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Page 1: Malaria 131203111552-phpapp01
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MALARIA

Done by: Maryam AL-Qhatany.Case3.2

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Learning Objectives

1\Definition of malaria.2\Types of parasite causes malaria.

3\Life cycle of different malaria parasite+ Pathogenesis

4\Symptoms and sign of malaria.5\Investigation of malaria.

6 \Differential diagnosis 7 \treatment and prevention of malaria.

diagnosis

Malaria

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Introduction

Approximately 300 million people worldwide are affected by malaria and between 1 and 1.5 million people die from it

every year. Previously extremely widespread, the malaria is now mainly confined to Africa, Asia

and Latin America

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Malaria

is an infectious disease caused by a parasite, (called Plasmodium), which is transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes , that infect red

blood cells in the human body .

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Causes

Malaria is caused by a type of microscopic parasite that's

transmitted most commonly by mosquito bites(female Anopheles mosquito).

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Types of parasite causes malaria

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Types Four

types

Plasmodium vivax (P.v.).

Plasmodium ovale (P.o) .

Plasmodium malariae (P.m).

Plasmodium falciparum (P.f) .

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incubation period:10 to

17 days.

Symptoms:

Plasmodium ovale (P.o) :

This is the rarest of all the malaria types and is mostly found in Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and the

tropical West African region

fatigue, diarrhoea, bouts of fever and chills

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incubation period:18 to

40 days

Symptoms:

Plasmodium malariae (P.m):This type of malaria is not as wide spread as the

other types and is known to have less than 1 percent infections in the Indian subcontinent.

high fever and chills.

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incubation period:10 to

17 days.

Symptoms:

Plasmodium vivax (P.v.).It has the widest distribution around the globe.

Approximately 60% of infections in India are caused by P.v. Although it seldom causes death or other serious

problems, it can still cause major illness

fatigue, diarrhoea, bouts of fever and chills. Flu-like symptoms.

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incubation period:

7 to 10 days Symptoms:

Plasmodium falciparum (P.f) .

The plasmodium parasite is recognised as the most lethal parasite that causes most infections

and deaths related to malaria

fatigue, dizziness, abdominal pain, aching muscles, enlarged spleen, sore back, joint pain,

vomiting, nausea, fever, headache.

malignant

malaria

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Pathogenesis

+

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Pathogenesis

numerous known and unknown waste substances, such as red cell membrane products, hemozoin pigment, and other

toxic factorsactivate macrophages and endothelial cells to secrete

cytokines and inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis

factor, interferon-γ and other factor.

headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, tiredness, aching joints and muscles, thrombocytopenia,

immunosuppression, and central nervous system manifestations.

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destruction of red blood cell

hemolytic anemia

adhesion of red blood cell on wall of blood vessel

Clot (blood in stools)

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symptoms

FeverChills

Headache Sweats

NauseaFatigue vomiting

early stages

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Other common symptoms:

Dry cough

Muscle and/or back pain.

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Signs

Jaundice

Hepatomegaly

Fever

Hemolytic Anaemia

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Diagnosis

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Dr. ask the patient number of questions concerning:

•Current symptoms. •Medical conditions.

•Family medical history .

•Current medications .•Recent travel history.

clinical diagnosis:

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Laboratory diagnosis

Goal

identification of malaria parasite or

its antigens/products in the blood of the

patient.

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Microscopy blood

smear

stains

1000-fold

Malaria parasites are recognizable by their physical features and by the appearance of the red blood cells.

Most

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Other tests:

Polymerase chain reaction( PCR.)

parasite

DNA

Serology Antibodies

Rare

Immunologic tests Antigens

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•The flu (influenza). •Common cold.

•Meningitis .•Typhoid fever .•Dengue fever .

•Bacteremia/septicemia (infection in blood) •Hepatitis .

•Viral gastroenteritis. •Yellow fever (disease typically transmitted by

mosquitoes).

Differential Diagnoses:

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Treatment And prevention

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treatment:

IF

Early cureserious effects of

malaria can be prevented

Delay severefatal

disease

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The specific malaria treatment recommended will depend on :

•The type (species) of the infecting parasite. •The severity of malaria symptoms.

•The patient's age. •Any other illnesses or conditions.

•Pregnancy. •Drug allergies.

•Other medications taken by the patient .

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Medications

•Chloroquine •Mefloquine.

•Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. • Quinine sulfate .

•Doxycycline .• Hydroxychloroquine.

primaquine

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Splenomegaly (Enlarged spleen).

Complications

Cerebral malaria

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Prevention :

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Protecting yourself

against mosquito

bites

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Taking antimalarial medicines

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young children and pregnant women avoid traveling to areas where

malaria is common

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Conclusion

you should see the doctor if you experience a high fever while living in or

after traveling to high-risk malaria region .

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summary

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References

*http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/malaria-symptoms*http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/221134-differential

*http://www.parn.org.pk/index_files/Laboratory%20Diagnosis%20of%20Malaria.html

*http://malaria.emedtv.com/malaria/malaria-diagnosis.html*http://www.onlymyhealth.com/what-types-malaria-

1302068689*http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/malaria/pages/lifecycle.aspx

*http://www.vitalhealthzone.com/health/conditions/m/malaria/06_complications_of_malaria.html#1

*Microorganism book

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Thank you