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  • 8/14/2019 JW Witnessing Guide




    Jude 4 Denying our only Lord

    2 Cor 11:3-4 Corrupted from simple Gospel to another gospel

    Gal 1:6-12 Any other gospel

    2 Thes 3:14 Not obey words of Paul2 Tim 3:15 Scriptures salvation in Christ

    2 Cor 4:2 Handling Bible deceitfully

    1 Thes 5:21; Acts 17:11 Examine everything; Bereans

    Rom 16:17 Contrary doctrine

    Deut 18:18-20; 2 Pet 2:1 Falsely claiming to be a prophet (1914, etc.)

    1. The Watchtower Test: We need to examine, not only what wepersonally believe, but also what is taught by any religiousorganization with which we may be associated. Are its teachingsin full harmony with Gods Word, or are they based on thetraditions of men? If we are lovers of the truth, there is nothing tofear from such as examination. (The Truth that Leads to EternalLife, Brooklyn: The WTBS of Pennsylvania, 1968, p.13)

    2. The Bible Test: 2 Cor 13:5; Eph 3:17

    3. The Jesus Identity Test: Mtt 16:15; Mr 8:29; Lk 9:20; Jn 5:39-40

    4. The First & Last Test: Rev 1:8,11, 17-18, 22:12-13

    5. The Thomas Test: Jn 20:28

    6. The Bodily Resurrection Test: Acts 3:26; Jn 2:18-22, 20:24-29, 24:39-40

    7. The Name of Salvation Test: Acts 2:21; Rom 10:12; Joel 2:32; Acts 4:12;

    1 Cor 1:28. The Salvation Assurance Test: 1 Jn 2:25, 5:13; Rom 8:35-39, 10:12

    9. The Test of Who Raised Christs Body: Acts 3:26; Jn 2:18-22, 20:24-29,24:39-40

    10. The Witness Test: Is 43:10; Acts 1:8; Jn 14:26; Mtt 18:20; Lk 21:8

    11. The Gospel Test: Gal 1:1-10; 1 Cor 15:1-11

    12. The Test of Whose Blood was Shed for the Church: Acts 20:28

    13. The Jesus-Michael Test: Angels are not men, Jesus was a man. Jesuscannot be an angel and He can never change (1 Jn 4:2, 3; 2 Jn 1:7; 1 Tim3:16; Heb 13:8). Angels could not have created because they themselves

    are creations.14. The Zeal Test: Rom 10:1-4, 9; Jn 5:39-40; 2 Cor 11:3-4. Its not good

    enough just to be zealous you must be zealous about the correct cause


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    Father:Is 43:3, 11, 45:21-22, 49:26, 63:8; Hos 13:4; Acts 2:21; Rom10:9, 13 (cf Acts 4:11-12); Lk 1:47; 1 Tim 2:3; 4:10; Tit 1:3-4

    Son: Tit 1:4, 2:13 (3:4); Phil 3:20; Lk 1:46; 2:11; Jn 1:1, 29, 4:42; Acts4:10-12, 13:23, 2 Tim 1:10, 2:10, 2 Pet 1:1, 2:20, 3:18; Heb 1:8, 3:6,5:9; 1 Jn 4 :14


    Father: Gen 1:1; Is 40:28, 43:1, 44:24-25,45:7-18; Ps 33:9, 6, 95:5,

    6, 102:24-25; Jer 32:17-18; Mal 2:10; Job 33:4; Mt 19:4-6; Lk 2:22; Acts4:24; Rev 4:11

    Son: Col 1:15-16; Jn 1:2, 3, 10 (cf. Ps 33:6; Heb 11:3); 1 Cor 8:6; Heb1:3, 10 (Ps 102:24-26); Acts 3:15 (killed author of life); Eph 3:9 (Godcreated through Son); Rev 3:14; Job 33:4 (Spirit created us); Gen 1:2(Spirit hovered); Heb 1:3 (upholds universe)

    I AM

    Father: Ex 3:14; Deut 32:39; Is 43:10, 44:4

    Son: Jn 8:24, 58, 18:4-6; note that NWT translates all other ego emi

    as I am except Jn 8:58 (e.g., Jn 6:35, 41, 8:24; 13:19; 15:5) invented past perfect fictitious Greek tense; 1 Tim 6:16; Rev 7:14,9:16; have been only acceptable in context- not here.


    Father: Deut 4:39, 6:4; Ex 15:11; Is 43:10-11, 44:6-8, 45:5-6, 21-22,26; 1 Ki 8:60; 1 Tim 1:17, 2:5; Rom 3:30; 1 Cor 8:4-6; Jas 2:19; Ps 96:4-6

    Son: Is 9:6 (Is 10:21; Jer 32:18; Lk 22:69); 7:14 - Immanuel (Mtt 1:23);Lk 2:11; Jn 20:28; Acts 4:10-12; Heb 1:8 (cf Is 45:6); Tit 2:13 (3:4-6); 2

    Pet 1:1, 2:20, 3:18; Jn 8:58; 1 Cor 4:4; 8:4-6; Phil 2:6; Col 1:17, 2:9; Rev4:11; Rom 8:9 (Spirit of God / Spirit of Christ interchangeable), 9:5

    King of Kings; Lord of Lords

    Father: Deut 10:17; Ps 136:3; 1 Tim 6:15; Dan 2:37 (1 Tim 6:15-16)

    Son: Rev 17:14, 19:16; 1 Tim 6:15-16


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    Immanuel (God with us)

    Father: Is 9:6 (cf. Is 10:21, 43:10)

    Son: Is 7:14; Mt 1:23



    Father: Deut 32:3-4; 2 Sam 22:32; Ps 89:26; Is 44:8

    Son: Rom 9:33; 1 Cor 10:3-4; 1 Pet 2:4-8

    Our Righteousness

    Father: Is 54:5; Jer 23:5-6

    Son: 1 Cor 1:30; Rom 2:21-22

    Lord our Healer

    Father: Ex 15:26

    Son: Acts 9:34


    Father: Ps 130:7-8; Is 43:1, 48:17, 49:26, 54:5

    Son: Acts 20:28; Eph 1:7; Heb 9:12


    Father: Is 54:5, Hos 2:16

    Son: Mt 25:1; Mk 2:18-19; 2 Cor 11:2; Eph 5:25-32; Rev 21:2, 9

    Alpha and Omega

    Father: Is 41:4, 44:6, 48:12-13; Rev 1:8, 17-18, 2:8; in v.11, Alpha andOmega is speaking to the 7 churches; following this to v.17, its Jesus!

    Son: Rev 1:7-8, 11, 17, 22:12-13, 20 (A&O is pierced, coming, Jesus)

    Our Salvation

    Father: Is 12:2; Jer 3:23; Ps 18:14Son: Lk 2:30; Rom 1:16; 1 Tim 3:16

    Holy One

    Father: Ps 16:10; Hos 11:9

    Son: Acts 2:27; 3:14


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    Son: Mt 9:2; Mk 2:1-12; Lk 24:47, 5:20; Jn1:29; Acts 10:43, 26:18; Col2:13, 3 :13


    Who Raised Jesus from the Dead?

    Father: Acts 2:24, 32; 1 Cor 6:14; Rom 8:11 (Spirit)

    Son: Jn 2:19-22, 10-17-18; Mt 27:40

    Transformation of Bodies

    Father: Rom 8:23

    Son: Phil 3:21; 2 Tim 4:1

    Come Like a Thief in the Night

    Father: 1 Thes 5:2

    Son: 2 Pet 3:10

    Day of the Lord

    Father: Is 2:12, 13:6, 9; Jer 46:10; Ez 30:3; Amos 5:18; Mal 4:5; 1 Thes5:2; 2 Pet 3:10

    Son: Phil 1:6, 10; Rev 6:16-17

    Stilled the Storm

    Father: Ps 107:29

    Son: Lk 8:24

    I am With You

    Father: Is 41:10

    Son: Mt 28:20

    Searches the HeartFather: Jer 17:10

    Son: Rev 2:23


    Father: Pr 3:12


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    Son: Rev 3:19

    No one can Snatch Them

    Father: Is 43:13

    Son: Jn 10:28-30


    Will Judge the World in Righteousness

    Father: Gen 18:25; Ps 94:2, 96:13, 98:9

    Son: Jn 5:22-23; Acts 17:31; 2 Cor 5:10; 2 Tim 4:1

    Whose Name we Call upon for our Salvation

    Father: Gen 4:26, 13:4, 12:8, 26:25;1 Kings 18:24; Ps 116:4; Joel 2:32;

    Zep 3:10; Jn 3:18; Acts 2:21, 22:16; Rom 10:13,17

    Son: Jn 10:28, 17:1-2; Acts 4:12; 1 Cor 1:2

    Hears and Answers Prayers

    Father: Ps 86:5-8; Is 55:6-7; Jer 33:3; Joel 2:32

    Son: Jn 14:14; Rom 10:12-13; 1 Cor 1:2; 2 Cor 12:8-9


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    Omnipresent (all present)

    Father: Ps 139:7; Pr 15:3

    Son: Mt 18:20, 28:20; Jn 14:20; 2 Cor 13:5; Eph 1:23; Col 2:13, 3:13

    Omniscient (all knowing)

    Father: Is 40:10-31; 45:5-13; Rev 19:6

    Son: Mt 28:18; Mk 1:29-30; Eph 1:20-23; Heb 1:3; Jn 3:13, 10:18,



    Father: Gen 1:1; Ps 90:2

    Son: John 1:1,15, 20, 30, 3:13, 31, 32, 6:62, 16:28, 17:5, 8:58; Heb13:8; Is 9:6; Mic 5:2; Col 1:17


    Father: Ps 102:26-27; Hab 3:6

    Son: Is 9:6; Mic 5:2; Jn 8:58; Heb 13:8


    Father: Mal 3:6; Jas 1:17; Ps 90:2, 102:26-27

    Son: Rom 13:8; Heb 1:11-12, 13:8; Jn 8:58; Col 1:17

    Speaks with Divine Authority

    Father: Thus saith the Lord hundreds of times in OT

    Son: Mt 23:34-37; Jn 3:5, 7:46; Truly, truly, I say

    UnsearchableFather: Rom 11:33

    Son: Eph 3:8

    Trust God, Not Man

    Father: Jer 17:5


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    Son: Jn 14:1 (many references)


    Father: Ps 116:5

    Son: 1 Jn 2:1 (Christ called the righteous One)


    True and Faithful Witness

    Father: Jer 42:5

    Son: Rev 3:14

    Our Refuge and Strength

    Father: Ps 46:1

    Son: Phil 4:13

    Our Light and Salvation

    Father: Ps 27:1

    Son: Jn 8:12


    Father: Jer 17:7; Ps 71:5

    Son: 1Tim 1:1

    Spring of Living Water

    Father: Jer 17:3

    Son: Jn 4:14

    Will Give Drink to Thirsty

    Father: Rev 21:6

    Son: Jn 7:37

    Redeems a People for His Own Possession

    Father: Ex 19:5; Ps 130:7-8; Ez 37:23

    Son: Tit 2:14


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    Dan 7:13 Mr 14:62-64

    Is 40:3 Mt 3:3

    Ps 45:6-7 Heb 1:8

    Ps 102:25-27 Heb 1:10-12

    Is 43:13 Jn 10:28-30

    Joel 2:32; Gen 4:26; Ps 116:13,17;Zep 3:9

    Rom 10:9, 13; Acts 2:21; 4:21


    Mt 18:20; 1 Cor 5:4 Meet together

    Lk 10:17; Acts 16:18 Demons subject to

    Lk 24:47 Repentance and forgivenesspreached

    Jn 1:12, 3:16; Acts 10:43; 1 Jn3:23; 5:13

    To believe and receive forgivenessof sin

    Acts 2:21, 4:12 To obtain salvation

    Jn 14:13-14, 15:16: 16:23-24 When we bring petitions to GodJn 14:26 Is the Holy Spirit sent

    Acts 3:16, 4:7-10, 30 Healing the sick and lame

    1 Cor 1:2 Did Paul call upon

    Eph 1:20-21; Phil 2:9-11 Above every name


    Acts 2:31; 13:34-37 Not allow flesh to see

    corruptionActs 13:34 God raised Jesus

    John 2:19, 1 Thes 1:10 Jesus raised Himself

    Jn 2:21-22, 20:27; Lk 24:39 Jesus rose with his own crucifiedbody; not as a spirit creature


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    Col 1:16; Jn 1:3 Created angels

    Heb 1:5; 2:16 No angel called Gods Son

    Heb 2:16 Christ does not have angelsnature

    Dan 10:13 Michael part of a group

    Jn 3:16; Heb 1:6-7, 14; Phil 2:6-7 Unique; angels servants / Christnot servant until after incarnation

    Heb 2:5,8; 2 Sam 7:16; Lk 1:32;

    Rev 19:16;

    World not subject to angels but is

    subject to Christ; Christ will ruleKingdom

    Jude 1:9; Mt 4:10-11, 16:23 (ifMichael created the universeincluding Lucifer, he should havebeen able to rebuke him)

    Michael no authority to rebukeSatan; Jesus had no problemrebuking Satan

    Heb 1:6; Rev 19:10; Phil 2:10; Mt28:9

    Angels not receive worship

    Dan 10:13, 21, 12:1; Jude 9; Rev12:7

    Nothing to do with Jesus; Dan10:13 who is another chief princewith Jesus?


    Jn 1:1 Word (logos - theos) becameflesh

    1 Tim 3:15-16 God (He) was manifest in theflesh

    Col 2:9 Fullness of the Godhead bodily

    Jn 20:28 My Lord and my God

    2 Pet 1:1 Our God and Saviour

    Heb 1:8 (Ps 45:6) Thy throne, O God

    Heb 1:10 (Ps 102:25) Lord, in the beginning you laidthe foundation

    Titus 2:13 (3:4,6) The great God and our Saviour

    1 Jn 5:20 This is the true God

    Heb 1:3 The express image of His person


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    Jn 16:27-28 I came out from God

    Jn 14:1 Believe in God, believe in me.

    Jn 6:46; 14:9 Seen the Father, seen the Son

    Acts 20:28 He purchased with his own blood

    Rom 9:5 God over all God blessed

    forever1 Cor 2:9 Crucified the Lord of glory


    Mt 9:2-3, 26 :64-66

    Mk 2:5-7, 14:62-64 (cf. Dan 7:13-14)

    Jn 5:17-18, 8:56-59 (ego emi; cf Ex 3:14), 10:29-39, 14:1, 8-13,

    23, 19:6-7


    Ps 45:6-7 Heb 1:8-9

    Ps 102:25-27 Heb 1:10-12

    Zech 12:10 Look on me, who they pierced

    Dan 7:13 Mk 14:62-64; Rev 1:13; 14:14

    Is 7:14 Matt 1.23Is 9:6 Mighty God

    Is 44:6 The LORD the King of Israel and hisredeemer the LORD of hosts; I amthe first and the last and no othergods besides me

    Jer 23:6 Descendant of David would becalled THE LORD OURRIGHTEOUSNESS

    Mic 5:2 from the days of eternity

    Is 40:3; Mal 3:1; Mtt 3:3, 11-17,11:10; Mk 1:1-3; Jn1:23

    Prophecy about John the Baptist:Prepare the way for the LORD revealed in the NT as Jesus


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    Certainly the word Trinity does not occur in the New

    Testament, but the doctrine could hardly be plainer.

    Robert S. Crossley, The Trinity 1987 IVP; p.30

    Ps 110:1Mt 22:41-46

    The Lord said to my Lord

    Zech 2:10-12 Jehovah of armies sends Jehovah to earth

    Gen 18:1-2 Yahweh appears to Abram as threepersons

    Ps 45:6-7 Your throne, O God God, your God

    Gen 16:13 God appears in human form

    Gen 1:26 Let us

    Gen 3:22 One of usGen 11:7 Let us

    Is 6:8 Go for us?

    Ps 45:6-7 Throne O God

    Ps 110:1 Lord said to my Lord

    Mal 3:1-2 Lord shall come saith Lord

    Is 48:13-16 LORD God and Spirit sent me

    Hos 1:7 I will save them by the Lord

    Jn 14:15-17, 25-26 I pray to Father sends comforter

    Dan 7:13 Son of man came with clouds


    Mt 3:16-17, 28:19; Lk 1:30-35, 3:22; Jn 3:34, 8:18, 14:16-17, 23-26,15:26, 16:7, 13; Acts 1:2, 4, 2:32-33, 5:29-32, 10:36, 38, 20:21-24;Rom 1:3, 18, 3:20-21, 8:2-30, 9-11; 1 Cor 12:3-6; 2 Cor 1:21; 13:14;


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    Gal. 3:13-14, 4:4, 6, 5:5-6, 22-24; Eph 2:18; 4:4-6; 2 Thes 2:13, 16; Tit3:4-6; Heb 9:14; 1 Pet 1:2, 3:18; 1 Jn 5:6; Jude 20-21; Rev 1:4-5, 4:8


    He is a He Jn 16:13

    Took form of a dove Lk 3:22

    He speaks Acts 8:29, 13:2,4; 1 Tim 4:1

    He bears witness Jn 15:26, Rom 8:16

    He feels hurt Is 63:10

    Injured by our sin Mk 3:29; Acts 5:3-4

    He knows; searches the depths ofGod

    1 Cor 2:10-13

    Dwells in believers Acts 5:24; Eph 5:18

    Will lead believers Gal 5:8

    A will; distributes gifts accordingly 1 Cor 12:11

    Intellect/mind Rom 8:2; Acts 15:28

    He can be insulted Heb 10:29

    Sensibility Is 63:1-; Eph 4:30

    Descended on Jesus Mk 1:10He intercedes for us Rom 8:26-27

    Drove Christ in wilderness Mk 1:12

    He fills many people like Jesus Acts 2:4; Eph 1:23

    He can be lied to Acts 5:3-4

    He forbids Acts 16:6-7

    He teaches Jn 14:26

    Will rest on you Is 11:2; 42:1;

    He gives prophetic messages Acts 11:28

    He can be grieved Eph 4:30; Is 63:10

    He can be sent Is 48:16; Jn 15:26, 16:7 Jesus Spirit is upon me Lk 4:18 (Is 61:1-2)

    Jesus rejoiced in the Holy Spiritand Father

    Lk 10:21-22

    Jesus acting through HS Mt 12:28; Lk 11:20

    Jesus commissions disciples withFather and HS

    Lk 24:49; Acts 1:5-8


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    Lied to God, lied to Holy Spirit Acts 5:3-4

    The Lord Jehovah is that Spirit 2 Cor 3:17

    Savior Jn 3:1-8, 14:16-17, 16:8-111 Cor 6:19Eph 2:18Ez 36:25-282 Thes 3:13

    1 Pet 1:2We are Gods temple where He(Spirit) dwells

    1 Cor 3:16

    Omnipresent Ps 139:7-8

    Eternal Heb 9:14

    Lord 2 Cor 3:16-18 (cf. Ex 34:29-35)

    Omnipotent Mic 3:8Acts 1:8Rom 8:11, 15:13,19Zech 4:6

    Omniscient 1 Cor 2:10-11Is 40:13-14

    Born of Spirit but only God can dothat

    Jn 3:5-7; 1 Jn 3:1

    Giver of life Job 33:4

    Resurrects the dead 1 Pet 3:18

    Holy Ps 51:11Is 57:15, 63:10Lk 11:13Eph 4:301 Thes 4:8

    Truth Jn 14:17, 15:26, 16:13Grace Heb 10:29

    Glory 1 Pet 4:14

    Righteous Is 59:17-19

    Good Neh 9:20 (cf. Mk 10:18)

    Sovereign Ps 51:12; Jn 3:8


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    Many from other religions argue that Christiansworship three Gods. They also have troubleacknowledging that Jesus is God. This paper, completewith scripture references, argues for the existence ofGod in three persons.

    Christians believe in one Lord, God, Saviour and Creator, but that Hehas eternally existed in three distinct persons, each one playing a vitalrole in creation and our salvation. We call this the Trinity, or Tri-unity of

    the Godhead. This unfathomable mystery is clearly elaborated inscripture.

    Certainly the word Trinity does not occur in the NewTestament, but the doctrine could hardly be plainer (RobertS. Crossley, The Trinity 1987 IVP; p.30).

    The Trinity is undoubtedly the most distinctive doctrine of Christianity.Most religions are pantheistic (Buddhism) or polytheistic (Hinduism).Two other religions are monotheistic (Judaism, Islam), but onlyChristianity recognizes the one true God in three persons. The sacredbook of the Muslims, The Koran, regards Jesus as only a prophet, and

    repeatedly denounces as infidels all those who would dare believe inthe Trinity. The Jews largely consider Jesus to have been a greatteacher, perhaps a prophet, but nothing more. So what is the weight ofscriptural evidence for this Trinity?


    There are many occasions in the Old Testament where Jehovah Godmanifested Himself in a plural form (Ps 110:1; Mtt 22:41-46; Gen 18:1-2, 16:13; Ps 45:6-7). Ps 110:1 says, The LORD says to my Lord: "Sit atMy right hand until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet." At

    the onset of Creation, Elohim says, Let us make man in our image(Gen 1:26). This was not a plural of majesty that a king would useabout himself. This clearly indicated plurality within the Godhead. Inmany other passages, God is spoken of in the plural (Gen 3:22, 11:7, Is6:8, 48:16; Ps 45:6-7, 110:1; Hos 1:7; Mal:1-2; Jn 14:15-17, 25-26).Zech 2:10-12 speaks of Jehovah of armies has sent Jehovah who iscoming. In Isaiah 48:16, the Son, the divine Word who is speaking, isbeing sent into the world by the Father and the Spirit:


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    Come near to Me, listen to this: From the first I have notspoken in secret, From the time it took place, I was there.And now the Lord GOD has sent Me, and His Spirit."


    The New Testament provides us with a formula, in which all threepersons are listed together. Some call this the coordinate relationshipof the Trinity, which is involved in every aspect of our salvation andsanctification. Before salvation, every member of the Godhead wasinvolved in our election (1 Peter 1:2). The actual event of salvation isaccomplished by the working of God the Father, the Son and the HolySpirit (Gal 4:4-6). The believer is baptized into the name (note thesingular use of name in scripture when referring to the Trinity) of theFather, Son and Holy Spirit (Matt 18:19). The Trinity is involved inpurging us of dead works and serving the living God (Heb 9:14).

    An extremely important part of our Christian walks is prayer. This isalso accomplished with each person of the Trinity participating (Eph2:18). We are empowered (Eph 3:16-19; Jn 16:16-17) and taught (Jn14:26, 15:26) by all three persons of the Trinity.


    From scripture, we can know that there is one God; that God exists asthree distinct persons; and that each person is fully God. Lets breakthis down and look at the evidence.

    A. There is one GodChristianity is a monotheistic religion, as is Judaism and Islam.Scripture is clear on this point. There is one God (Is 43:10, 45:5-6; 21-22;1 Cor 8:6), one Lord (Deut 6:4); one Saviour (Is 43:11); oneCreator (Is 44:24).

    "You are My witnesses," declares the LORD, "And Myservant whom I have chosen, So that you may know andbelieve Me And understand that I am He. Before Me therewas no God formed, And there will be none after Me. (Is43:10)

    There are literally dozens of Old and New Testament passages thatclearly affirm one God. The first two Commandments make it clear thatthere are no other gods.

    Then God spoke all these words, saying, "I am the LORDyour God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out ofthe house of slavery. You shall have no other gods before


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    Me. "You shall not make for yourself an idol, or any likenessof what is in heaven above or on the earth beneath or inthe water under the earth. (Ex 20:1-4). See also Jeremiah2:11,28.

    B. God exists as three distinct unchanging personsThe Hebrew Elohim (Almighty God) is a plural word, alluding to theTrinity. Furthermore, Deuteronomy says, Hear, O Israel: The LORD ourGod is one Lord. However, the Hebrew echad (one) means united orunity, not singularity. It is the same word used in Gen 2:24, when Godcreates Even from Adam and says, they shall become one flesh.Obviously a husband and wife remain two persons although they areunited in one flesh through marriage. One of the clearest passages onunity and diversity of God, as well as the deity of Jesus Christ, is John1:1-2:

    In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was withGod, and the Word was God.He was in the beginning with God.

    We also know from scripture that the three persons have existedeternally. When Jesus prays to the Father in John 17:5, He asks that Hewould be glorified by the Father with the glory He had with the Fatherbefore the world was. Also, in Hebrews 13:8 we read,Jesus Christ is thesame yesterday, today and forever. Finally, God chose us in the Sonbefore the foundation (creation) of the world (Eph 1:3-4). Thepreviously given examples of the plurality of the Godhead in the Old

    Testament and the coordinate relationship of the Father, Son and HolySpirit in the New Testament are strong evidence of the Trinity.

    C. Each person is fully God

    The Holy Trinity is a mystery and proves that our human minds cannotcomprehend all that God is. That revelation remains for our futureglorification as believers. This is not the only difficult doctrine.However, it is wrong to think that we cant understand the Trinity at all.

    All three persons of the Godhead are identical in nature, or being butdifferent in roles and how they relate to each other: one undividedbeing. This is not a contradiction. Each person of the Godhead sharesidentical natures as holy, eternal, omnipresent, omnipotent,omniscient, creator, sanctifier, and so on. Gods being is so muchgreater than ours that within His one undivided being there can be, asGrudem puts it, an unfolding into interpersonal relationships, so thatthere can be three distinct persons. (Grudem, Systematic Theology,p.254). This unity and diversity is reflected in the earthly relationships


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    of family and marriage that God has established for us. In these roles,we see separate persons as part of a whole, in which the separatemembers relate to each other through various roles of authority andsubmission. However, unlike the human examples, each person of theGodhead is fully God, not just one-third of Him. This is why most

    analogies of the trinity fall short and in fact give an erroneous view ofthe Trinity. Each person has the whole fullness of Gods being Himself.

    Father is God

    It is evident throughout the Old and New Testaments that God theFather is the sovereign Lord over all and that Jesus prays to the Fatherin heaven.

    Jesus is God

    The deity of the Son of God is thoroughly laid out in scripture:

    i. The Son and the Father share the same titles (I AM, God, Lord,Saviour, salvation, shepherd, King of kings, Lord of Lords, Rock,first and the last, etc).

    ii. They share the same attributes (receiver of worship, everyknee will bow, receiver of glory and honour, to be obeyed).

    iii. They share the same qualities (unchanging, holy, unsearchable,righteous, eternal, omniscient, omnipotent, true and faithfulwitness, light, hope, living water, etc.).

    iv. They share the same acts (created the universe, redeems us

    from our sins, forgives, hears our prayer, stilled the storm, He iswith us, disciplines those He loves, no one can snatch them fromout of His hands, He will judge the world).

    v. Many Old Testament propheciesallude to the Saviour Messiahbeing Jehovah Himself, with attributes and titles of God alone (Is9:6, Zech 12:10; Mic 5:2).

    vi. Jesus proclamation of His Godhead regarding the Father beingin Him, forgiving sins, being the I AM, etc. (Mtt 9:2-3, Mk 2:5-7,14:62-64; Jn 5:17-18, 8:56-59, 10:29-39, 14:8-13). Thesestatements blasphemous to the Pharisees.

    vii. New Testament statements of Christs deity: God (Jn 1:1);God manifest in the flesh (1 Tim 3:16); Godhead dwells in Christbodily (Col 2:9); Thomas proclaims Christ is God (Jn 20:28); OurGod and Saviour (1 Pet 1:1; Tit 2:13); Father calls the Son God(Heb 1:8); the true God (1 Jn 5:20); exact imprint of God (Heb1:3); Jesus came out of God (Jn 16:27); if you believe in God youbelieve in Christ (Jn 14:1); first and last, alpha and omega (Rev1:17, 22:13-14).


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    Holy Spirit is God

    Admittedly, the deity of the Father and the Son are more thoroughlylaid out in scripture than for the Holy Spirit. However, the Bible is clearthat the Holy Spirit owns many of the same names, titles, attributesand functions, and is thus not just some vague energy force. Oncewe understand that the Father and the Son are both fully God, we moreclearly see how those verses of coordinate relationship (e.g., Mtt28:19) prove the deity of the Holy Spirit. In Acts 5:3-4, Peter accusesAnanias of lying to God by lying to the Holy Spirit. Ps 139:7-8 talksabout Gods Spirit. Paul says that the Spirit teaches the depths of God(1 Cor 2:10-11). In fact, we know that that God is spirit (Jn 4:24).


    Regarding the way that God relates to the world through creation andredemption, the three persons of the Trinity are known to have

    different functions or roles. Grudem refers to this as the economy ofthe Trinity. The different functions for the Father, Son and Holy Spiritare simply outworkings of an eternal relationship between the threepersons, one that has always existed and always will. Consideringcreation, although God the Father spoke creation into existence, it wasGod the Son who carried out those commands (John 1:3, Col 1:16, Heb1:10). The Holy Spirit had an active role of energizing the earlycreation the manifestation of Gods immediate presence in Hiscreation (Gen 1:2). The same applies to redemption. God the Fatherplanned it and sent His Son to accomplish it (John 3:16, Gal 4:4). TheSon, in obedience to the Father, accomplished it (John 6:38, Heb 10:5-

    7). When Jesus ascended into heaven, the Holy Spirit wascommissioned by the Father and Son to apply redemption to us (John14:26).

    Thus we can say that the persons of the trinity always have and alwayswill relate to each other according to their relationship to each other.They are equal in nature (ontogeny) but different in role (economy).


    It is best to conclude that no analogy adequately teachesabout the Trinity, and all are misleading in significant ways.(Grudem, Systematic Theology, p. 241).

    The excellent teaching curriculum, Firm Foundations: Creation toChrist, (New Tribes Missions) strongly warns against using any analogyfor the Trinity:

    Do not try to explain the Trinity. It is impossible, and allillustrations (e.g., water, egg, triangle) fall far short of thetruth. It is better to admit that we cannot understand the


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    Trinity. (Trevor McIlwain, Firm Foundations: Creation to Christ,Childrens Ed; Book Two, p. 20).

    The main reason that these analogies fail is that the Father, Son andHoly Spirit are each fully God, and God exists as all three at the same

    time. A final reason why we should not use analogy is becausescripture never does. Although many characteristics of God and Hisnature are given in scripture through figurative speech or parable,nowhere does the Bible illustrate the Trinity, except by identifying thethree persons of the Godhead.

    The creation itself is seemingly a model of the tri-unity of the Godhead(Rom 1:20). There are many aspects of the physical universe (space,time, matter) and humans (body, soul, spirit) that point to the trueGod, who is diverse in nature, although these models fall short as well.

    The best analogy might be the space of Gods created universe.

    Space is comprised of three dimensions, each of which permeates andfills ALL space. However, space can only exist within all threedimensions. Each dimension is a different but equal function to theother dimensions.

    Thus, although no man could ever model the Godhead, God has clearlytold us about His nature in Scripture. There are no real differencesbetween the persons of the Trinity in deity, attributes, or nature. Eachperson is fully God with all the attributes of God. As Grudem says,

    The only distinctions between the members of the Trinity arein the ways they relate to each other and to creation(Grudem, Systematic Theology, p. 251).


    Christianity stands or falls with the confession of the deityof Christ and of the Trinity In the confession of the Trinitythrobs the heart of the Christian religion: every error resultsfrom, or upon deeper reflection may be traced to, a wrongview of this doctrine (Grudem, p. 248 quoting from Herman

    Bavinck, The Doctrine of God, 1977, pp. 255-334).

    The Trinity is essential to Christianity. Only God could bear the fullwrath of God against all our sins, not some creature. Furthermore, howcan we trust that Christ can make us fully justified by faith in Christ ifhe in turn is not fully God? Also, if Jesus is not God, why are weinstructed to pray to and worship Him and that all creation will bowdown before Him one day? Only God is worthy of worship. If He is not


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    God then it is idolatry to worship Him. Considering salvation, if Christ ismerely a creature, then we are relying on one of Gods creations tosave us as opposed to God.

    Finally, why should we think that there could be any ultimate unity

    within the universe if it is being held together by many gods asopposed to one God with perfect unity within Himself?


    Scripture teaches one God in a tri-unity, each person being fully Godand bearing the same nature but with diverse roles. This is reflected inthe human family relationships (husband-wife, father-child, Christ-church) that God has established for us. These diverse roles within theTrinity are essential for creation and redemption and distinguishChristianity from every other religion. It is a mystery only because ofour finite minds. One day we will see face to face and better

    understand this and other difficult doctrines of God.

    The Tri-Universe (#204)by Henry Morris, Ph.D.

    Abstract"For the invisible things of Him from the creation of the world areclearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His


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    eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse" (Romans1:20).In a previous Back to Genesis article, "The Wonderful Truth of theTrinity" (Acts & Facts, November 2005), the Biblical doctrine of the tri-une God (or Trinity) was briefly expounded in terms of some of the key

    verses of Scripture teaching it. A comprehensive treatment wasobviously impossible in three pages (entire books have been written onthis subject), but at least the essential truth was presented, namelythat the God of Creation is one God, in three PersonsFather, Son, andHoly Spirit.

    This is arguably the most important doctrine of Christianitycertainlythe most distinctive. This does not mean that there are three Gods;there is only one God who created Heaven and Earth and everything inthem. The term "God" as used in the Bible most commonly refers tothe Father, but the Son and the Holy Spirit are each also recognized as

    God. This concept is so difficult for many to accept that some haveargued that the three divine Persons are not really three distinctindividuals but merely three modes in which the one God can expressHimself as occasion demands.

    But this also is a false invention. There are many accounts of theFather and Son and Holy Spirit speaking to each other, for example.The doctrine of the Trinity is admittedly difficult (in fact impossible) tocomprehend fully with our minds, but it is taught so definitely in God'sWord that we believe it with our hearts.

    Skeptics can deride the Trinity doctrine as mathematically impossible.One plus One plus One does not equal One, but three. Nevertheless,the Bible reveals God to be a Trinityone God in three Persons. Are wenave and credulous to believe such a thing?

    Well, not really. It is also a remarkable fact that the divine Trinity, thetri-une God, has created a great universe which is itself a trinity, witheach of its three components also structured as trinities. This would notnecessarilyprove that God is a Trinity, but it is a fact that needsexplanation. Could God have created it as a model (or type, oranalogy) that would help people understand His own Nature, at least in

    some degree?

    Consider: The created universe is actually a tri-universe of Space,Matter, and Time, each permeating and representing the whole.However, the universe is not partly composed of space, partly ofmatter, and partly of time (like, for example, the three sides of atriangle). A trinity is not a trio or a triad, but a tri-unity, with each partcomprising the whole, yet all three required to make the whole. Thus,


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    the universe is all Space, all Time, and all Matter (including energy as aform of matter); in fact, many scientists speak of it as a Space-Matter-Time continuum.

    Furthermore, note the parallels between the divine trinity and the tri-

    universe in terms of the logical order of its three components. Space isthe invisible, omnipresent background of everything in the universe.Matter-and-Energy reveal the reality of the universe. Time makes theuniverse understandable in the events occurring in it. Note that exactlythe same sentence will apply if the words Father, Son, and Holy Spiritreplace the words, Space, Matter, and Time.

    Space itself is also a tri-unity, comprised of three dimensions, witheach dimension permeating all space. The reality of any portion ofspace is obtained by multiplying the three dimensions together (the"mathematics of the Trinity" is not 1+1+1=1, but rather 1x1x1=1).

    Further, Space is identified in the first dimension seen in the seconddimension, experienced in the third dimension. The same sentencecould be used with Father, Son, and Spirit replacing first, second, andthird dimensions.

    Similarly, Time is future, present, and past. The future is the unseensource of time, manifest moment-by-moment in the present andunderstood in the past. Again substitute Father, Son, and Spirit.

    Finally, Matter is unseen, omnipresent Energy, manifesting itself invarious forms of measurable motion, then experienced in

    corresponding phenomena. For example, light energy generates lightwaves, which are experienced in the seeing of light. Sound energygenerates sound waves which we experience when we hear sound.

    Thus, the physical universe is a great "trinity of trinities," with the innerrelationships of each element modeling the relationships of Father,Son, and Holy Spirit. All of this (as cautioned above) does not provethat God is a Trinity, but it certainly is a remarkable fact. It is anamazing effect, which can at least seemingly be explained on theassumption that God is a tri-une God, and has made His creation toreflect Himself. In fact it is very hard to explain any other way.

    The above several paragraphs have been quoted mostly from thefootnotes supporting Romans 1:20 in The Defender's Study Bible. Sofar as I know, however, this striking analogy was first recognized by Dr.Nathan H. Wood, former president of Gordon College in his book TheSecret of the Universe (Warwick Press, 1932), which included a verylaudatory Foreword by Dr. G. Campbell Morgan, one of the greatest


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    British Bible teachers of the early twentieth century. This book was alsoreprinted by Kregel in 1978, under the title The Trinity in the Universe.

    It is therefore a fact that the physical universe is a great trinity oftrinities. But how about the universe of life? Many expositors have

    called attention to the fact that each person is a trinity of body, soul,and spirit. Each of these entities is real and distinct, yet each involvesthe whole person. The prayer of Paul, in one of his first epistles wasthis: "And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; and I pray Godyour whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto thecoming of our Lord Jesus Christ. Faithful is He that calleth you, whoalso will do it" (I Thessalonians 5:23-24).

    The "soul" is that part of the person that is the actual "life" thatenergizes the "body," which then is the material component thatothers can see and hear and touch. The classic Old Testament verse

    relating these two is Leviticus 17:11: ". . . the life of the flesh is in theblood." The Hebrew word for "life" in this verse is the same word as for"soul," and scientists have known for many years that it is the blood'scirculation throughout the body that maintains life in the body.

    The body's "spirit," on the other hand, is the body's "breath," and thisalso is essential for maintaining its life (the Hebrew word for "breath"and its New Testament Greek equivalent are each used also for"spirit"). It is sometimes hard to differentiate between soul and spiritfor this reason, but the fact that they are different is confirmedespecially in Hebrews 4:12, which says that "the word of God is quick,

    [that is, alive] and powerful [that is, energizing], and sharper than anytwo-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul andspirit, . . ."

    The "spirit" is more than merely the "breath" of the body, however, forthe person's spirit somehow is also that entity which partakes of thevery image of God. When the first man was yet an inert body formed ofthe dust of the ground, God "breathed into his nostrils the breath oflife; and man became a living soul" (Genesis 2:7). Thus "God createdman in His own image" (Genesis 1:27). The breath of God therebybecame the image of God implanted in man's body of dust and his

    living soul.

    The analogy with the tri-unity of God is fairly obvious. The soul is thelife of the body, unseen and intangible but nevertheless the very basisof the person's existence and actions; the body then is the visible andtangible manifestation of the soul. Furthermore the spirit of the personis (like the soul) invisible and intangible but very real in its capacity to


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    interact intelligibly with others, especially with God, including also theability to make moral and esthetic judgments.

    Now animals also possess soul (that is life), body, and spirit (in thesense of breath). They also in a very limited sense seem able to

    interact with other animals and even human beings on more than amere instinctive level; however, they cannot, so far as we know,comprehend moral, or spiritual concepts.

    To what extent, if any, this animal tri-unity correlated with that ofhumans in the beginning we do not know. In any case, the entrance ofsin and death into the world made drastic changes. Now there is a vastdifference. Death comes to both men and animals, and "all turn to dustagain." But then it is "the spirit of the beast that goeth downward tothe earth" while the spirit of man and "shall return unto God who gaveit" (Eccle-siastes 3:20-21; 12:7), consistently with Paul's prayer noted


    In any case, we can infer that both human life and animal life areactually trinities (three components in the logical trinitarian order witheach also pervading the whole). However, the human tri-unity will berestored to live forever whereas animals (body, life, breath) will not.Only men and women are in the image of the eternal God.

    Thus, there is a remarkable tri-unity pervading the physical universe,and also one throughout the biological creation. Neither one is perfect,of course. No model can ever be perfect when the original is God

    Himself. But they are each real trinities. Each unit is distinctive with itsown function, and yet all three are necessary components of thewhole, and each pervades the whole.

    These trinities pervading the creation may not be perfect reflections ofthe Creator. But they are good and realistic models of the tri-une Godwho made them.

    It would seem there must be some good explanation for thisremarkable fact other than coincidence. A plausible explanation wouldsurely seem to be that they were deliberately created by God to help

    us understand, in at least some small degree, His own tri-une nature.

    *Dr. Henry Morris is Founder and President Emeritus of ICR.


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    Rom 6:10; Heb 7:27, 9:12, 26,10:2, 10; 1 Pet 3:18

    Died once for all

    Eph 2:8-9 Grace, not works

    Tit 3:5 Mercy

    Jn 20:31 Believing gives you life

    Rom 3:20 Not observing the law

    Gal 2:16 Faith alone

    1 Jn 1:9;12 Confess for salvation

    Rom11:6 By faith, not works2 Cor 6:10 Christ died for all

    Jn 3:15-18, 36 Believe on the Son

    Jn 6:47 Eternal life from believing

    Jn 10:10 Life more abundantly

    Jn 11:25 Believe in Christ

    Jn 12:46 Believe in Christ

    Jn 14:6 Way, truth and life

    1 Jn 5:5 The one who overcomes is the onewho believes that Jesus is Son ofGod

    Mr 16:16 Believe and be baptizedActs 16:31 Believe upon Jesus to be saved

    Acts 4:12 No other name under heaven

    Heb 9:12 His blood, eternal redemption

    Rom 10:9 Confess Jesus as Lord

    Rom 6:23 Eternal life through Jesus


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    Rev 7:15 Great Crowd in His temple

    Rev 7:9-10 Great Crowd has salvation from their God!

    Rev 19:5-6 Voice of a great crowd responding to God

    Jn 17:20-24 Jesus prayed that all believers be with Him


    1 Cor 12:27 Not members of Christs body

    Jn 3:3 Cant be born again

    2 Tim 4:18 Cant share in Christs heavenly kingdom

    1 Cor 12:13 Cant receive baptism of Holy Spirit

    1 Cor 10:16-17 Cant participate in communion

    Heb 12:24 Not in the New Covenant

    Rom 3:26 Cant be fully justified by faith in Christ


    Lk 12:46-48 Bad servant will go to weeping andgnashing

    Lk 13:27-28 Depart to where there is weeping andgnashing

    Lk 16:22-28 Beggar and rich man

    Mat 13:41-42 Evildoers thrown into the furnace of fire

    Mat 13:49-50 Evil into furnace of fire

    Mat 22:13 King cast them out to where weep and

    gnashMat 24:50-51 Bad servant will go to weeping andgnashing

    Mat 25:30 Bad slave to weep and gnash

    Mat 26:40 Better for Judas not to be born hell

    Mk 9:47-48 Better no eyes than hell

    Lk 6:23-25 Woe to rich who will mourn and weep

    Lk 12:4-5 God throws into hell

    Rev 14:9-11 Worshipers of the beast will be forevertormented


    Phil 1:21 To live is Christ, to die is gain

    2 Cor 5:8 Away from body, at home with the Lord


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    Lk 23:43 Truly, today in paradiseThis phrase used by Jesus 6X in Luke; 71 timesin all 4 Gospels; NWT only puts the commaafter today in this verse highly biased to getaway from teaching that thief immediately

    went to heavenLk 12:4-5 Fear Him who can throw you into Hell

    Rev 6:9-11 Dead saints with Jesus around throne

    Acts 7:59-60 Stephen receive my spirit

    Heb 9:27 Appointed once to die then judgment

    Lk 16:22-28 Beggar immediately went to Abrahamsbosom and rich man went immediately toHades


    Mistranslation of Firstborn (prototokos)

    Physical: the first of a mother's offspring

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    V.16 explains why Christ is firstborn For (because) by Him allthings were created. Which works better: He was firstcreated (v.15) because he created all things (v.16) OR Heis supreme over all (v.15) because He created all things(v.16)?

    Even in the NWT, the firstborn is clearly defined. Firstly, it saysin v.18 that he is the firstborn from among the dead. Clearlyfirstborn in this context could not mean first one born amongthe dead! Secondly, it explains why He is firstborn: so that ineverything He might have supremacy. Finally, v.19 says that Godwas pleased to have all His fullness dwell in Christ.

    Firstborn inferred birthright - David was called firstborn even

    though we know he was the youngest, not the physical firstbornamong Jesses children (Heb 12:16; c.f. Ps 89:20-27).

    Manasseh was firstborn to Jacob (Gen 41:51-52) although God

    calls Ephraim His firstborn.

    The NWT translates Col 1:16-17 with [other] 4 times in order to

    get away from the clear statement that Jesus is the uncreatedCreator. They have no excuse for this addition. They do thisthroughout the NT in order to strip Christ of His deity. See alsoActs 20:28 where [Son] is inserted in order to get away from theclear statement that Jehovah God shed His own blood.

    Mistranslation of John 1:1

    283 anarthrous theos in NT; why only a god when associated

    with Jesus (try 2 Cor 5:19 or Jn 6:45 [cf. Is 54:13])

    theos comes first in statement and is therefore emphatic;

    ho theos en ho logos would mean that logos is all of God or

    interchangeable (Sabellianism), thus denying the Godhead

    Colwells rule (JWs agree with) states that if predicate nounprecedes verb, it is written anarthrous (without definite article)and is definite with few exceptions.

    How else could John have said it? It tears phrase from immediately preceding ones- can the

    eternal, creator who was with God be a god?

    Could John, a devout Jew, write about a god other than Jehovah

    when he was strongly monotheistic?

    Is 43:10 no god formed; only Jehovah; retranslating Jn 1:1forces JWs into polytheism


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    No respected scholar would agree with the a god rendering(Metzger, Mantey)

    Show how NWT doesnt translate all other anarthrous theos in Jn

    1 as a god.

    Is Jesus then a true god or a false god?

    NWT translates anarthrous theos in John 1:1 as a god

    This is how John 1 would read if the NWT consistently substituted agod everywhere theos does not have the definite article:

    In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and theWord was a God.2 He was in the beginning with God.3 All things came into being by Him, and apart from Him nothingcame into being that has come into being.

    4 In Him was life, and the life was the light of men.5 And the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did notcomprehend it.6 There came a man, sent from a god, whose name was John.7 He came for a witness, that he might bear witness of the light,that all might believe through him.8 He was not the light, but {came} that he might bear witness ofthe light.9 There was the true light which, coming into the world, enlightensevery man.10 He was in the world, and the world was made through Him, and

    the world did not know Him.11 He came to His own, and those who were His own did not receive

    Him.12 But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right tobecome children ofa god, {even} to those who believe in His name,13 who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of thewill of man, but ofa god.

    Mistranslation of Begotten (monogenes)

    A New Testament word that describes Christ as the only, or

    unique, Son of His heavenly Father (John 3:16-18; Heb. 11:17; 1John 4:9). The Greek word expresses the idea ofdistinctiveness--" one of a kind." As the unique, sinless Son, Jesusaccomplished our salvation through His death on the cross.)

    Isaac referred to as only begotten but he wasnt only born to

    Abraham because of Ishmael (Heb 11:17-18).

    Only begotten of the dead (Rev 1:5)


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    Wisdom Personified (Pr 8:22-31)

    Wisdom personified could be Christ, however brought forth (Heb.

    qanah) does not mean created but possessed or brought forth, inagreement with Heb 1:5-6 (brought forth or begotten)

    Misapplication of Matthew 24:45-47

    JWs believe the WT to be the faithful and wise slave (Gods channelor mouthpiece) because they are the only organization on Earthteaching the truth because they accept everything that the Societytells them (circular argument).

    Verses JWs misapply to making H.S. into a forceLk 4:44; Rom 15:13; 1 Cor 2:4

    Explaining the Possibility of the Trinity

    God can be everywhere at the same time and answer prayers andspeak to people. Is it not possible that God could visit the Earth whilestill remaining in heaven to run the universe? E.g., 3 dimensions ofspace

    Example from Adam and Eve

    One (Heb. Echad) means Composite unity, not singularity. Gen 2:24 the two shall become one (Echad) flesh (two personalities but one

    unified); this is one used in Isaiah 43:10; Deut 6:4.

    Verses of Christs Subordination

    These passages show that Jesus gave up some of his entitlements asGod to become a man. However, he never relinquished His nature.Cults and skeptics use these verses to prove that Jesus wasnt God.But then they have to ignore the vast weight of biblical evidence (e.g.,John 1:1) that He is God: Jn 14:28; Phil 2:7; Lk 23:34, 46; Jn 11:41,17:1; Heb 2:9; 5:7; Mk 13:32; Gal 4:4-5

    Jesus never said I am God

    Jn 8:58 (ego emi) NWT changes to I have been for no reason;furthermore there is no past perfect Gr. tense. No Greek scholar agreeswith this rendering.

    Jn 14:9


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    It would have been nonsense to a Hebrew if Jesus said that He wasJHWH because JHWH is spirit and has no physical form (Jn 4:24).Furthermore, they would think of God as the Father, which the Sonisnt.The Father called the Son O God in Heb 1:10 it doesnt get any


    The Invisible return of Christ is not so invisible

    Mt 24:30-31; Acts 1:10-11; Mt 24:36; Rev 1:7

    Artificially separating God and Jesus in a passage

    Jn 17:3; 1 Pet 1:1; Jas 1:1; 1 Cor 8:6; Tit 2:13 (3:4, 6); Jude 4.