learning spoken english

Click here to load reader

Post on 22-Jun-2015

195 views

Category:

Documents

31 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

SPOKEN ENGLI SH . . . in half the time LEARNI NG by Lynn Lundquist

Learning Spoken English ...in half the time

by Lynn Lundquist Publisher information PublicDomain.Thisbook(LearningSpokenEnglish)maybefreelypublishedin English or translated into any other language. It may be sold or distributed in any man-ner(includingwebsitepublication)withoutpermissionfrom,orroyaltypaymentsto, the original author. It may carry any publisher's, translator's, or author's name and copy-right as long as other publishers outside of the original country of publication can pub-lish their own edition. The book's title may be changed at the publisher's discretion. The book'sdualpurposeisfirst,tohelpthosewantingtolearnEnglishbecomemoresuc-cessful inthat endeavor, and secondly, to be aneffective advertisingmedium for Spo-ken EnglishLearned Quickly as distributed by www.FreeEnglishNow.com. As such, our only requirement is that: 1) the English text of the numbered chapters be published assupplied(however,thebook'stitle,cover,andthecontentofthefrontmaterialin-cluding the introduction may be altered at the discretion of the publisher), 2) any trans-lationbeatruetranslationoftheEnglishtext,and3)thenamesSpokenEnglish Learned Quickly and www.FreeEnglishNow.com be prominently displayed in the text. Anyoneofthreetextsavailableonthewww.FreeEnglishNow.comwebsitemaybe used: the HTML texts by copying theVIEW SOURCE files, the PDFfile, or the Mi-crosoftWordfiles.Thegraphicsfile(includedwiththe MicrosoftWordfiles)may beusedasisormayberedrawnprovidedthattheintentoftheindividualgraphicre-main unchanged. Forgreaterinterestandsales,werecommendthatLearningSpoken EnglishbepublishedusingboththetranslatedlanguageandEnglish.The translated language should be emphasized as the primary language with thetranslated book title in larger font on the coverand each page occupyingtheleft-handpage.Englishshouldbethesecondarylan-guage with the book title in smaller font and each English page occupy-i ngt heright -handpage. Seetheexampl eon www.FreeEnglishNow.com/lsebrazil.pdf. WealsosuggestthataCDoftheentirecoursebeincludedwiththe book.See www.FreeEnglishNow.com/help14.html.

Index: Introduction Chapter 1: Teaching Your Tongue to Speak English.....1 Chapter 2: Four Rules for Learning Spoken English..... 12 Chapter 3: Grammar and Writing in Spoken English Study17 Chapter 4: Do You Need Beginning and Advanced Lessons? 21 Chapter 5: Selecting a Text................... 25 Chapter 6: Studying the English Verb............. 35 Chapter 7: Success in Spoken English Study .........43

Introduction Youhaveanopportunityforabetterpayingjob,butyouneedto improve your English before you can apply.Or, you want to enroll in a university in the United States, but your English is not good enough yet. YouhavealreadytakenEnglishclassesfortwoyearsinsecondary school.MaybeyouhavestudiedmoreEnglishattheuniversity.You knowEnglishgrammarandcanwrite,butyouneedtolearnhowto speak English. And you need to improve your spoken English very quickly. Thisbookwill tell youhowtoretrainyour mindandyour tonguein order to learn fluent spoken English. With the information from this book, you can learn to speak English in half of the time it normally takes. Throughout this book, I will emphasize spoken English. Chapter 1: Teaching Your Tongue to Speak English explains the con-ceptonwhichthisSpokenEnglishLearnedQuicklymethodisbuilt.Theremainingchapterstellyouhowtoapplythatinformationasyou learn to speak English fluently. I wish you the best of success as you study spoken English. Chapter 1: Teaching Your Tongue to Speak English IfyouwanttolearntospeakEnglishfluently,itwillhelpyouto understand how the human mind produces speech. However, before looking at the mechanics of speech, I want to draw an analogyfrommachine control because theanalogy closelyparallels neurological responses in spoken language. Open-loop machine control Wikipedia describes an open-loop control system as follows: An open-loop controller, also called a non-feedback controller, is a type of controller which computes its input into a system using only the current state . . . of the system. A characteristic of the open-loop controller is that it does not use feedback to determine if its input has achieved the desired goal. This meansthatthesystemdoesnotobservethe outputoftheprocessesthatitis ChapterSummary:Speechiscontrolledinyourmindbyfeed-backfromyourhearingandmouth positionasmuchasitisfrom your memory. If you want to speak fluent English, it is just as im-portant to retrain your tongue as it is to train your memory.To be effective, however, you must retrain your mind, tongue, and hear-ingatexactlythesametimebecausetheymustworktogether when you speak English. Why have you studied English so long in school without learn-ingtospeakfluently?Itisbecauseyourteachershavetriedto trainyourmindwithwrittenexerciseswithoutretrainingyour tongue at the same time. controlling.Consequently,atrueopen-loop system. ..cannot correct anyerrors that it could make.For example, a sprinkler system, programmed to turn on at set times could be an example of an open-loop system if it does not measure soil moisture as a form of feedback. Even if rainispouringdownonthelawn,the sprinkler system would activate on schedule, wasting water. Figure1showsan open-loopcontrol system.Thecontrol maybeasimple switch, or it could be a combinationofa switchandatimer. Yet,allitcandois turn the machine on. It cannotrespondto anythingthemachine is doing. Closed-loop machine control Wikipedia then describes closed-loop control as follows: Toavoidtheproblemsoftheopen-loop controller,controltheoryintroduces feedback.Aclosed-loopcontrolleruses feedbacktocontrolstatesoroutputsofa dynamicalsystem.Itsnamecomesfromthe informationpathinthesystem:process inputs (e.g. voltage applied to a motor) have aneffectontheprocessoutputs(e.g. velocity...ofthemotor),whichis measuredwithsensorsandprocessedbythe controller;theresult(thecontrolsignal) is used as input to the process, closing the loop. Open-Loop Control Control Figure 1: An open-loop machine control. 2Learning Spoken English Wikipedia'sdefinitionofaclosed-loopsystemsubsequently becomestootechnicaltousehere.However,asWikipediasuggests above,asprinklerincorporatingasoilmoisturesensorwouldbea simpleclosed-loopsystem.Thesprinklersystemwouldhavebotha timer and a control valve. Either could operate independently, and either could shut the water off, but both would need to be open in order for the sprinkler to operate. The arrangement is shown in Figure 2. Ifthesoilisalreadymoist,thesprinklerwillremainoffwhetheror not the timer is open. When the moisture probe senses dry soil, the valve isopened.However,afterthesprinkler ison,ifthesoil becomesmoist enough,thevalvewillcloseevenifthetimerisstillopen.Thus,the sprinkler uses feedback from its own operation to control itself. Figure 3 shows a simple closed-loop machine control. Notice that Figure 3 also showsacalibration function.Irrespectiveof whether it is a soil moisture sensoronasprinklerora counteronamachinetheremustbesomewayof setting the control so that it wi l l r espondi na predeterminedway.Ina Figure 3: A closed-loop machine control. Control Feedback Closed-Loop Control Calibration Figure 2: A closed-loop sprinkler system. Water pipe Sprinkler Timer ValveSoil moisture probe Teaching Your Tongue to Speak English 3 machineapplication,the calibrationfunctioncouldbeacounterwhich issetsothatthemachinewillproduceacertainnumberoffinished parts. Human speech is a closed-loop system Humanspeechisacomplexlearnedskillandisdependentona number of memory and neurological functions. Speech is a closed-loop systembecausesensorswithinthesystemitselfgivefeedbacktothe control portion of the system. The control then corrects and coordinates ongoingspeech.Inthiscase,themindisincontroloftheclosed-loop system,themouth produces thedesiredproduct(speech),andauditory feedbackfromtheearsandfeedbackfromthenervesensorsinthe mouth allow the mind to coordinate the speech process in real time.[1] Whenyouspeakyourownlanguage,yourmindstoresallofthe vocabulary you need.Your mind also controls your tongue, mouth, and breathing.Your hearing is also an important part of the control because yourearsheareverythingyourmouthsays.Therefore,whatyousay nextispartiallydependentonthevocabularyandotherinformation stored in your mind.But what you say next is also dependent on what yourearsarehearingyourmouthsay,andonthefeedbackthatis coming from the nerves in your tongue and mouth. Becauseyouhave spokenyour own languageall ofyour life, all of this control is automaticyou do not need to think about it.But when youlearntospeakEnglish,youmustretrainalloftheseprocessesso thattheywillallworktogetheratthesametime.Itisnotenoughto simply put new vocabulary words or grammar drills into your memory.You must retrain your mind to use all of the new sounds your ears will hear,aswellasthenewmovementsofyourtongue,mouth,and breathing.Yet, since all of these things must happen together for you to speakfluentEnglish,allretrainingofyourmemory,hearing,andthe nerves in your mouth must be done simultaneously. The inter-relationship of these functions is shown in the table below. The meanings of specialized words are given below the table. 4Learning Spoken English Table 1: The three components of human speech and their primary functions. The Organ or Sense Primary Function(s)Comments The mindprovides: 1. vocabulary mem-ory 2. partial syntax con-trol 3. feedback coordina-tion 4. calibration by the speaker to give meaning to the soundsThe mind is the storage bank for vocabulary. Memory is also involved in structuring syntax. The mind uses both auditory and propriocep-tive feedback to monitor and calibrate speech in real time.The mouth and related organs provide:1. sound production 2. breath regulation 3. proprioceptive feedback to the mind in real time which regulates pronun