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    MINISTRY OF MANPOWERNIZWA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

    ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

    QUALITY

    SUB - MANUAL

    FOR

    MECHANICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORIES & WORKSHOPS

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    Nizwa College of Technology, Quality SubManual for Mechanical Engg. Labs and workshops 2

    CONTENTS

    Chapter Title Page No.

    1. Introduction 3

    2. The Laboratory staff 4

    3 Laboratory Teaching- Learning Process. 9

    4 Health and Safety. 10

    5 Maintenance and Testing. 11

    6 Up-gradation and Improvement 13

    7 Laboratory Resources and Materials 13

    8 Laboratory structure and Amenities 14

    9 Inspection and Internal Auditing 15

    10 Conclusion 15

    11 Appendix I Sample lab/WS procedures 17

    12 Appendix II Sample lab/WS manuals 22

    13 Appendix III Sample lab/WS reports 37

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    Nizwa College of Technology, Quality SubManual for Mechanical Engg. Labs and workshops 3

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The Quality sub manual is a part of the main quality manual of the college. The Primary

    aim of the manual is to ensure quality and achieve uniformity in the following major

    activities related to the laboratories:1. Conducting practical classes.

    2. Assessment and evaluation of the performance of the students in the

    laboratories and workshops.

    3. Procuring and receiving materials.

    4. Erection and commissioning of the new equipments and machines.

    5. Maintenance of equipments and machines.

    6. Calibration of the instruments.7. Ensuring health and safety.

    This quality sub manual aims to achieve the following objectives:

    1. Desired level of quality and effective use of the resources are ensured.

    2. All activities performed in the laboratories and workshops will be to the desired

    level of accuracy.

    3. Errors in the activities can be minimized and deviations from the quality

    policy can be detected and necessary corrective measures can be taken.

    4. The experiments conducted and results of the activities can be made reliable

    to the desired extent.

    5. Risks and Hazards can be prevented ensuring Safety of Human being,

    Equipments and Machineries involved in the various operations.

    2. THE LABORATORY STAFF

    The college has a policy of keeping qualified, experienced and skilled staff. The

    qualification, experience and skills of the laboratory staff shall be in compliance with the

    requirement of the Quality Assurance system envisaged by the Ministry of Manpower.

    Minimum number of staff suggested for each laboratory session of not exceeding 15

    students is

    1 Lecturer + 1 Trainer/ Instructor + 1 Technician

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    Nizwa College of Technology, Quality SubManual for Mechanical Engg. Labs and workshops 4

    2.1 TEACHING STAFF

    One member of teaching staff from the concerned specialization shall be in charge of

    overall supervision and control of each laboratory.

    Duties and Responsibilities of Lecturer in-charge of the laboratory/workshop

    Preparing teaching materials related to experiments that can be performed

    using the equipments in the lab.

    Scheduling and conducting Practical Classes/Examinations

    Assessment and Evaluation of student activities

    Finding out the requirements for the development and informing the HOS

    Helping in internal auditing and inspections

    Carrying out any other task assigned by the concerned head of department

    or staff in charge.

    Faculty Members in charge of the Laboratories & Workshop

    2.2

    SUPPORTING STAFF

    Efficient and smooth functioning of laboratories and workshops requires adequate

    number of technical supporting staff backed by necessary specialized qualification and

    experience.

    Sl No. Name of the LaboratoryName of Faculty Member holding the

    responsibility

    1. Fabrication shop(Welding & Sheet metal)

    Mr. Mukthar

    2. Machine shop & Fitting Shop Mr. Shanmugan P3. Engineering Materials Lab Mr. Fazal Ur Rahman

    4. Fluid Mechanics Lab Dr. Ugandhar Puli

    5. Manual Drawing Hall Mr. Farhathullah

    6. Machine Drawing Hall Mr. Sugadev

    7. Applied Mechanics Lab Mr. Farhathullah

    8. Thermodynamics Lab Dr. Ugandhar Puli

    9. Hydraulics and Pneumatics Lab Mr. Prabhakaran

    10. Mechanical Stores Mr. Mukhtar

    11. CNC Lab Dr. Habeeb Allani

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    2.2.a Trainer /Instructor

    Teaching and carrying out the practical training for the set syllabi and

    keeping its records, as well as participating in setting up practical

    examinations. Keeping a record of student results, activities and attendance

    Carrying out the equipment maintenance schedule

    Participating in the practical training activities

    Ensuring that health and safety procedures are followed by the students.

    Carrying out any other task assigned by the concerned head of department

    or staff in charge.

    2.2.b Assistant Trainer Ensuring that health and safety procedures are followed by the students.

    Assisting the trainer in organizing and conducting the laboratory practical

    classes / workshop practices and practical examinations.

    Assisting the trainer in implementing the equipment maintenance schedule.

    Ensuring that health and safety procedures are followed in laboratories and

    workshops.

    Carrying out any other task assigned by the concerned head of department /Section / staff in charge.

    2.2.c Laboratory/ Workshop Technician

    Organizing laboratories and workshops in coordination with the heads of

    center, department or section and with lecturer lab in charge

    Keeping and updating inventory records of all the materials and equipment

    in the laboratories and workshops, in addition to implementing the

    equipment maintenance schedule Cooperating with teaching and technical staff in the preparation,

    presentation and production of course materials.

    Receiving materials from suppliers, making sure of their compliance with

    the specifications and making entries.

    Ensuring that health and safety procedures are followed in laboratories and

    workshops

    Carrying out any other task assigned by the concerned head of department / Section / staff in charge.

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    Laboratory Technicians

    2.3 INTERNAL QUALITY CONTROL AUDITORS

    The activities of quality assurance program implemented in the laboratories and

    workshops have to be evaluated and checked frequently for its correctness and

    effectiveness. A committee headed by the college Dean and lecturers from each

    specialization and an instructor or technician may be constituted for this purpose.

    Responsibilities of internal quality control auditors are:

    To ensure the quality of the equipments, machineries and instruments.

    To check the effectiveness of the experiments.

    To verify the accuracy and reliability of the experimental results

    To assess the progress and effectiveness of the course and training

    programs.

    To suggest or propose necessary corrective actions. To monitor and ensure that the quality assurance program is effectively

    implemented in all the laboratory activities .

    Sl No. Name of the LaboratoryName of Faculty Member holding t

    responsibility

    1. Welding Shop Mr. Nasser AlHinai

    2. Sheet Metal Shop Mr. Adhimoolam

    3. Machine shop Mr. Anil

    4. Fitting Shop Mr. Thangavel

    5. Engineering Materials Lab Mr. Mohammed Farook

    6. Fluid Mechanics Lab Mr. Ali Al Rakwi

    7. Manual Drawing Hall Mr. Nasser Al Busaidi

    8. Machine Drawing Hall Mr. Nasser Al Busaidi

    9. Applied Mechanics Lab Mr. Frederic

    10. Thermodynamics Lab Mr. Hariprasad

    11. Hydraulics & Pneumatics La Mr. Hariprasad

    12. Mechanical Stores Mr. Said

    13. CNC Lab Mr. Nasser Al Ruquaishi

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    Nizwa College of Technology, Quality SubManual for Mechanical Engg. Labs and workshops 7

    Internal Quality Control Auditors of the college for the Laboratories and

    Workshops of Mechanical Engineering section.

    Name Job Title Qualifications Position

    Mr.Nasser Al

    Shammakhi

    HOD Engineering

    DepartmentM.Sc (Engg.) Chairman

    Mr. Saravanan P

    Head of Section,

    Mechanical

    Engineering

    M.E., Member

    Mr. Mukthar Lecturer M.S., Member

    Mr.Frederic Technician Masters Member

    2.4 STAFF TRAINING

    Both teaching as well as technical supporting staff shall be conversant with all

    equipments and machines. They shall have adequate knowledge on all

    experiments and training programs conducted in the lab. Necessary training

    materials related to the laboratory operations, equipments and machineries shall

    be made available in each laboratory for making the operations and function

    easier, efficient and systematic. Necessary training programs shall be arranged for

    the staff, whenever new equipments or machineries are installed in the labs, in

    association with technical experts of the supplier/manufacturer. The college does

    conduct an intensive induction program to new staff joining in each laboratory

    and workshop.

    2.5 TRAINING MATERIALS

    The training Materials shall include the following:-

    Safety Measures and Precautions to be observed in the laboratory

    Operation Manuals and Catalogs of various equipments and machineries.

    Laboratory Manuals containing Instructions and procedures of variousexperiments and activities of the lab.

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    Assessment and Evaluation schemes.

    2.6 INDUCTION PROGRAM FOR THE NEW STAFF

    An induction program for a minimum period of one week is to be conducted for the newly hired staff before taking charge of any new laboratories so as to get

    acquainted with the entire operations and functions of the laboratory. The

    activities of the induction program shall include

    Safety work practices, safety rules and precautions to be observed in the

    laboratories and workshops.

    Familiarization of the laboratory operations and functioning (including the

    overall lab set- up, equipment organization, tests and experiments, storagesystem, record keeping and updating , indenting methods etc.)

    Study and understanding of operations and maintenance procedures of

    different equipments and instruments.

    Study and identification of the laboratory supply system, power control

    points, switches and breakers for emergency operation etc.

    Overall understanding of the academic structure, rules and regulations,

    examination and students evaluation schemes.

    2.7 TIME MANAGEMENT POLICY

    The time schedule of the laboratories and workshops is to be arranged in such a

    way that a maximum and effective utilization of the laboratory facilities can be

    achieved. The student activities and participation in experiments shall be arranged

    in such a way that each student will get good exposure to the complete practical

    aspects of the experiment. A users log book shall be maintained in each

    laboratory and workshop to record the daily activities of the students. Daily

    activities of each laboratory shall be counter signed by the concerned

    lecturer/Instructor (see Appendix A1 for the samples). Such records shall be made

    available for the internal quality control and auditing activity. Further these

    records will help in finding the percentage utilization of the laboratories as well as

    the equipments.

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    3 LABORATORY TEACHING LEARNING PROCESS

    Laboratories and workshops shall be equipped and organized with the objective of

    giving intensive practical training to students in synchronization with the principle

    and laws covered in classrooms. Experiments and inside shop practices shall be

    organized according to the course outcomes with a view point of matching with the

    global technological developments and information interchange. List of training

    programs and experiments conducted shall be displayed in each lab.

    3.1 ORIENTATION PROGRAM TO NEW STUDENTS

    An intensive and effective orientation program is to be devised in a suitable manner to

    the new students before they begin the laboratory or workshop classes. The objective of

    the orientation program shall contain the following:

    To make them aware of the risks and hazards involved in laboratory works and

    shop practices.

    To enable them to understand and apply necessary safety rules and precautions. To familiarize with the laboratory setup, operational methodology and general

    procedures involved in the performance of experiments and workshop practices.

    3.2 THE ORIENTATION PROGRAM ACTION PLAN

    Familiarizing and Practicing the safety rules and precautions.

    Studying and Displaying charts and posters related to Health and Safety Understanding and use of safety equipments and dress code to be used in

    laboratories and workshops.

    Conducting group discussions and presentations.

    Power Point Shows and video shows emphasizing the risks and hazards in

    electrical works and safe way of preventing them.

    Familiarization and identification of different equipments and supply sources.

    Creating awareness strategies about the, dangers involved and precautions needed in handling the different voltage levels and sources.

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    Identifying the locations of control points and main switches and breakers for

    emergency operations.

    Familiarization and practicing of making drill to assembly point in the case of

    emergencies.

    Practicing the safe evacuation process in hazardous situations such as fire. Letting them to know the locations of first aid box, fire extinguishers and other

    safety equipments.

    4 HEALTH AND SAFETY ( Please refer to College Health & Safety Policyreceived from Ministry)

    Safety is the prime requisite in all the work places. A safe and healthy workingatmosphere is a basic necessity and has to be ensured in all the laboratories with out fail.

    A simple mistake may lead to severe hazards and accidents and may even lead to

    irrecoverable damage to human lives, equipments and machineries. Strict adherence to

    safety rules, practices and precautions can facilitate and ensure a safe on site working

    environment.

    Necessary charts, posters and pictures emphasizing the importance of safety, precautions

    to be taken, first aid methods etc, shall be displayed in the laboratories and workshops in

    addition to necessary instructions and training programs.

    A sample poster is given below

    Do s

    1. Do the necessary preliminary preparations for the Experiment

    2. Do the connections neatly and firmly tightened 3. Do only the experiment assigned to you

    4. Do the experiment carefully following the correct procedure

    Dont s

    1. Dont run or play in Lab.2. Dont eat drink or smoke in labs.

    3. Dont keep unwanted materials in the work table.

    4. Dont touch live conductor or wire with the bare hand.5. Dont clutter floor and tables with books, bags or cases

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    4.1 GENERAL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND GUIDELINES

    The following safety precautions and guidelines shall be strictly followed in eachlaboratory.

    Always wear a protective lab coat/overall and safety shoes. Locate and identify the positions of main switches, circuit breakers and

    emergency switches.

    Make sure of the availability and access to first aid kits, fire extinguishers and

    other safety equipments.

    Identify the emergency exit ways and assembly points to be used in case of fire or

    similar hazards.

    4.2 FIRST AID PREPARATIONS

    The following first aid preparations shall be done in advance

    Provide adequate number of First aid items in each laboratory at locations which

    are easily accessible.

    Keep necessary fire extinguishers, sand buckets, fire blankets in all the

    laboratories and workshops Ensure their compliance and working condition in accordance with the specified

    standards envisaged.

    Install fire alarm cum detector circuits and make ensure their working condition

    periodically.

    5 MAINTENANCE AND TESTING

    Strict adherence to the Routine and preventive maintenance schedule is a must for smooth and reliable operation of all equipments and machineries.

    5.1 EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE

    A proper schedule shall be maintained for the maintenance of each equipment and

    machinery. Necessary entries shall be made in the schedule on completion of every

    maintenance work, with the signature of technician and supervisor attending the job.

    A sample format of maintenance schedule is shown below:

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    Eq.No.

    Scheduled Date of Maintenance /service

    Actual Date of maintenance/service

    Signatureof

    Technician

    Signatureof

    Supervisor

    5.2 MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES

    Following are the various maintenance activities to be carried out in labs and workshops.

    Routine and periodic checking and inspections. Ensuring proper functioning of different parts and elements and equipments.

    Cleaning and lubrication of contacts and bearings.

    Corrective actions against loose connections and contacts.

    Calibration at required periodicity and performance tests.

    5.3 REPLACEMENT OR REPAIR

    Faulty Equipments and machineries shall be repaired or replaced on periodic basis

    depending on the type and nature of the defect. All sorts of repair work shall be carried

    out only by skilled and authorized service representatives. Equipments which cannot be

    repaired shall be replaced for reliable and continuous functioning of the labs.

    5.4 CLEANING OF LABS AND EQUIPMENTS

    All laboratory equipments, machines and instruments along with the working premises

    including tables, boards etc. shall be kept neat and clean from dust and dirt for

    safeguarding human health and durability of the equipments. Only permissible cleaning

    materials shall be used for the equipment cleaning.

    Keep all the work tables, equipments and machines, instruments, racks and

    cabinets from dust, dirt and oil spills.

    Periodic Cleaning of the entire laboratory hall shall be carried out with out fail.

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    6 UPGRADATION AND IMPROVEMENT

    The various activities and operations of the laboratories shall be continuously monitored

    and studied for evaluating the performance and necessary corrective actions. Suitable

    proposals and suggestions for up gradation and improvement of facilities may be prepared

    by taking into consideration the increasing demand and technological growth.

    7 LABORATORY RESOURCES AND MATERIALS

    Modern equipments, machineries and other facilities are to be made available in the

    laboratories so that the practical demonstration and experimental verification of laws and

    theorems, testing and study of performance characteristics of various devices and

    practicing recent ways of installations can be carried out in accordance with developments

    and outbreaks in technology.

    Detailed list of all the equipments, apparatus, instruments, materials and components etc.

    shall be prepared and kept in the laboratory / workshop. The list shall contain all relevant

    information with suitable classifications, sub- titles, coding and other important details.

    7.1 STORAGE

    A proper and well organized store keeping system has to be followed for eachlaboratory. Suitable cup-boards, shelves, racks, and cabinets shall be used in the store

    for keeping portable equipments, instruments and materials like consumables.

    Locations of the different items shall be properly arranged so that each item can be

    easily accessed. Technicians in charge of the lab - stores shall keep the stock register

    and update the data timely.

    7.2 LABELING

    All equipments, machineries, instruments and different classes of consumables shall be

    provided with suitable labels showing the item name, code and specifications for easy

    identification and analysis. Also the storage shelves, cup boards, racks and cabinets of

    all materials including consumables are to be properly numbered and labeled to provide

    an easy access.

    7.3 LABORATORY INDENTING

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    The technician in charge of the laboratory shall see that any portable instruments, tools

    and consumable item issued to students or other user only through proper intends

    approved by the staff in charge. Intends shall be kept in the concerned file to ensure the

    safe return of all items issued. Items issued for long term use for projects and fabrication

    work shall be recorded in the concerned register. Necessary data back up shall be made

    periodically in the stock register for all addition and deletion of materials including

    consumables.

    7.4 LABORATORY PURCHASES

    Purchase of materials required for the laboratories (including equipments, machineries

    instruments and consumables etc.) shall be made in advance, forecasting the future needs.

    All requirements prepared in specified lab requisition form, approved and countersigned

    by concerned HOD shall be forwarded to the purchase section for further processing.

    The final purchase order shall be placed after considering the quality of the product,

    delivery time, Warranties and provisions for after sale servicing and training.

    7.7 RECEIVING AND INSTALLATION OF EQUIPMENTS

    New Equipments and materials being supplied to the laboratories shall be received bytechnician or store keeper after verification of specified quality and working condition

    in presence of the staff in charge and suppliers representative. It must be ensured that

    all the specifications of the machines supplied are matching exactly as per the purchase

    order.

    All assembly, installation and commissioning works of sophisticated equipments

    shall be carried out by technical experts authorized by the supplier.

    The newly purchased equipments shall be tested and certified for proper functioningin the presence of the supplier's representative.

    Operating manuals, catalogs, test certificates and other documents shall be collected

    and kept in concerned files.

    Necessary entries shall be made in stock registers and records.

    8 LABORATORY STRUCTURE AND AMENITIES

    The Laboratories shall be suitably designed and structured by taking into account thefollowing key factors:

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    Proper ventilation and air conditioning

    Proper lightning

    Main door and emergency exit door

    Store room with shelves and cabinets

    Supervisors Cabin Wash basin

    Drinking Water

    First Aid Kit

    Fire Fighting Equipments

    Non Slippery Floor

    9 INSPECTION AND INTERNAL AUDITING

    Necessary inspection and auditing activities are to be conducted by the college

    internal auditing committee to check the daily activities of the lab, performance of the

    staff, material inventory, maintenance and cleaning activities, documentation,

    recordings etc. Necessary feed back information shall be collected from students as

    the end-users of the laboratory about the facilities, effectiveness of the training and

    staff performance.

    Periodic Inspection and Internal Auditing will help:

    Monitoring and follow up of all the activities in the laboratories

    Optimizing the utility of the laboratory and workshop

    Improving the quality of services

    Formulating an effective time management schedule Planning for annual improvement and up gradation policies

    10. CONCLUSION

    The quality sub manual for mechanical laboratories and workshops has been

    prepared with the aim of achieving an effective Total Quality Management system

    (TQM); which when implemented will ensure the credibility and reliability of thetraining and learning activities in the laboratories. Also effective utilization of the

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    resources, time and space can be achieved. Strict adherence to have HSE rules and

    regulations will help in maintaining safety and health of end-users and equipments.

    Proper follow-up and monitoring activities based on the manual will help to bring

    up the laboratories and workshops in all respect to the desired degree of quality

    performance and higher standards.

    ----------------------

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    APPENDIX I

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    MINISTRY OF MANPOWERNIZWA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

    ENGINEERING DEPARTMENTGENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

    PROCEDURES TO BE FOLLOWED IN MECHANICAL

    WORKSHOP

    In the first engineering workshop class, students need to be taken for a walk around the

    workshop to let them know about the various divisions of the workshop (Such as Machine

    shop, Welding Shop, Fitting Shop and Sheet metal shop) and to know the location of the

    fire safety devices, important operating controls, first aid box , emergency exits etc.,

    In the same class, students need to be given the appropriate overalls and safety shoes, after

    getting the signatures for the receipt of the same. At the same time they need to be

    informed about the safe handling and maintenance of those items as it will not be given

    again during their study in the college, irrespective of the level unless the situation warrants

    in the opinion of the HoS or HoD.

    Then Instructions need to be given to the students by the lecturer regarding the Health and

    Safety Practices in the workshop and the proper code of conduct inside the workshop which

    are given below

    Students and staff should wear the overalls and safety shoes when they are in the workshop

    without which the entry is prohibited.

    Tools need to be obtained from the stores, only through the window provided for that

    purpose.

    Students entry is prohibited inside the stores. While working, all the safety items (Such as goggles, gloves etc.,) required for the work

    should be used.

    Incase of an accident, the people involved should be given the first aid and the medical

    attention immediately. Then an accident report need to be prepared by the workshop in

    charge and submitted to the higher authorities.

    All near miss incidents need to be recorded and reported.

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    After the work, students should clean their workplace and have to return all the tools and

    safety items that were borrowed, before they leave. Proper follow up is the responsibility of

    the lecturer and technician of that class.

    It is the technicians duty to make sure that all the tools and equipments that are required to

    handle the class is ready, before the starting of the class. Littering inside the workshop is an offense.

    Students should concentrate in their work when they are inside the workshop. Playing,

    shouting, Joking and not obeying the instructions will invite punishments.

    After the work, the machines and the equipments need to be switched off.

    Malfunctioning of the equipments and the breakage of the tools need to be immediately

    reported by the students to the technicians they in turn should record the report and should

    take measures to correct the failure. Eating and drinking inside the workshop is strictly prohibited

    All malfunctions of the equipments and the misbehaviors of people need to be immediately

    brought to the notice of the workshop in charge in turn to the HoS and HoD.

    Following are the various maintenance activities which are to be carried out in the

    workshops by the technicians in charge of that workshop

    Routine and periodic checking and inspections.

    Ensuring proper functioning of different Parts and elements in the equipments.

    Cleaning and lubrication of contacts and bearings.

    Corrective actions against failures and malfunctioning

    Maintaining the stock register, equipment maintenance register and the accident report file

    is the responsibility of the technician in charge of the workshop.

    The duties of the lecturers who are handling the workshop classes are as follows

    Lecturers should prepare the required teaching materials.

    Lecturers should teach the students about the concepts, theory and procedures related to the

    job before they start the work.

    Students shall be taught to understand the drawings, required list of tools /instruments and

    materials etc.

    Detailed description of the procedural steps of the skill /practice shall be given to the students

    before they start working on the machines.

    Special precautions to be taken while doing a particular job shall be stated with stress and

    emphasis.

    The quality of the work done by the students shall be checked in real time when they work.

    They must ensure that the machines/work tables are cleaned neatly by the students.

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    Overall performance of the students and reports of the skill/ practice presented by the

    students along with the results shall be evaluated and respective grades/mark shall be entered

    in the assessment record.

    Scheduling, conducting the examinations and assessment is the responsibility of the lecturers.

    Maintenance of attendance records and reporting the absentees when they cross 10%, 20%and 30% limits is also the responsibility of the lecturers.

    At the end of the day/week, the technician in charge should lock all the doors after ensuring

    the equipment shutdown.

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    MINISTRY OF MANPOWERNIZWA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

    ENGINEERING DEPARTMENTGENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

    PROCEDURES TO BE FOLLOWED IN APPLIED MECHANICS

    LAB

    Students are expected to bring scientific calculator, laboratory manual and the necessarythings required to do the lab exercise

    Students coming late to the lab will not be entertained. 3 times coming late will be marked as

    1 absent.

    Mobile phones must be turned off in the laboratory.

    No food or beverages are allowed in the laboratory.

    Students will generally work in teams.

    Do not transfer equipments from one table to another without informing the lab in charge.

    Do not attempt to repair or modify any lab equipments.

    Do not touch the equipments that are not part of your experimental setup.

    Keep the Chairs and stools back in their positions before leaving the lab.

    Maintain the lab clean. After the experiment is finished return the items borrowed.

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    APPENDIX II

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    MINISTRY OF MANPOWERNIZWA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

    ENGINEERING DEPARTMENTLAB MANUAL FORMAT

    LAB MANUAL FORMAT FOR ENGINEERING WORKSHOP

    Fitting Exercise

    Exercise Date: ___________ Date of Completion: ___________

    Aim:

    To complete the given job as per the dimension for the correct fit by usinghand tools

    All dimensions are in mm

    Tools Used:

    AB

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    Type of Material Given:

    Size:

    Part-1

    GivenDimension

    64 26 24 50

    ObtainedDimension

    Part-2

    GivenDimension

    50 24 26 19

    ObtainedDimension

    Conclusion:

    Marks AwardedTools / Machine Used 1.5

    Dimensions Obtained 4

    Finishing 1.5

    Correct fitting 2

    Completion of job in time 1

    Total

    Signature of The Teacher

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    MINISTRY OF MANPOWERNIZWA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

    ENGINEERING DEPARTMENTLAB MANUAL FORMAT

    LAB MANUAL FORMAT FOR FLUID MECHANICS LABP ERFORMANCE OF A C ENTRIFUGAL P UMP .

    Objective

    1. To calculate the flow rate Q, head H and power required to drive the pump.

    2. To analyze graphically the performance of the pump by the following plots(a) Q Vs H (b) Q Vs Hydraulic power (Nh) (c) Q Vs Efficiency ( )

    Apparatus

    Edibon Centrifugal pump setup, Computer, Printer

    Theory

    The hydraulic machines which convert the mechanical energy into hydraulic energy arecalled pumps. If the mechanical energy is converted into pressure energy by means of centrifugal force acting on the fluid, the hydraulic machine is called centrifugal pump.The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated bythe impeller, flowing radially outward into a volute chamber, from where it exits into thedownstream piping system. Centrifugal pumps are used for large discharge throughsmaller heads

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    Multistage centrifugal pumps

    If a centrifugal pump consists of two or more impellers, the pump is called a multistagecentrifugal pump. The impellers may be mounted on the same shaft or on different shafts.A multistage pump is having the following two important functions:a. To produce a high head

    b. To discharge a large quantity of liquid

    If a high head is to be developed, the impellers are connected in series (or on the sameshaft). For discharging large quantity of liquid, the impellers (or pumps) are connected in

    parallel.

    Calculations

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    Conclusion

    Obtain the conclusions from the graph plot.Study the performance of the pump from the graph.

    Answer the following

    1. What is specific speed? How does it help in selection of the pump?2. What is priming? What is cavitation?

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    MINISTRY OF MANPOWERNIZWA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

    ENGINEERING DEPARTMENTLAB MANUAL FORMAT

    LAB MANUAL FORMAT FOR ENGINEERING MATERIALS

    LAB

    Hardness Tests

    Objectives of the hardness tests

    Hardness is basically defined, and measured, as the resistance offered by the material to the penetration of a standard pointer. In practice, hardness is the relative ability of the material, to resist penetration. Inaddition, it also represents the wear resistance of the material. . . . .

    It may be understood that the resistance offered to the penetration would change depending on the size and shape of the pointer. Therefore, it is essential that a standard pointer is to be used. The same pointer is to

    be used to measure the hardness values of all the materials in case a comparative analysis is essential. Thisforms what is called a hardness scale, associated with the tests conducted using a particular type of pointer.

    The size of the impression formed in any hardness test is used to calculate a certain number. The presenttests are intended to evaluate the hardness values of certain materials. One or more of the followingmaterials may be selected for the test,

    Brass Aluminium alloy Low carbon or mild steel

    The following are the main objectives of the present experiment.

    Understanding the principles behind the different hardness tests. Conducting the hardness tests on the given specimens. Interpreting the results of the hardness tests.

    Brinell test

    A hardened steel ball is pressed for a time of 10 to 15 seconds into the surface- of the material by astandard force. After the load and the ball have been removed,. the diameter of the indentation is measured.The Brinell hardness number (HB) is obtained by dividing the size of the applied force by the sphericalsurface area of the indentation. Figure 3.1 shows the Brinell hardness test.

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    Fig. The Brinell hardness test

    HB = applied force/ spherical surface area of indentation

    This area can be obtained by calculation from. the values of the diameter D of the ball used and diediameter of the indentation.

    Area. = (1/ 2)D[D- {D2 d 2)]

    Observations: Material: _________

    Diameter of the indenter = ________

    Diameter of the indentation =_________

    Maximum force applied = __________

    Hardness test procedureSuitable test specimens are to be selected depending on the test equipment used. Any one or all thethree of the hardness scales may be used to find the hardness values of the given materialsdepending on the availability of the equipment, the following general procedure may be adopted for conducting the tests,

    1. Load the specimen on the tensile testing machine.2. Select suitable pointer or ball and mount it on the testing equipment.3. Press the indenter into the surface of the material with a known force.4. Measure the diameter or the diagonal length of the impression using appropriate tools.5. Calculate the value of the hardness number following appropriate procedure.

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    Conclusion

    The hardness of a material represents its ability to resist penetration as well as abrasion. It is in facta relative term. Different scales are used to measure hardness quantitatively. In addition,

    conclusions can also be drawn from the results of the hardness tests in the following lines:

    Get the hardness values of the same materials from textbooks or other references. Compare the test results with the values obtained from the references. Compare the hardness values obtained from different scales for each material investigated Compare the hardness values of the different materials investigated and draw

    conclusions on the relative characteristics.

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    MINISTRY OF MANPOWERNIZWA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

    ENGINEERING DEPARTMENTLAB MANUAL FORMAT

    LAB MANUAL FORMAT FOR THERMODYNAMICS LAB

    Performance test on Marcet Boiler

    Experiment No:

    Student Name: Date:ID:

    Aim:

    1. To demonstrate the relationship between the pressure and temperature of saturated steam inequilibrium

    2. To demonstrate of the vapour pressure curve

    THEORY:

    Marcet Boiler has been developed for investigating the relationship between the pressure and temperature of saturated steam, in equilibrium with water, at all pressures between atmospheric and 10 bar (abs) (147 lb/in).

    An ideal gas can be characterized by three state variables: absolute pressure (P), volume (V), and absolute temperature (T). The relationship between them may be deduced from kinetic theory and iscalled the Ideal Gas law. The ideal gas law was originally determined empirically and is simply.

    P V = n R T

    Where,P = Absolute pressureV = Volumen = Amount of substance (moles)R = Ideal gas constantT = Absolute temperature (K)

    If a gas behaves exactly as the ideal gas laws would predict it to behave in terms of volume, pressure, moles, and temperature, then the gas is said to be an ideal gas. On the other hand, the gasdeviates from Ideal Gas behavior, then the gas is said to be acting like a "real gas".

    When energy increases within water, the increasing of activities among the molecules enables theincrease in the number of molecule escape from the surface until an equilibrium state is reached.

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    The state of equilibrium depends on the pressure between the water surface and steam. At lower pressure, the molecules become easier leaving the water surface while less energy required inachieving the state of equilibrium (boiling point). The temperature where equilibrium occurs at agiven pressure level is called saturated temperature.The measured value of the slope of the graph (dT/dP) SAT obtained from the practical results can

    be compared with corresponding values calculated from the data in steam tables. Clausius-

    Clapeyron states:

    fg

    fg

    SAT h

    Tv

    dPdT =

    gf

    gf

    SAT hh

    vvT

    dPdT

    =

    )(

    And hf + hfg = hg

    Hence, hfg = hg - hf

    fg

    g

    fg

    gf

    SAT h

    Tv

    h

    vvT

    dPdT =

    =

    )(

    As vg >> vf

    in which,vf = specific volume of saturated liquid vg = specific volume of saturated vapor hf = enthalpy of saturated liquid hg = enthalpy of saturated vapor hfg = latent heat of vaporization

    GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS:

    The unit consists of a stainless steel pressure vessel fitted with high pressure immersion electricalheater. The unit also comes together with a safety relief valve, temperature and pressure measuringdevices. Water feed port is installed to allow water charging.

    The unit comes with comes with temperature and pressure transducers so that students will be ableto read the respective values on the digital indicators easily. The water heater is protected from

    burnout by setting the maximum operating temperature with a temperature controller.

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    SAFETY AND MAINTENANCE:

    1. The unit must be operated under the supervision of trained personnel.2. All operating instructions supplied with the unit must be carefully read and understood

    before attempting to operate the unit.3. Do not open the valves on the level sight tube when the vessel is in operation. The sight

    tube is not design to withstand high pressure and high temperature.4. Use only distilled water for the test to prolong the boilers life.5. It is not necessary to drain the water from the boiler as there is no rusting component in

    the boiler. In case of draining is necessary, incline the bench to a side and open theheater flange slowly. Be extremely careful when draining; never allow water to contactwith the heater terminals.

    6. Always check and rectify any leaks.7. Always make sure that the boiler vessel is filled with sufficient water to cover the heater

    element. Water level at half of the boilers height is sufficient to cover the heatingelement.

    8. Do not touch the hot components of the unit. Be extremely careful when handling liquid at high temperature.

    9. Restore the system to operating conditions after any repair job. Replace a new seal if necessary.

    EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

    General Start-up Procedures

    1. Perform a quick inspection to ensure that the unit is in proper operating condition.2. Connect the unit to the nearest power supply.3. Open the valves at the feed port and the level sight tube.4. Fill the boiler with distilled water through the feed port and make sure that the

    water level is at about the half of the boilers height. Then, close the valves at thelevel sight tube.

    5. Turn on the power supply switch.6. Now you are ready to carry on with the experiment.

    General Shut-down Procedures

    1. Switch off the heater and allow the boiler temperature to drop. Note:

    Do not open the valve at the water inlet port as it is highly pressurized at hightemperature.2. Switch off the main switch and the main power supply.3. Retain the water next use.

    1

    3

    4

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    Performance Procedures:

    1. Perform the general start-up procedures as described above.2. If the boiler is initially filled with water, open the valves at the level side tube to check

    the water level. Pour in additional distilled water if necessary. Then, close the valves.3. Set the temperature controller to 185.0 C which is slightly above the expected boiling

    point of the water at 10.0 bar (abs).4. Open the valve at feed port and turn on the heater.

    Important:

    Always make sure that the valves at the level sight tube are closed before turning on theheater as the sight tube is not designed to withstand high pressure and temperature.5. Observe the steam temperature rise as the water boils.6. Allow steam to come out from the valve for about 30 seconds, and then close the valve.

    This step is important to remove air from the boiler as the accuracy of the experimentalresults will be significantly affected when air is present.

    7. Record the steam temperature and pressure when the boiler is heated until the steam pressure reaches 10.0 bar (abs).

    Warning!

    Never open the valve when the boiler is heated as pressurized steam can cause severe injury.8. Then, turn off the heater and the steam temperature and pressure will begin to drop.

    Allow the boiler cool down to room temperature.9. Record the steam temperatures at different pressure readings when the boiler is heated

    and cooled.

    Assignments:

    1. Complete experimental data sheet.2. Plot the graph of temperature, T, against absolute pressure, P.3. Measure/calculate the slope of the graph using certain points.

    Note:

    fg

    fg

    SAT h

    Tv

    dPdT =

    PlotSATdP

    dT

    versus P and fg

    fg

    h

    Tvversus P on a same graph.

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    Observation Table:

    Pressure, P (bar) Temperature, T (C) MeasuredSlope,dT/dP

    CalculatedSlope, Tvg/hfg Gauge Absolute

    Increase(0C)

    Decrease(0C)

    AverageTavc (

    0C) Average

    Tavc (K)

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    Steam Table

    PressureP

    Bar (Abs)

    TemperatureTC

    Specific Volume of Steam

    Vg m3/kg

    Latent Heat of Vapourisation

    hfg kJ/kg

    1.0

    2.0

    3.0

    4.0

    5.06.0

    7.0

    8.0

    9.0

    10.0

    11.0

    12.013.0

    14.0

    15.0

    16.0

    17.0

    18.0

    19.0

    20.0

    99.6

    120.2

    133.5

    143.6

    151.8158.8

    165.0

    170.4

    175.4

    179.9

    184.1

    188.0191.6

    195.0

    198.3

    201.4

    204.3

    207.1

    209.8

    212.4

    1.694

    0.8856

    0.6057

    0.4623

    0.37480.3156

    0.2728

    0.2403

    0.2149

    0.1944

    0.1774

    0.16320.1512

    0.1408

    0.1317

    0.1237

    0.1167

    0.1104

    0.1047

    0.09957

    2258

    2202

    2164

    2134

    21092087

    2067

    2048

    2031

    2015

    2000

    19861972

    1960

    1947

    1935

    1923

    1912

    1901

    1890

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    APPENDIX III

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    MINISTRY OF MANPOWERNIZWA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

    ENGINEERING DEPARTMENTSTUDENTS REPORT FORMAT

    STUDENTS REPORT FORMAT FOR APPLIED MECHANICS - II

    LAB

    NIZWA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MECH SECTION

    Applied Mechanics II - LAB REPORT

    Max Marks: 10

    Name: _______________________________ ID: ____________ Sec: ___

    Experiment Title: _______________________________________________

    Date of Experiment: ________________ Date of Submission: ___________

    Assessment:

    Criteria Marks Secured

    Aim /Procedure 2

    Very good observations and values 2

    Figures/Calculations 2

    Participation in experiment 1

    Neatness & Writing proper units 1

    Conclusion 1

    In time submission 1

    GRAND TOTAL

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    Aim:

    Apparatus Used:

    Procedure/ Table/Figures/Calculations:

    Conclusion:

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    MINISTRY OF MANPOWERNIZWA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

    ENGINEERING DEPARTMENTSTUDENTS REPORT FORMAT

    STUDENTS REPORT FORMAT FOR ENGINEERING

    MATERIALS LAB

    NIZWA College ofTechnology

    DIPLOMA - MECHANICALMIME2204 ENGINEERING MATERIALS LAB REPORT

    Name ID No

    Experiment Title

    Date ofExperiment

    Date ofSubmission

    Criteria Marks

    Very good observations and values. 2.0

    Calculations. 2.5

    Neat diagrams with labels 1.0

    Participation in experiments during lab sessions 1.0

    Good handwriting, presentation & neatness. 1.0

    Writing proper units for physical quantities. 0.5

    Appropriate conclusion (Answers to follow-upquestions, if any)

    1.0

    Grammatical & Spelling mistakes 1.0

    Late submission 1.0 / Day

    Remarks

    Objective(s):

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    Equipments:

    Diagram

    Theory:

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    Procedure:

    Formulae & Relations:

    Calculations:

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    Tabulation

    Conclusion:

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    MINISTRY OF MANPOWERNIZWA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGYENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

    STUDENTS REPORT FORMAT

    STUDENTS REPORT FORMAT FOR THERMODYNAMICS

    LAB

    NizwaCollege ofTechnology

    MIME3110 THERMODYNAMICS I LAB REPORT

    Name ID No :

    Experiment Title:

    Date of Experiment

    Date of Submission

    Criteria Marks

    Very good observations and values. 2.0

    Calculations. 2.5

    Neat diagrams with labels 1.0

    In-time submission 1.0

    Participation in experiments during lab sessions 1.0

    Good handwriting, presentation & neatness. 1.0

    Writing proper units for physical quantities. 0.5 Appropriate conclusion(Answers to follow-up questions, if any)

    1.0

    Remarks

    Objective:

    Apparatus used

    10

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    Theory / Calculations:

    Conclusion:

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    MINISTRY OF MANPOWERNIZWA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGYENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

    STUDENTS REPORT FORMAT

    STUDENTS REPORT FORMAT FOR FLUID MECHANICS - I

    LAB

    NizwaCollege ofTechnology

    MIME3110 FLUID MECHANICS I LAB REPORT

    Name ID No :

    Experiment Title:

    Date of Experiment

    Date of Submission

    Criteria Marks

    Very good observations and values. 2.0

    Calculations. 2.5

    Neat diagrams with labels 1.0

    In-time submission 1.0

    Participation in experiments during lab sessions 1.0

    Good handwriting, presentation & neatness. 1.0

    Writing proper units for physical quantities. 0.5 Appropriate conclusion(Answers to follow-up questions, if any)

    1.0

    Remarks

    Objective:

    10

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    Apparatus used

    Theory / Calculations:

    Conclusion: