kauai “the garden island”

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Goal Ho`oponopono Correct the imbalance Make it right 1. Reduce atmospheric CO2 levels by sequestering carbon in the form of biochar in soil 2. Become self reliant again for energy use and food production. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • GoalHo`oponoponoCorrect the imbalanceMake it right

    1. Reduce atmospheric CO2 levels by sequestering carbon in the form of biochar in soil2. Become self reliant again for energy use and food production

  • ObjectiveKuleanaAssume responsibility

    1. Burn local biomass for energy and carbon sequestration2. Improve agricultural sustainability by biochar carbon sequestration

  • KauaiThe Garden Island

  • Lack of Soil Renewal in Hawai

    Volcanic eruptionsGlaciationUpliftLoessVegetation

  • AndisolsHistisolsOxisolsVertisolsTradewinds

  • VertisolOxisolAndisol

  • Kauai Oxisol Test SoilsParameterConditionTarget

    pH< 5.05.8 - 6.3P ppm7 20> 30K ppm40 70> 250Ca ppm< 500> 1500Mg ppm< 200> 400

  • Kauai Oxisol Soils- Some of the most weathered soils in the worldClay soil but all silicon leached- ore-level richness in iron and aluminum oxidesVery low cation exchange capacityFixes phosphates and nitratesVery low pH

  • PhotoKauai soil road cutCalcium Silicate added

  • Feedstock tested:

    AlbizziaJava Plum

  • Biochar Production

    Barrel retortAPL char retortPitMicrowave catalyst

  • Experimental Design 1

    Control , Char 40, Fertilizer, Char 40 + Fertilizer10 replicatesExperimental Design 2

    Control , Char 5+F, Char 10+F, Char 20 +F, Char 40+F, Fertilizer 5 replicatesFertilizer application = 1.0 lb 16-16-16 mix per 100 square foot equivalent, or 400 lbs per acre

  • Tomato Experiment 19Total Reproductive Structures

    Chart1

    000.9001.6

    00.422.22.61.4

    00.20.41.640.2

    011.43.24.40

    002.23.850

    Control

    Char 5

    Char 10

    Char 20

    Char 40

    Fertilizer

    Sheet1

    Experiment T-19T-19UnitCharTreatmentHeight9-Mar16-Mar23-Mar30-Mar6-Apr*18-Apr25-Apr2-May9-May

    planted February 1, 2011C01CControl3-Mar11

    C02CControl3-Mar15

    replant of C-10 in same potsC03CControl3-Mar9

    replant of T-11C04CControl3-Mar9

    C05CControl3-Mar9

    C05-01CharChar53-Mar13

    C05-02CharChar53-Mar

    C05-03CharChar53-Mar16

    C05-04CharChar53-Mar164b 1f2f 3x

    C05-05CharChar53-Mar131b,1f1x

    C10-01CharChar103-Mar155x,1b

    C10-02CharChar103-Mar112x2b 1f4b 3x

    C10-03CharChar103-Mar223-5 b& or f2x2x3b 1x3b 1x

    C10-04CharChar103-Mar19

    C10-05CharChar103-Mar15

    C20-01CharChar203-Mar113b3b 7x1Y 5f 2b 5x

    C20-02CharChar203-Mar9

    C20-03CharChar203-Mar121f,4b3x,1b2x2x

    C20-04CharChar203-Mar5

    C20-05CharChar203-Mar202Y,1f2x,2Y2x 2Y2x 2Y

    C40-01CharChar403-Mar191x3b 1x1b 2f 1x

    C40-02CharChar403-Mar182f2x2Y2Y

    C40-03CharChar403-Mar14

    C40-04CharChar403-Mar111x,4b6b,4f,1x7x 3f 1b11x 2f 1Y

    C40-05CharChar403-Mar192Y,1f,3b2b,2x,2Y3x 2Y3x 2Y

    F01FSoil+NPK3-Mar14

    F02FSoil+NPK3-Mar4

    F03FSoil+NPK3-Mar113-5 b& or f1x,2fwilted

    F04FSoil+NPK3-Mar13

    F05FSoil+NPK3-Mar133-5 b& or f2x,1f,1b1f

    C01CControl9-Mar13

    C02CControl9-Mar16

    C03CControl9-Mar186-Apr*18-Apr25-Apr2-May9-May

    C04CControl9-Mar9Control00000

    C05CControl9-Mar12Char 500.40.210

    C05-01CharChar59-Mar23Char 100.920.41.42.2

    C05-02CharChar59-Mar16Char 2002.21.63.23.8

    C05-03CharChar59-Mar25Char 4002.644.45

    C05-04CharChar59-Mar27Fertilizer1.61.40.200

    C05-05CharChar59-Mar24

    C10-01CharChar109-Mar23

    C10-02CharChar109-Mar22

    C10-03CharChar109-Mar32

    C10-04CharChar109-Mar29

    C10-05CharChar109-Mar19

    C20-01CharChar209-Mar15

    C20-02CharChar209-Mar23*begin flowering observations rather than measurements

    C20-03CharChar209-Mar22"b" buds; counted at ~.75 cm and larger only

    C20-04CharChar209-Mar"f" flower

    C20-05CharChar209-Mar31"x" tiny fruits until they are visible outside of the calyx

    C40-01CharChar409-Mar31"Y" fruits once they are visble outside of the calyx

    C40-02CharChar409-Mar29

    C40-03CharChar409-Mar23

    C40-04CharChar409-Mar20

    C40-05CharChar409-Mar33

    F01FSoil+NPK9-Mar25

    F02FSoil+NPK9-Mar6

    F03FSoil+NPK9-Mar18

    F04FSoil+NPK9-Mar23

    F05FSoil+NPK9-Mar23

    C01CControl16-Mar11

    C02CControl16-Mar18

    C03CControl16-Mar22

    C04CControl16-Mar10

    C05CControl16-Mar16

    C05-01CharChar516-Mar40

    C05-02CharChar516-Mar

    C05-03CharChar516-Mar44

    C05-04CharChar516-Mar46

    C05-05CharChar516-Mar39

    C10-01CharChar1016-Mar44

    C10-02CharChar1016-Mar37

    C10-03CharChar1016-Mar48

    C10-04CharChar1016-Mar48

    C10-05CharChar1016-Mar39

    C20-01CharChar2016-Mar19

    C20-02CharChar2016-Mar28

    C20-03CharChar2016-Mar38

    C20-04CharChar2016-Mar

    C20-05CharChar2016-Mar55

    C40-01CharChar4016-Mar38

    C40-02CharChar4016-Mar47

    C40-03CharChar4016-Mar36

    C40-04CharChar4016-Mar39

    C40-05CharChar4016-Mar50

    F01FSoil+NPK16-Mar36

    F02FSoil+NPK16-Mar12

    F03FSoil+NPK16-Mar31

    F04FSoil+NPK16-Mar35

    F05FSoil+NPK16-Mar40

    C01CControl23-Mar15

    C02CControl23-Mar23

    C03CControl23-Mar26

    C04CControl23-Mar10

    C05CControl23-Mar18

    C05-01CharChar523-Mar58

    C05-02CharChar523-Mar

    C05-03CharChar523-Mar68

    C05-04CharChar523-Mar67

    C05-05CharChar523-Mar67

    C10-01CharChar1023-Mar52

    C10-02CharChar1023-Mar58

    C10-03CharChar1023-Mar72

    C10-04CharChar1023-Mar66

    C10-05CharChar1023-Mar61

    C20-01CharChar2023-Mar24

    C20-02CharChar2023-Mar37

    C20-03CharChar2023-Mar56

    C20-04CharChar2023-Mar

    C20-05CharChar2023-Mar76

    C40-01CharChar4023-Mar40

    C40-02CharChar4023-Mar47

    C40-03CharChar4023-Mar62

    C40-04CharChar4023-Mar66

    C40-05CharChar4023-Mar70

    F01FSoil+NPK23-Mar

    F02FSoil+NPK23-Mar16

    F03FSoil+NPK23-Mar50

    F04FSoil+NPK23-Mar55

    F05FSoil+NPK23-Mar56

    C01CControl30-Mar

    C02CControl30-Mar26

    C03CControl30-Mar33

    C04CControl30-Mar10

    C05CControl30-Mar20

    C05-01CharChar530-Mar71

    C05-02CharChar530-Mar

    C05-03CharChar530-Mar83

    C05-04CharChar530-Mar90

    C05-05CharChar530-Mar78

    C10-01CharChar1030-Mar64

    C10-02CharChar1030-Mar68

    C10-03CharChar1030-Mar77

    C10-04CharChar1030-Mar78

    C10-05CharChar1030-Mar83

    C20-01CharChar2030-Mar29

    C20-02CharChar2030-Mar51

    C20-03CharChar2030-Mar77

    C20-04CharChar2030-Mar

    C20-05CharChar2030-Mar93

    C40-01CharChar4030-Mar43

    C40-02CharChar4030-Mar61

    C40-03CharChar4030-Mar83

    C40-04CharChar4030-Mar76

    C40-05CharChar4030-Mar89

    F01FSoil+NPK30-Mar

    F02FSoil+NPK30-Mar25

    F03FSoil+NPK30-Mar66

    F04FSoil+NPK30-Mar75

    F05FSoil+NPK30-Mar73

    C01CControl

    C02CControl

    C03CControl

    C04CControl

    C05CControl

    C05-01CharChar5

    C05-02CharChar5

    C05-03CharChar5

    C05-04CharChar5

    C05-05CharChar5

    C10-01CharChar10

    C10-02CharChar10

    C10-03CharChar10

    C10-04CharChar10

    C10-05CharChar10

    C20-01CharChar20

    C20-02CharChar20

    C20-03CharChar20

    C20-04CharChar20

    C20-05CharChar20

    C40-01CharChar40

    C40-02CharChar40

    C40-03CharChar40

    C40-04CharChar40

    C40-05CharChar40

    F01FSoil+NPK

    F02FSoil+NPK

    F03FSoil+NPK

    F04FSoil+NPK

    F05FSoil+NPK

    C01CControl

    C02CControl

    C03CControl

    C04CControl

    C05CControl

    C05-01CharChar5

    C05-02CharChar5

    C05-03CharChar5

    C05-04CharChar5

    C05-05CharChar5

    C10-01CharChar10

    C10-02CharChar10

    C10-03CharChar10

    C10-04CharChar10

    C10-05CharChar10

    C20-01CharChar20

    C20-02CharChar20

    C20-03CharChar20

    C20-04CharChar20

    C20-05CharChar20

    C40-01CharChar40

    C40-02CharChar40

    C40-03CharChar40

    C40-04CharChar40

    C40-05CharChar40

    F01FSoil+NPK

    F02FSoil+NPK

    F03FSoil+NPK

    F04FSoil+NPK

    F05FSoil+NPK

    Sheet1

    Control

    Char 5

    Char 10

    Char 20

    Char 40

    Fertilizer

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • Chart1

    34

    38

    43

    42

    54

    Height

    Peppers

    Sheet1

    Height

    Fertilizer34

    Char 538

    Char 1043

    Char 2042

    Char 4054

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

  • Peppers

    Chart1

    0

    0

    0.25

    1.8

    2.8

    Fruits

    Sheet1

    Fruits

    Fertilizer0

    Char 50

    Char 100.25

    Char 201.8

    Char 402.8

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

  • Fertilizer onlyChar 40 + Fert

  • Chart2

    0.5

    10.5

    12.5

    23

    20

    5

    Dry Weight

    weight (grams)

    Biochar Trial - Tomato

    Sheet1

    TreatmentDaily FruitingDry Weight

    Control00.5

    Char51.510.5

    Char100.512.5

    Char20323

    Char401.520

    Soil+Fert0.25

    Sheet1

    Dry Weight

    weight (grams)

    Biochar Trial - Tomato

    Sheet2

    Daily Fruiting

    daily fruiting

    Biochar Trial Tomato

    Sheet3

  • Chart1

    0

    1.5

    0.5

    3

    1.5

    0.2

    Daily Fruiting

    daily fruiting

    Biochar Trial Tomato

    Sheet1

    TreatmentDaily FruitingDry Weight

    Control00.5

    Char51.510.5

    Char100.512.5

    Char20323

    Char401.520

    Soil+Fert0.25

    Sheet1

    Dry Weight

    weight (grams)

    Biochar Trial - Tomato

    Sheet2

    Daily Fruiting

    daily fruiting

    Biochar Trial Tomato

    Sheet3

  • Fertilizer onlyChar 40 + Fert

  • ControlBiochar + FertilizerFertilizerRoot Development

  • Conclusions Based on Greenhouse Trials Using Kauai Soils

    Biochar alone does not improve plant growth or reproduction., must have nutrient inputsAll biochars seem to convey the same benefits when nutrients are addedIn general, increasing application rates of biochar+fert increased plant growth. Biochar amended soils retain benefits through several plantingsBenefits of biochar were primarily seen in reproduction

  • MahaloUH-CCRT, NSF, HMI

    ***Our work centers on the island of Kauai. Misnamed the Garden Island, Kauai actually has some of the poorest agricultural soils in the world. If any place needs soil ammendment with biochar, and if any soils would show improvement with biochar, it should be Kauai. So we have been working on greenhouse trials using biochar in Kauai soils. I need to explain a little about Hawaiian soils.The Hawaiian islands lack several of the typical soil building activities. Volcanism provides fertile soils on the younger islands, but these nutrients do not last long as the islands age.*Nutrients are deposited with new lava directly on the land, but eruptions are not explosive and volcanic dust is taken away from older islands by the trade winds. Vegetation can bring nutrients up from deeper beds, but do not persist after the vegetation is removed. The result is that we have relative nutrient rich soils primarily on the younger islands. In fact, other than wetand taro, we only have evidence of sustained upland agriculture by Hawaiians in a few place on Hawaii and Maui. Most soils degrade to clay oxisols.*We do have black soils in Hawaii but they are not organic, and most of the soils the older islands, particularly Kauai, are highly leached oxisols with a typical iron red coloration. NO TOP SOIL. Nutrient profile is inverted, deeper layers can be less leached. Leading HSPA to reccomended scraping the top meter off these lands.*Plantations new there was little CEC in these soils and addressed this by addition of calcium silicate. Can we do the same thing with biochar?*While we did not compare these directly, all gave roughly the same results. We did not meet a char that we did not like.*Soils are so poor there is virtually no growth without amendments. Adding Char did not improve growth above the control. Fertilizer was required to increase growth. About of the experiments showed this pattern of about the same somatic growth in Fert and Fert+Char.*After 2 corn experiments and NO additional fert added. As soils were depleted through plant harvest and watering, biochar emmnded soils clearly showed benefit.*Replant after 2 corn trials and 1 tomato trial, then more fert added. The difference were lessoned when additional fert was added, but Fert+Char retained elevated somatic growth over Fert alone.*In about the experiments, first trial Char+Fert had increased somatic growth over Fert alone. Higher applications of biochar generated larger plants and more reproduction generally.*But even in those experiments where somatic growth was not elevated or marginally elevated..*Reproduction was significantly higher in Char+Fert*Another example using peppers, where the higher Char+Fert treatments had about 50% increase in somatic growth..*Reproduction structures increased dramatically.**Another example with tomatoes where the dry biomass of Char+Fert was elevated 2-4 times above Fert alone..*But fruiting was increased by an order of magnitudeOther qualitative results were greater health and resistance to pests, such as spider mites on these eggplants.**Qualitative results. Greenhouse fern colonizing pots between trials.