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An Example of Energy Efficiency Leadership The Empire State Building. Agostino Renna VP & GM, Energy Solutions Europe, Middle East, Africa. 1. Johnson Controls. The Empire State Building. Owner’s Motivation …. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Page 1: Johnson Controls

Johnson Controls1 Johnson Controls1

An Example of Energy Efficiency Leadership The Empire State Building

Agostino RennaVP & GM, Energy SolutionsEurope, Middle East, Africa

Page 2: Johnson Controls

Johnson Controls 04 20102

The Empire State Building

102 stories, 260,000 square meters

$11 million (USD) annual energy costs

Peak electric demand of 9.5 MW (36.5 W/m2 including HVAC)

278 kWh/ m2/ year total energy

CO2 footprint of 25,000 tonnes/yr (~1 tonne per 10 m2)

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Owner’s Motivation …

The retrofit of the Empire State Building was motivated by the building ownership’s desire to:

1. Reposition the world's most famous office building into a pre-war trophy2. Prove or disprove the economic viability of whole-building energy

efficiency retrofits3. Use the work to publicize and differentiate the building and attract

tenants4. $500M capital investment program underway – there had to be a

smarter way to spend the money5. Produce a replicable model for energy efficiency retrofits of existing

buildings which will make up 85% of buildings in place in New York City in 2030

“If the only place we succeed is ESB, the effort is a failure.“Anthony Malkin, Owner Empire State Building

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Bringing thought leaders together ...

“The goal with ESB has been to define intelligent choices which will either save money, spend the same money more efficiently, or spend additional sums for which there is reasonable payback through savings.  Addressing these investments correctly will create a competitive advantage for ownership through lower

costs and better work environment for tenants. Succeeding in these efforts will make a

replicable model real for others to follow.”

- Anthony E. Malkin, Owner

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The model

• Project Team laid out a process that can be replicated to achieve cost-effective energy efficiency improvements in multi-tenant office buildings

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Taking the Right Steps in the Right Order

Reduce LoadsReduce Loads

Use Efficient TechnologyUse Efficient Technology

Provide ControlsProvide Controls

Engage OccupantsEngage Occupants

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Many ideas but needed to balance financial & carbon impacts

A solution that balances CO2

reductions and financial returns is in this range.

There are diminishing (and expensive) returns for greater


Page 8: Johnson Controls

Combination of 8 measures drove 38% energy reduction and hit the “sweet spot” on the NPV vs carbon curve

38% Reduction

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II. PROJECT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS 1) Several approaches help maximize cost-effective savings.

Measures that only affect the Base Building Measures within Tenant Space0







Balance of DDC

Retrofit Chiller

Tenant Daylight-ing/



Bldg Windows

Tenant EnergyManagement

Radiative Barrier

Tenant DCV

Energy Savings: Base Building vs. within Tenant Space


al E


y Sa



u)IMPORTANT - Half the Savings are within Tenant Spaces


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The power of integrating with capital planning process







Capital Budget Adjustments for Energy Efficiency Projects




ital B


t (m



With a $500 million capital improvement program underway, ownership decided to re-evaluate certain projects with cost-effective energy

efficiency and sustainability opportunities in mind.

2008 Capital Budget

Projects that would impact

energy baseline

$93m+ 0% Energy Savings

Sum of adds / changes / deletes

= +$13m New Capital Budget w / Efficiency Projects =

$106m+ 38% EnergySavings

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Expected Results

$4.4 million (USD)annual energy cost savings

Top 10%of commercial buildings in efficiency

38% energy reduced annually

3.1 years incremental payback

105,000 metric tons carbon emissions saved

over next 15 years

Page 12: Johnson Controls

Key Lessons Learned

For maximum cost-effective energy and carbon savings:

1) Address tenant spaces by taking a whole-building approach

2) Take the right steps in the right order for integrated design

3) Integrate with capital plan to match with renovation cycles

4) Leverage financial models that reduce risks and provide short-term benefits for owners and tenants

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More info at

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Johnson Controls14 Johnson Controls14

Thank You !

Agostino RennaVP & GM, Energy SolutionsEurope, Middle East, Africa

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Johnson Controls15


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WINDOWS: Remanufacture existing insulated glass units (IGU) within the Empire State Building’s approximately 6,500 double-hung windows to include suspended coated film and gas fill.

Eight Interactive Measures


Page 17: Johnson Controls

RADIATIVE BARRIER: Install more than six-thousand insulated reflective barriers behind radiator units located on the perimeter of the building.


Eight Interactive Measures

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TENANT DAYLIGHTING / LIGHTING / PLUGS: This measure involves reducing lighting power density in tenant spaces, installing dimmable ballasts and photosensors for perimeter spaces, and providing occupants with a plug load occupancy sensor for their personal workstation.


Eight Interactive Measures

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CHILLER PLANT RETROFIT: The chiller plant retrofit project includes the retrofit of four industrial electric chillers in addition to upgrades to controls, variable speed drives, and primary loop bypasses.


Eight Interactive Measures

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VAV AIR HANDLING UNITS: Replace existing constant volume units with variable air volume units using a new air handling layout (two floor-mounted units per floor instead of four ceiling-hung units).


Eight Interactive Measures

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DDC CONTROLS: The measure involves upgrading the existing control systems at the Empire State Building becoming one of the largest wireless networks ever installed. Real-time facilities performance index monitoring used for continuous commissioning of HVAC systems.


Eight Interactive Measures

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DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION: This project involves the installation of CO2 sensors for control of outside air introduction to chiller water and DX Air Handling Units.


Eight Interactive Measures

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TENANT ENERGY MANAGEMENT: This project will provide tenants with access to online energy consumption and benchmarking information as well as sustainability tips and updates.


Eight Interactive Measures

Page 24: Johnson Controls

This package of measures also results in enhanced indoor environmental quality and additional amenities for tenants:

• Better thermal comfort resulting from better windows, radiative barrier, and better controls;

• Improved indoor air quality resulting from DCV; and• Better lighting conditions that coordinate

ambient and task lighting.

Enhanced Work Environment

Page 25: Johnson Controls


Tenant Space Programs

1. Tenant pre-built program: The sustainably designed, energy efficient pre-built prototype will save $0.70 - $0.90/sqft in

operating costs annually for an additional cost of $6/sqft and help ESB demonstrate design principles for all tenants to

endorse. 2. Tenant design guidelines: Design guidelines, based on the

pre-built program, will provide green, energy-efficient ESB standards. Tenants can verify the economic validity of the

recommendations by accessing the eQUEST model or tenant financial tool.

3. Tenant energy management program: ESB will sub-meter all tenant spaces and manage a feedback/reporting tool to inform tenants about their energy use. This program will also assist

tenants with their own carbon reporting efforts.