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Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and Development Dana Arenius Engineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department JLab’s Collins Cryogenic R&D Institute Directors R&D Review March 20, 2008 This work is supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) contract #DE-AC05-060R-23177 1

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Page 1: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic

Applied Research and Development

Dana Arenius

Engineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department

JLab’s Collins Cryogenic R&D Institute

Directors R&D Review

March 20, 2008

This work is supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) contract #DE-AC05-060R-23177

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Page 2: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Outline• The Collins Cryogenic Institute

• R+D Topic Origins

• Current R+D Focus

• Funding Sources

• Demonstrated Jlab’s Ganni Cycle Results

• Ganni Cycle Explained

• Supportive Equations which indicate it works

• Current Collaborations and impacts on

Jlab’s/Physics Research Initiatives

• Examples of Results

• Recognitions of the work

• Summary2

Page 3: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Collins Cryogenic Institute• Named after MIT’s Dr. Samuel Collins

– Who developed a cost effective and reliable helium

refrigerator which experimenters could readily afford this

utility in support laboratory research

• Combines helium refrigeration research and

development in the areas of reliability, operational

costs, and efficiency with…

– Advanced engineering thesis work for each project

– Cost effective industrial, physics research laboratory, and

national government organization collaborations to develop

solutions to common helium refrigeration problems

– Educational outreach to industry and other laboratories

• Only organization currently engaged in this work 3

Page 4: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Sources for R+D Project Focus Planning

• DOE Laboratory Community

– Jlab’s initiated Cryogenics Operational Workshops

(attended by Industry and physics research labs world wide)

– JLab’s own operational experience and needs

• Cryogenic Engineering Conferences

• Accelerator Division SRF technology advancements

• Insight of where industrial developments ended4

Page 5: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Current Focus Points

• Establishing the use of Jlab’s Ganni Cycle by the end

user and industry for existing and new plants

• Reducing utilities used by helium refrigerator plants

in terms of electric power, cooling water, and LN2

• Improve system reliability with less maintenance

• Conservation of helium (reduce helium gas loss) and

the means of recycling helium for use (i.e. recovery

purifiers)

• Warm helium compressor efficiency improvement

coupled with reduced capital equipment cost via a

standard compressor skid design model5

Page 6: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

General Focus Status

• Ganni Cycle is patented and licensed to industry

• Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending

• LN2 pre-cooling technology disclosure but no action

by technology transfer committee, 12 GeV design

will exhibit substantial reduction

• JLab’s SNS 2K system design is demonstrating low

helium gas losses, ~$8K per year, ½ plant size of Jlab

• NASA funded “standard” helium compressor design

model

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Page 7: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Institute Funding Sources

• 2008 Funding Example– $700K Burdened Budget

• $500K per year NASA collaboration

• $100K Accelerator Division in support of SRF

• $100K per year SNS collaboration

• $30K Industrial Collaboration (Linde)

Note: External Funding is planned at same level

for next few years

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Page 8: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Institute’s Ganni Process Cycle

Technology Use So Far(Industry may already have more worldwide)

Existing Plant Conversions (Partial Ganni Cycle ,Floating Pressure )

• Jefferson Lab...all six refrigerators, 2K/4K, 200 to 4.6 kW Capacities

• Brookhaven RHIC ….Central Helium Liquefier

• Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)…Central Helium Liquefier 2.3 kW @ 2.1K

• Michigan State University….Cyclotron Test Facility

• NASA Johnson Space Center, Environmental Test Chamber A, twin 3.5 kW 20K

refrigerators

New Facilities Under Construction (Full Implementation of Ganni Cycle)

• Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Upgrade, 4.6 kW @ 2.1K

• Jefferson Lab’s 4kW End Station Refrigerator (ESR-2)

• NASA JSC Houston, James Webb Telescope Test Facility, 12.5 kW @ 20K

Other Possible Facilities for full implementation of Cycle

FRIB, Project X, FEL programs, Many others

Page 9: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Outreach

• Optimal Helium Refrigeration Course Instruction

– Once a year, at CEC conference or Cryogenic Operations

Workshop, industry and laboratory attended

• Advanced engineering degree thesis work assigned to

each R&D collaboration

• Eleven publications/talks for FY09 so far

• Invited talks for PAC and CEC later this year

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Page 10: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Brookhaven RHIC Conversion Results

Brookhaven RHIC Cryogenic Staff

Brookhaven Reports Its Very

Successful Energy Conservation

Improvement Program Results After

One Year of OperationBrookhaven TODAY, Feb 11, 2008

http://www.bnl.gov/today/story.asp?ITEM_NO=544

“Jefferson Lab technology saving BNL $1.5M in electricity

alone for typical 30 week experiment”

“ Seen increased reliability, stability, and

efficiency”

Page 11: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Demonstrated Results So Far

• General Results of All Users

– Lower required electrical and cooling water requirement

– Smaller equipment foot print

– Greater system temperature stability

– Reduction in required emergency repair and planned

maintenance

• At Jefferson Laboratory

– 20% reduction in CHL electrical and cooling requirement

Example: 6.5 MW to 5.2 MW reduction

– Lower maintenance requirements

Example: warm helium compressor maintenance intervals

lengthen, 35 K to 74 K hrs (far exceeds current industrial

standards) 11

Page 12: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

A New Process Cycle

JLab’s Ganni Cycle

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Page 13: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

New Helium Process Cycle Need

• Need stems from 1970s conversion from previous

reciprocating compressors to oil flooded screw

compressor to improve reliability

• The new oil flooded screw compressors were known

not to be as efficient with imposed pressure ratios

used by the established process cycles but the

refrigerators were small then

• 60% of the refrigerator system efficiency losses were

in the compressor skids, no true product line

industrial ownership, DOE ceased R+D funding

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Page 14: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Simplified Standard Helium Cycle

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Pr~ 5.3 or 7

Pr~ 3

16 or 21 ATM

3 ATM

1 ATM

C1

T

TURBINE

RECYCLE

FLOW

Pressure

Ratio

C2

Pressure

Ratio

T

COMPRESSORS REFRIGERATION

LOAD

STANDARD INDUSTRIAL

HELIUM REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

COLD BOX

T

TO

REFRIGERATED

LOAD

FROM

REFRIGERATED

LOAD

T

Majority of flow is recycled, 60-90%

Please

Note

Standard

Pressure

Ratios

Page 15: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Items to Remember for Existing Systems

• Most of the gas compressed by the compressors is

recycled through expansion engines (ex: turbines) to

generate the refrigeration of the gas which actually is

supplied to the load, Note: Standard Pressure Ratios

~5-7

• To lower the amount of refrigeration delivered many

plants regulate the inlet valves to the turbines to

reduce the mass flow through the turbines …however

– Compressor System pressures and pressure ratios remain

the same

– Excess gas is bypassed around the compressor stages

– Input power remains the same regardless of refrigeration 15

Page 16: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

NOW…..

LET’S TAKE A LOOK AT A PROBLEM WITH

THESE STANDARD INDUSTRIAL

PRESSURE RATIOS….

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Page 17: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Compressor Characteristics

Efficiency vs. Pressure Ratio

FIGURE 1.3 BRV=2.2 1st Stage FIGURE 1.4 BRV=2.6 2nd Stage

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Compressor has peak efficiency at fixed pressure ratio

regardless of discharge pressure, Pr ~3 to 3.5

Page 18: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Question???So why does the largest compressor (2nd stage compressor)

with the most flow (recycle flow) have pressure ratios other

than the ideal fixed value?

Ans: Good Question….suggest the following reasons

– Dismissed because plant sizes were small (300W) when screw

compressors were introduced to replace reciprocating units

– Solving oil carry over and improving reliability took center stage

– Forgot a new process would be needed as refrigerator sizes

increased

– Compressor R&D is not a market focus due to small

market, compressors is not a product of the large system suppliers18

Page 19: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

A Solution

JLAB developed a new helium process…”GANNI CYCLE”

• Patented by US Gov and Jefferson Science Associates

• Licensing of technology was offered to industry

• Sole license granted to Linde for commercial applications

• US Gov and JSA reserved right to acquire systems built to

the technology from any vendor for their applications

• A version of the cycle (Floating Point Technology) is

easily adaptable to existing systems (usually requires only

control loop changes)

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Page 20: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Ganni Cycle Example

Pr~ 3.5

Pr~ 3.5

12 TO 16/21 ATM

3.5 - 6 ATM

1 ATM

C1

T

TURBINE

RECYCLE

FLOW

Pressure

Ratio

C2

Pressure

Ratio

T

COMPRESSORS

Pr~ 3.5-6

Pressure

Ratio

1- 1.75 ATM

SMALLER

2ND STAGE

COMPRESSORS

REFRIGERATION

LOAD

SMALL LOAD

COMPRESSOR

GANNI CYCLE (FLOATING PRESSURE)

HELIUM REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

T

COLD BOX

T

C0

FROM

REFRIGERATED

LOAD

TO

REFRIGERATED

LOAD

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Page 21: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Ganni Cycle Features

• Recycle Flow is “broken out” separately from the

load return flow (C1 & C2)

• A compressor is provided to handle the much smaller

load return flow (C0)

• Recycle compressors are allowed to “float” in

pressure which naturally develops optimal pressure

ratio (~3-3.5)

– Recycle compressors are generally fewer in number or size

– Requires less installed electrical and cooling water utility

– Instead of regulating the turbine inlet valves to adjust

refrigeration generation, the recycle compressor circuit

pressures is allowed to float naturally (i.e. Pr = constant) 21

Page 22: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

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In the floating pressure process, the compressor suction and discharge

vary, but at a constant pressure ratio (pr). This is opposed to traditional

cycles that attempt to force the controls to the design T-s condition by

adding heat, bypassing expander flow, bypassing compressor flow or the

throttle expander inlet valve.

Floating Pressure T-S Diagram

Page 23: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Another Way of Looking at it…..

Changes the standard helium cycle from a constant

mass flow and input power at constant pressure

system with a fixed “T-s”

To

A helium cycle with constant compressor pressure

ratios coupled with constant volumetric flow with

variable system pressure, floating “T-s”, and input

power which varies automatically with load23

Page 24: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

What Does Not Change• There are no new equipment components to develop

• Compressor oil removal performance is not affected

• Size of heat exchangers not affected

What Does Change• High operational efficiency is extended to a large operating

domain for loads less than 100% refrigeration

• Opportunity for smaller and/or less compressors & turbines

• Allows the system to automatically operate at peak

efficiency if the design goals of the refrigerator or load are

not as expected or is variable

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Page 25: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

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A constant pressure ratio system that maintains a constant

efficiency and constant volume flow for a variable load

A Floating Pressure System is……….

(this is not in a text book)

Page 26: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Current Major Collaborations

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Page 27: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

NASA-JSC/JLab Collaboration

James Webb Telescope

Space Telescope

Replaces Hubble

~1 million miles out

Telescope Mockup at the National Mall, D.C.

NASA-JSC/JLab Cryogenic Collaboration (NASA Funded)

• Help NASA engineers modify Current Environmental Space

Simulation Chamber cryogenic system to JLab’s Floating

Pressure Technology

• Help develop specification of additional new 20K, 12.5 KW

refrigerator using the Ganni Helium Process Cycle

Page 28: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Benefits of the NASA Collaboration

• Eliminated much of the compressor

engineering/design effort for Jlab 12 GeV

• First full implementation of the Ganni Cycle in a new

refrigeration plant

• Served to help industry develop the understanding of

implementing the Ganni Cycle for applications

• Demonstrated the improvement of temperature

stability in a pure refrigerator (10x over previous

industrial design)

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Page 29: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

NASA Test Results and Plan

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Page 30: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

NASA Results Comments

• Both the existing and new machine using the Ganni

Cycle have constant high efficiency with wide range

of load down to ~1/3 refrigeration capacity

• The utilities used by the cycle varies directly with the

refrigeration load required.

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Page 31: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

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10

100

1 10 100

Inve

rse

Co

effi

cien

t o

f P

erfo

rman

ce [

W/W

]

Shield Load [kW]

11K11K (est)20K20K (est)40K40K (est)60K60K (est)80K - 1 Turbine80K - 1 Turbine (est)80K - 2 Turbine80K - 2 Turbine (est)100K - 1 Turbine100K - 1 Turbine (est)100K - 2 Turbine100K - 2 Turbine (est)

Shield Return Temperature

Very Recent Discovery of Ganni Cycle “Third Dimension”

Wide Operating Domain with Temperature

Page 32: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Discovery of Wide Temperature

Domain• Same refrigerator, high efficiency..not only with wide

load variation but also temperature variation

• Single refrigerator has wide applications for

temperature and load variation

• Other parallel domain refrigerators make up major

mapping of applications

• Possible elimination of “custom” refrigerator

engineering /design/manufacture once “family”

domains designs are established, Possible savings

because of standardization of heat exchanger and

piping designs 32

Page 33: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Warm Helium Compressor Redesign

Initiative

NASA Funded

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Page 34: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Standard Design for Warm

Helium Compressors

• Utilizes lessons learned from previous designs and

performance

• Next generation compressor skid assembly design

– NASA funding

– Initially supports NASA James Webb Telescope Testing

– JLab 12 GeV warm helium compressors next application

– “Best value” approach as evaluated by industry

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Page 35: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Notable Design Features So Far

• Fewer compressors required

• Reduced heat exchanger size requirements

• Bulk Oil Separation design improvements– Carbon vessel diameters reduced 50%

– vertical to horizontal design with specialized internal flow

distributor, 3X’s more effective

– Oil coalescer eliminated

– Large vessel flanges eliminated

• Gas after cooler oil removal to ~0.1%

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Page 36: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Notable Design Features So Far(continued)

• Coalescers moved downstream of after cooler

• Cooling oil flow adjusted with temperature

• 75% reduction in pumped oil flow capacity

requirement

• Coolers, instrumentation and controls are de-coupled

from the skid

• Easy access to all the components require

maintenance

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Page 37: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Standard Compressor Model

Visual Comparison

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Existing JLab CHL Compressors New Compressor Assembly

Page 38: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Helium Gas Conservation Initiative

Linde Funded

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Page 39: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Helium Gas Recovery

• Initiative to recover helium gas rather than use once

through flow systems

• Helium gas costs are increasing 15% per year

• Growing demand for helium gas recovery and

purification equipment among end users

• Linde collaboration to develop standard helium

purification recovery unit

• Design completed and first article being build for use

in JLab’s 6 GeV accelerator

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Page 40: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Purifiers Under Fabrication at the CHL

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Masters Thesis Project:

Mat Wright (JLab)

JLab Advisor: Rao Ganni (JLab)

Page 41: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Recent JLab Cryogenic Technology

Recognitions

Page 42: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Recognizing outstanding

achievements of Federal

employees and their facilities

for efforts which resulted in

significant contributions

to, or have made a significant

impact on, promoting

environmental stewardship

(reducing electrical, cooling

water, etc.)

JLab Cryogenic Recognitions

2007 President’s

White House

Closing the Circle Award

The award recognizes the

JLab cryogenic team’s

efforts at making a

considerable energy

savings to the running of

accelerator cryogenics

plants and reducing its

impact on the environment

2006 DOE Office of Science

Pollution Prevention and

Environmental Stewardship P2

“Best in Class Award”

Page 43: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

President’s Award to Jlab’s

Cryogenic Staff

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Page 44: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

JLab Cryogenic Recognitions

“In recognition of

outstanding support for

the JSC Building 32 Space

Chamber A Liquid Nitrogen

System Project resulting in

reduced operation and

maintenance cost over the

years” ($163K per month of

operation in testing the

James Webb Telescope at

one half of anticipated

construction cost of former

planned system)

National Aeronautics

and Space

Administration

JSC Houston

• Presented to Jlab Cryogenics Staff

Engineers by Michael C. Coats

Director, Johnson Space Center

• Uses liquid nitrogen thermo siphon

distribution technology developed for JLab’s

cold compressors, saving “multi million

dollars” in construction and $163K/month in

operations

•Recognized Cryogenic Engineers

Dr. Rao Ganni

Dr. Ahmed Sidi-Yekhlef

Mr. Peter Knudsen

Page 45: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

NASA JSC Award Presentations to JLab

Dr. Ahmed Sidi-Yekhlef

Dr. “Rao” Ganni

Presentation also given to

Jlab’s cryogenic engineer

Mr. Peter Knudsen

Feb 2008….

Application of Jlab’s LN2

technology used at JSC Space

Chamber A, award given by

the center’s Director

Page 46: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Summary• A new patented helium refrigerator process cycle referred to as the “Ganni Cycle”

has been developed for all temperatures and licensed to industry

• The cycle has demonstrated positive effects for repair, maintenance, operation, and

capital equipment cost of Jlab and other laboratory cryogenic plants

• A standard model has been developed for warm helium screw compressors to

reduce cost and improve efficiency for the Physics research user community

• To support the growing need for helium gas conservation, a standard purification

system has been developed and is being built to support 6 GeV and later 12 GeV

operations, now available through industry to other laboratories

• Additional discoveries about the Ganni Cycle indicate that “Custom” plants may

become more like “Standard Designs” further reducing engineering and design

costs and delivery times for new projects

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Page 47: Jefferson Lab’s Cryogenic Applied Research and · PDF fileEngineering Division Cryogenic Systems Department ... •Jlab Floating Pressure Technology patent pending ... because of

Thank You for

Your

Kind

Attention

May We

Answer Your

Questions ?

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