introduction to matter matter? does it matter? what’s the matter?

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Introduction to Introduction to Matter Matter Matter? Matter? Does it Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter? What’s the Matter?

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Page 1: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Introduction to Introduction to MatterMatter

Matter? Matter?

Does it Matter? Does it Matter?

What’s the Matter? What’s the Matter?

Page 2: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Essential QuestionEssential Question

How are particles in solids, liquids, and gases arranged and how does that affect their properties?

Page 3: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

So, What is Matter ?So, What is Matter ?

Matter is defined as anything that Matter is defined as anything that has has

Mass Mass

Takes up space (Takes up space (volumevolume))

Page 4: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Physical PropertyPhysical Property

Any Any quality or condition quality or condition of a of a substance that can be substance that can be observed or observed or measured without changing the measured without changing the substances identity.substances identity.Examples: color, solubility, odor, Examples: color, solubility, odor,

hardness, melting point, and hardness, melting point, and state of state of mattermatter

Page 5: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Physical States of MatterPhysical States of MatterThere’s 4 of them !There’s 4 of them !

SOLIDS SOLIDS Have definite (or fixed) shape and volumeHave definite (or fixed) shape and volume

The particles in a solid are The particles in a solid are held fairly rigidly in held fairly rigidly in place.place.

Page 6: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Physical States of MatterPhysical States of MatterThere’s 4 of them !There’s 4 of them !

LIQUIDS LIQUIDS Have a definite volume but no fixed shape.Have a definite volume but no fixed shape.

The particles in a liquid are The particles in a liquid are free to flow around free to flow around each othereach other

Page 7: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Physical States of MatterPhysical States of MatterThere’s 4 of them !There’s 4 of them !

GASES GASES Have neither definite or fixed shape or volume.Have neither definite or fixed shape or volume.

The particles in a gas are: The particles in a gas are: widely disbursed,widely disbursed,

interact weakly,interact weakly,

move independently at high move independently at high speed,speed,

and completely fill any container they and completely fill any container they occupy.occupy.

Page 8: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

44thth Type of Matter Type of Matter

PLASMAPLASMA Gases whose particles are so hot Gases whose particles are so hot

they have acquired an electrical they have acquired an electrical charge.charge.

Page 9: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Changes of StateChanges of State

Page 10: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Physical Changes in MatterPhysical Changes in Matter

change in a change in a substance that substance that doesn’t doesn’t changechange the the identity identity of the of the substancesubstance

Ex. grinding, Ex. grinding, cutting, melting, cutting, melting, boilingboiling

Includes all changes Includes all changes of stateof state (physical (physical changes of a changes of a substance from one substance from one state to another)state to another)

Page 11: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Chemical PropertyChemical Property

Ability of a substance to Ability of a substance to combine combine with or change into one or more with or change into one or more other substancesother substancesExamples: Rusting, flammability, Examples: Rusting, flammability,

reactivity, etc.reactivity, etc.

Page 12: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Chemical Changes in MatterChemical Changes in Matter

a change in which a substance a change in which a substance ISIS converted into a different substanceconverted into a different substance

same as chemical reactionsame as chemical reaction doesn’t changedoesn’t change the amount of matter the amount of matter

presentpresent reactantsreactants – substances that react – substances that react productsproducts – substances that form– substances that form

Page 13: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Signs of Chemical ChangeSigns of Chemical Change

EnergyEnergy is always is always absorbed or given absorbed or given offoff

Change in color or odorChange in color or odor Production of a gas (bubbling)Production of a gas (bubbling) IrreversibilityIrreversibility

Page 14: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Chemical or Physical?Chemical or Physical?

Cookies are bakedCookies are baked Water boilsWater boils Salt dissolves in waterSalt dissolves in water Milk spoilsMilk spoils A metal chair rustsA metal chair rusts Paper is tornPaper is torn A tree burns downA tree burns down

Chemical

Physical

Physical

Chemical

Chemical

Physical

Chemical

Page 15: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Law of Conservation of MassLaw of Conservation of Mass

In any physical change or chemical In any physical change or chemical reaction, reaction, mass is neither created mass is neither created nor destroyed; it is conserved.nor destroyed; it is conserved.

Page 16: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Law of Conservation of Mass

Total mass of substances before reaction

= Total mass of substance after reaction

From the law of conservation of mass:

Can you find the amount of oxygen that reacts?

Mercury + oxygen red-orange residue

2.53g 2.73g0.20 g

Page 17: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?
Page 18: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Intensive vs. Extensive Intensive vs. Extensive PropertiesProperties

Page 19: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

CLASSIFICATION OF CLASSIFICATION OF MATTERMATTER

Page 20: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

EQ’s EQ’s How is matter classified?

Page 21: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

A. Matter FlowchartA. Matter Flowchart

MATTER

Can it be physically separated?

Homogeneous Mixture

(solution)

Heterogeneous Mixture Compound Element

MIXTURE PURE SUBSTANCE

yes no

Can it be chemically decomposed?

noyesIs the composition uniform?

noyes

Colloids Suspensions

Page 22: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Pure SubstancesPure Substances Every sample has Every sample has samesame::

characteristic propertiescharacteristic properties compositioncomposition

Are made of: Are made of: 11 type of atom: type of atom: elementelement

• Ex: iron, gold, arsenicEx: iron, gold, arsenic 2 or more 2 or more types of atoms: types of atoms:

compound (molecules too)compound (molecules too)• Ex: salt, sugar, water, Ex: salt, sugar, water,

ammonia (NHammonia (NH33))

Page 23: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Which are pure substances?Which are pure substances?

Page 24: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

MixturesMixtures Blend (mix) of Blend (mix) of 2 or more types2 or more types of matter of matter Each component Each component keeps its own identity keeps its own identity

and propertiesand properties The components are The components are only only physically physically

mixedmixed Can be Can be separated using physical separated using physical

meansmeans Properties of the mixture are a Properties of the mixture are a

combination of the componenent’s combination of the componenent’s propertiesproperties

Page 25: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Homogeneous MixturesHomogeneous Mixtures

Also called Also called solutionsolution

Uniform in Uniform in compositioncomposition

No visible partsNo visible parts

Ex: Ex: vinegarvinegar clear airclear air salt watersalt water brassbrass

Page 26: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

MixturesMixtures

Page 27: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Heterogeneous MixturesHeterogeneous Mixtures

Not uniform in Not uniform in compositioncomposition

Visible partsVisible parts

Ex: Ex: soilsoil concreteconcrete bloodblood chocolate chip chocolate chip

cookiescookies sand in watersand in water iced tea with ice iced tea with ice

Page 28: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

PracticePracticeDetermine whether each of the following is element, Determine whether each of the following is element,

compound, homogeneous mixture or heterogeneous mixture.compound, homogeneous mixture or heterogeneous mixture.

airair zinczinc chlorinechlorine granitegranite aluminumaluminum sugar in watersugar in water bloodblood sucrosesucrose stainless steelstainless steel sodium chloridesodium chloride

brassbrass whole milkwhole milk appleapple table salttable salt soft drinkssoft drinks vinegarvinegar concreteconcrete sodiumsodium baking soda (NaHCObaking soda (NaHCO33)) gravelgravel

Homogeneous

Heterogeneous

Element

Heterogeneous

Element

Homogeneous

Element

Compound

Homogeneous

Compound

Homogeneous

Homogeneous

Heterogeneous

Compound

Homogeneous

Homogeneous

Heterogeneous

Element

Compound

Heterogenous

Page 29: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Substance or Mixture?Substance or Mixture? A homogeneous mixture A homogeneous mixture

lookslooks like a substance like a substance Is the material in question Is the material in question

always a single kind of always a single kind of material? For instance, there material? For instance, there are different grades of are different grades of gasoline and different kinds gasoline and different kinds of cough syrupof cough syrup

Is the material in question Is the material in question physically separable?physically separable?

Page 30: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Separation Separation TechniquesTechniquesof Mixturesof Mixtures

Page 31: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

EQ’sEQ’s What are five physical separation What are five physical separation

techniques that can be used with techniques that can be used with mixtures?mixtures?

Page 32: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Physical Separation Physical Separation TechniquesTechniques

FiltrationFiltration- solid part - solid part is trapped by filter is trapped by filter paper and the liquid paper and the liquid part runs through the part runs through the paperpaper

VaporizationVaporization- where - where the liquid portion is the liquid portion is evaporated off to evaporated off to leave solidleave solid

Page 33: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Physical Separation Physical Separation TechniquesTechniques

DecantingDecanting- when - when liquid is poured off liquid is poured off after solid has settled after solid has settled to bottomto bottom

CentrifugeCentrifuge- machine - machine that spins a sample that spins a sample very quickly so that very quickly so that components with components with different densities different densities will separatewill separate

Page 34: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Physical Separation Physical Separation TechniquesTechniques

Paper Chromatography-Paper Chromatography- used to used to separate mixtures because different separate mixtures because different parts move quicker on paper than otherparts move quicker on paper than other

Page 35: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Classify the following as a Classify the following as a substance or a mixturesubstance or a mixture

SilverSilver Alphabet soupAlphabet soup Salt waterSalt water Table salt (sodium chloride)Table salt (sodium chloride) Motor oilMotor oil

Page 36: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?
Page 37: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

How do you separate different substances How do you separate different substances from a mixture?from a mixture?

You have just been given the latest You have just been given the latest creation of your science teacher. The teacher creation of your science teacher. The teacher presents you with a mixture of presents you with a mixture of sawdust, iron sawdust, iron filings, salt, and sandfilings, salt, and sand. He needs to separate . He needs to separate the mixture and wants your help. You are to the mixture and wants your help. You are to separate the mixture and find the total mass of separate the mixture and find the total mass of each of the substances in the mixture!each of the substances in the mixture!

You are to describe your proposed separation You are to describe your proposed separation plan. Present your plan to your teacher for plan. Present your plan to your teacher for approval. approval.

You will then conduct the experiment and You will then conduct the experiment and separate the mixtureseparate the mixture

Upon completion of the experiment each Upon completion of the experiment each member of the group will submit a final papermember of the group will submit a final paper

Page 38: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Data TableData Table

Material Original Mass (g)

Recovered Mass

(g)

Percent Error

Salt

Sand

Iron Filings

Sawdust

Page 39: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

Possible ErrorsPossible Errors Too much water to evaporateToo much water to evaporate Wet wood chips when finding the mass after separationWet wood chips when finding the mass after separation Using a beaker instead of a graduated cylinder when Using a beaker instead of a graduated cylinder when

finding the volume of waterfinding the volume of water Forgetting to zero out scale before massingForgetting to zero out scale before massing Massing the cup and not subtractingMassing the cup and not subtracting Water did not dry out from sandWater did not dry out from sand Substances lost in the “transport” from lab table to scaleSubstances lost in the “transport” from lab table to scale

Page 40: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

The Final Paper Must Include the The Final Paper Must Include the Following:Following:

**Introduction: Introduction: Define the mixture and Define the mixture and properties of the ingredients in this properties of the ingredients in this mixturemixture

*Materials: *Materials: List of ALL lab equipment List of ALL lab equipment usedused

*Procedures: *Procedures: Numbered Numbered step by step step by step procedures that you performed to procedures that you performed to separate the mixtureseparate the mixture

Page 41: Introduction to Matter Matter? Does it Matter? What’s the Matter?

The Final Paper Must Include the The Final Paper Must Include the Following:Following:

*Results: *Results: Mass of each substance before Mass of each substance before and after separation (data table)and after separation (data table)

*Conclusion: *Conclusion: A description of problems A description of problems you encountered while conducting the you encountered while conducting the lab and percent error calculations for each lab and percent error calculations for each substancesubstance

Ideas Ideas as to how you could improve your as to how you could improve your methods to better separate each methods to better separate each ingredient and reduce your percent error.ingredient and reduce your percent error.