instant history photography morrissey

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Starting lesson (presentation) for grade 8s - photography (visual arts). Early history outlining the key historical points of WHO, WHEN, and WHAT.


  • 1. Instant History Lesson: PhotographyMs. M. Morrissey Grade 8 Visual Arts

2. PHOTOGRAPHYphotography n1. the art, hobby, or profession of taking photographs,and developing and printing the film or processing thedigitized array image2. the process of recording images by exposing light-sensitive film or array to light or other forms ofradiationPHOTO = light GRAPHY = writingMs. M. Morrissey Grade 8 Visual Arts 3. Instant History LessonWhen: timeline of eventsWho: artists & scientistsWhat: equipment & artLook for the key points made in colour!Ms. M. Morrissey Grade 8 Visual Arts 4. 1490The Camera Obscura,(translated as dark room),dates back to the Chinesephilosopher Mo-Ti in the 5thcentury BC.Reinerus Gemma-Frisius 1544First documentation of the camera obscura is byLeonardo DaVinci in his 1490 writings.The physics behind this technology is simple: lightreflects off objects outside; light bounces off theobjects and channels into a small hole; the light entersa dark room and projects the outside objects upsidedown on a wall inside.Ms. M. Morrissey Grade 8 Visual Arts 5. 1614Angelo Sala, a Dutchscientist,experimented withsilver salts.He published resultsin 1614 that powderedsilver nitrate turns asblack as ink whenexposed to sun.1567-1637Ms. M. Morrissey Grade 8 Visual Arts 6. 1661Many chemists contributedto the advancement of theearly work of Angelo Sala.Robert Boyle, a founder ofthe Royal Society ofPhotography, reported in1661 that silver chlorideturned dark due to exposure,at first thought due to air.Boyle is known today forBoyles Law which statesthat the volume of a gas atconstant temperature isproportional to its pressure.1627-1691Ms. M. Morrissey Grade 8 Visual Arts 7. 1727Johann Heinrich Schulze, aprofessor of anatomy,discovered in 1727 thatsilver salts, specifically apiece of chalk dipped insilver nitrate, turned blackfrom white when exposed tothe sun. The unexposed sideremained white. Heexperimented creating crudephotographic impressions,but eventually it all turnedblack due to exposure.1687-1744Ms. M. Morrissey Grade 8 Visual Arts 8. 1802The first well-documented attemptsto produce photos using lightsensitive materials in a camerawere those of Thomas Wedgwood.Assisted by Sir Humphrey Davy,Wedgwood started experiments in1795 and described his work in an1802 published paper entitled AnAccount of a Method of CopyingPaintings Upon Glass, and ofMaking Profiles, by the Agency ofLight Upon Nitrate of SilverAlthough he made remarkableprogress, he failed in keeping theimage permanent. He called theimages sun prints.1771-1805Ms. M. Morrissey Grade 8 Visual Arts 9. 1826The first successful picture isproduced by Joseph NicephoreNiepce in 1826 required an 8hour exposure time.It was a photo of a view from theNiece family house in Gras,France. Niece calling hispictures heliographs or sundrawing.1776-1833Ms. M. Morrissey Grade 8 Visual Arts 10. 1835William Henry Fox Talbotdeveloped permanent papernegatives in 1835. He calls itcalotype process, whichallows for multiple printings,based on a paper negative.It is of a lesser quality thanthe succeedingDaguerreotype. Even thoughthe Daguerreotype enjoyedmore success during theearly days of photography,the calotype system was thetrue forerunner of todaysmodern photographyprocess.1780-1877Ms. M. Morrissey Grade 8 Visual Arts 11. 1839Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre firstexposed silver-coated copper plates toiodine, obtaining silver iodide. Then heexposed them to light for severalminutes. After that he coated the platewith mercury vapor heated to 75Celsius, to amalgamate the mercurywith the silver, finally fixing the imagein salt water. These ideas led to thefamous Daguerreotype developed in1839.Niece and Daguerre go into a 10-yearpartnership after Daguerre discovers amethod to shorten exposure time to ahalf hour. Niece dies four years laterand Daguerre carries on to inventglass plates and discovers that animage can be made permanent byimmersing it in salt.1787-1851Ms. M. Morrissey Grade 8 Visual Arts 12. 1842The cyanotype process wasdeveloped by Sir John Herschelin 1842. Herschel undertookmany early experiments inphotography. He and Talbotcorresponded regularly. Thecalotype process became morepopular around 1900.Photographers sometimes usedit as a means of getting a quickinitial print or blueprint of theirwork, perhaps making it in ahotel bedroom on location,before returning to their studioto make their final print.1832-1940Ms. M. Morrissey Grade 8 Visual Arts 13. 1879In 1880 George Eastmanbegins to commerciallymanufacture dry platesfollowing his emulsion-coatingmachine invention in 1879enabling the mass-production ofphotographic dry plates. This isthe beginning of the Kodakempire with the launch of theEastman Dry Plate Company.1854-1932Ms. M. Morrissey Grade 8 Visual Arts 14. 1888George Eastman thenintroduces the "Kodak" boxCamera in 1888 for theamateur market. It isloaded with 100 exposureson a film roll for $25. It issimple to operate with athree step process. Onceexposed, the camera andthe film are sent back tothe Eastman Dry Plate andFilm Co. for developing.1854-1932Ms. M. Morrissey Grade 8 Visual Arts 15. 1893Thomas Edison commissions W. K. L. Dickson to invent a motion-picture camera in 1887. In 1893 Dickson produces theKinetograph camera. This device ensured intermittent but regularmotion of the film strip with a regularly perforated celluloid filmstrip to ensure precise synchronization between the film strip andthe shutter.1854-1932 1860-1935Ms. M. Morrissey Grade 8 Visual Arts 16. Photographs 1824-1890Photogramc. 1824Heliographc. 1826Calotypec. 1860Daguerretypec. 1860Tintypec. 1860Glass Platec. 1890Early equipment, simple composition, limited subject matter. 17. Photographs 1899-1912Kinescopec. 1899Kodak Filmc. 1909Kodak no. 3c. 1910Filmc. 1912Advancing equipment, composed compositions, expanding subject matter. 18. Photographs 1924-1986Film with studio lightingc. 1924Negative manipulationc. 1969c. 1978 c. 1986c. 1932c. 1940Varying equipment, creative compositions, entertaining subject matter. 19. Photographs 1988-2006c. 1988c. 2000c. 2004c. 2006c. 1991 c. 1996Advanced equipment, artistic compositions, limitless subject matter. 20. Now go make history!Ms. M. Morrissey Grade 8 Visual Arts