. It is separated by fault from the chotanagpur plateau.
  21. 21. THREE PROMINENT HILLS FROM THE EAST TO WEST: - Garo hills -Khasi hills -Jaintia hills
  22. 22. THE INDIAN DESERTS A place that receives less than 10 inches (25 centimeters) of rain per year is considered a desert. Deserts cover more than one fifth of the Earth's land, and they are found on every continent. Deserts are. part of a wider classification of regions called "dry lands . These areas exist under a moisture deficit, which means they can frequently lose more moisture through evaporation than they receive from annual precipitation. ABhisheksingh
  23. 23. IN INDIA THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF DESERTS THAT ARE: - HOT DESERT - COLD DESERT ABhisheksingh
  24. 24. HOT DESERTS Hot deserts usually have a large diurnal and seasonal temperature range, with high daytime temperatures, and low nighttime temperatures (due to extremely low humidity). In hot deserts the temperature in the daytime can reach 45 C/113 F or higher in the summer, and dip to 0 C/32 F or lower at nighttime in the winter. Urban areas in deserts lack large (more than 14 C/25 F) daily temperature variations, partially due to the urban heat island effect. Many deserts are formed by rain shadows; mountains blocking the path of precipitation to the desert (on the lee side of the mountain).
  25. 25. Images of some hot deserts. ABhishek singh
  26. 26. COLD DESERTS The common conceptions of deserts as dry and hot, there are cold deserts as well. Desert animals have adapted ways to help them keep cool and use less water. FOR EXAMPLE, camel can go for days without food and water. Many desert animals are nocturnal, coming out only when the brutal sun has descended to hunt. Some animals, like the desert tortoise in the southwestern United States, spend much of their time underground. Most desert birds are nomadic, crisscrossing the skies in search of food. Because of their very special adaptations, desert animals are extremely vulnerable to introduced predators and changes to their habitat.
  27. 27. PHOTOS OF COLD DESERT
  28. 28. The Costal Plains ABhishek singh
  29. 29. THE COSTAL PLAINS Coastal plains are a geologic feature found around the world and on both the eastern and western coasts of India. Coastal plains are characterized by an area of flat low lying land that is situated adjacent to a water body often a sea or ocean. It is also of note that coastal plains are separated from the interior of the larger land mass by other unique features. Coastal plains have limited vegetation; however grasses and trees are not uncommon. The coastal plains of India are relatively expansive regions which contribute significantly to the geography of the region. ABhisheksingh
  30. 30. ABhishek singh
  31. 31. The Island ABhishek singh
  32. 32. THE INDIAN ISLANDS Anisland is any piece ofsub-continentalland that is surrounded bywater. Very small islands such as emergent land features onatollscan be calledislets,caysor keys. An island in a river or lake may be called aneyot, orholm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called anarchipelago. An island may still be described as such despite the presence of an artificial land bridge, for exampleSingaporeand itscauseway, or the variousDutch delta islands, such asIjssel monde. Some places may even retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a wide land bridge, such asConey Island. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example thePeloponneseby theCorinth Canal, it is generally not considered an island. ABhisheksingh
  33. 33. Anisland is any piece ofsub-continentalland that is surrounded bywater. Very small islands such as emergent land features onatollscan be calledislets,caysor keys. An island in a river or lake may be called aneyot, orholm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called anarchipelago. An island may still be described as such despite the presence of an artificial land bridge, for exampleSingaporeand itscauseway, or the variousDutch delta islands, such asIjssel monde. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example thePeloponneseby theCorinth Canal, it is generally not considered an island. ABhisheksingh
  34. 34. Wake Island LAKSHDWABhishek singh
  35. 35. ABhishek singh

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