marketing channels & distribution. intermediaries make distribution and selling processes more...
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Post on 22-Dec-2015
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- Marketing Channels & Distribution
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- Intermediaries make distribution and selling processes more efficient. Intermediaries offers supply chain partners more than they could achieve on their own. Market Exposure Technical Knowledge/Information Sharing Operational Specialization Scale of operation The Importance of Marketing Channels
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- Channel Efficiency: How Intermediaries Reduce the Number of Channel Transactions
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- Matching Needs with Products Physical distribution & Logistics Financing Risk taking Other Key Channel Functions
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- Consumer and Business Marketing Channels
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- Channels are most effective when: Each member performs the tasks it does best. Channel members cooperate to attain overall channel goals. Channel Conflict Horizontal Conflict: conflict among firms at the same level of the channel (e.g., retailer to retailer). Example: Two retailers compete to carry a suppliers exclusive product. Vertical Conflict: conflict between different levels of the same channel (e.g., wholesaler to retailer). Example: Manufacturer competes with retailer in selling product to target market. Some conflict can be healthy competition. Channel Cooperation & Conflict
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- Channel Conflict: Goodyear Goodyears conflicts with its independent dealers have decimated the firms replacement tire sales.
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- Copyright 2007, Prentice-Hall Inc.10-8 Channel Conflict Example Branded goods using the Wolfgang Puck, T.G. I. Fridays, Taco Bell, Emerils, and Starbucks names are now being sold in grocery stores. Look at the items at right. Which stands the greatest risk of causing channel conflict? Why?
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- When producers, wholesalers, and retailers act as a unified system. Can happen through Outright ownership of channel member Contracts Channel power Vertical Marketing System
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- 10-10 Franchise Organizations Powerful force in U.S. Retail (40%+ of all sales) Franchise Structures Compensation Arrangements Advantages Brand Name Recognition Standardized Processes and Procedures Avoids startup hassles safer bet Quick access to capital and huge expansion potential Disadvantages Over-saturation and territorial issues Marketing fund disputes Quality (vs. Company-owned) Little room for entrepreneurial creativity
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- Horizontal Marketing System Two or more companies at one channel level join together to achieve a marketing goal. Joint Ventures Alliances and Partnerships Co-Marketing, Co-Distribution and Co-Branding Multichannel Distribution System Reaching customer segments through multiple marketing channels. (i.e. hybrid system) Example: You can buy Starbucks coffee from Starbucks stores or from the Supermarket Problems with MDSs? Channel Innovations
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- Disintermediation Occurs when producers sidestep intermediaries and sell directly to final buyers, or when radically new types of channel intermediaries displace traditional ones. The Internet has made the disintermediation of many traditional retailers possible.
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- Disintermediation Example Calyx & Corolla sells fresh flowers and plants direct to consumers over the phone and via the Web, drastically reducing the time it takes flowers to reach consumers via conventional retail channels.
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- (Non-) Disintermediation Example Black & Decker chose to avoid disintermediation by not using the Internet to sell their products. Instead B&D directs consumers to stores that carry its products.
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- Company sales force vs. Manufacturers Rep Company sales force Employed directly by the firm in outside or inside sales capacity. Manufacturers agency/representative Independent firms whose sales people handle several companies products simultaneously Primarily a question of size and life cycle stage. Outsourcing Distribution
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- How many intermediaries? Intensive distribution Stock product in as many outlets as possible. Exclusive distribution Granting a limited number of outlets the exclusive right to sell product. Selective distribution Somewhere in between Intensive and Exclusive Distribution. Does the company always get to choose? Distribution Strategy Alternatives
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- Selective Distribution Maytag uses selective distribution like many furniture and appliance manufacturers. The Where to Buy page on their Web site assists buyers in finding stores that carry the Maytag brand.
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- Every country has its own unique distribution system that has evolved over time. Examples Japan: complex, multi-layered distribution systems hard for Western firms to penetrate. India and China: inefficient distribution systems despite their enormous size. separate countries within a country Poorer but improving transportation infrastructures International Channel Decisions
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- Public Policy and Distribution Exclusive distribution & dealing (upstream or downstream) Exclusive territorial agreements (franchising) Tying agreements (illegal) If Xerox required every business who bought or leased their copiers to also buy their brand of paper, it would be a tying agreement.
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- Definition: The physical flow of goods, services, and related information from points of origin to points of consumption. Includes: Inbound distribution Outbound distribution Reverse distribution Marketing Logistics
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- Inventory Management Must strike a balance between too much and too little inventory buffers and shortages carrying costs and ordering/setup costs Just-in-time inventory systems RFID or Smart Tag technology RFID technology promises to automate the entire distribution chain, resulting in significant cost savings.
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- RFID The Wave of the Future? Key benefits fewer stock-outs reduced logistics labor costs more accurate inventory information more efficient flow of goods happier customers Retailers may soon mandate supplier use of RFID.
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- Transportation Trucks Railroads Ships Pipelines Air Internet Intermodal transportation
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- Intermodal Transportation Intermodal transportation combines two or more modes of transportation. Fishyback = water and trucks; Piggyback = trucks and rail; Trainship = water and rail; Airship = air and water.
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- Third-Party Logistics Most small and medium size companies outsource transportation to UPS or other logistics providers.