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Second AIACC Regional Workshop for Latin America and the Caribbean 24-27 August, 2004 Buenos Aires, Argentina Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat [email protected]

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Second AIACC Regional Workshop for Latin America and the Caribbean 24-27 August, 2004 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat [email protected]. Outline. Milestones of the Convention Process Status of submission of National Communications - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

Second AIACC Regional Workshop for Latin America and the Caribbean

24-27 August, 2004 Buenos Aires, Argentina

Martha PerdomoUNFCCC secretariat

[email protected]

Page 2: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

Outline

• Milestones of the Convention Process

• Status of submission of National Communications

• New Guidelines – inclusion of adaptation issues in national communications/User-Manual prepared by the UNFCCC secretariat

• Funding for adaptation

– Special Climate Change Fund– LDC Fund– Adaptation Fund– GEF special window for pilot adaptation measures– Multilateral/Bilateral assistance

• Relevance of AIACC to second NCs

Page 3: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

Evolución de la Convención

Page 4: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

Key steps in the development of the Convention

• 1992 - Adoption of the UNFCCC, a framework for action aimed at stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases in order to avoid “dangerous anthropogenic interference” with the climate system

• 1994 - Entry into force of the UNFCCC

• 1995 - “Berlin Mandate” is adopted, launching a new round of negotiations on a “protocol or other legal instrument”.

• 1997- Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is adopted

• 1998 “Buenos Aires Plan of Action” is adopted, setting out a programme of work on the Kyoto Protocol’s details and the implementation of the Convention

• 2002 - “Delhi Declaration on Climate Change and Sustainable Development” is adopted reaffirming development and poverty eradication as overriding priorities in developing countries, and recognizing Parties’ common but differentiated responsibilities and national development priorities and circumstances in the implementation of UNFCCC commitments.

Page 5: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

1. All Parties, taking into account their common but differentiated (CBD) responsibilities and national circumstances should:

a) Prepare Inventories of GHG to be submitted to the COP

b) Prepare and implement mitigation and adaptation measures

c) Promote and cooperate on technology transfer matters

d) Promote sustainable development

e) Cooperate in preparing for adaptation and integrated planning

Commitments under the UNFCCC

Page 6: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

(f) Undertake Impact assessment

(g) Promote and cooperate on research and systematic observation

(h) Exchange scientific, technological, technical, socio-economic and legal information

(i) Promote and cooperate in education, training and public awareness

(j) Communicate to the COP information on above elements in accordance with Article 12.1 of the Convention (national communications)

Commitments under the UNFCCC

Page 7: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

AFRICA

Legend:

Parties that have already submitted their initial national communication

Underlined Parties that have yet to submit their initial national communication

* Least developed countries

*

**

*

*

*

*

*

*

**

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

**

**

*

*

Total NCs submitted: 41 out of 52

Page 8: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

MALDIVES

ASI A

Legend:

Parties that have already submitted their initial national communication

Underlined Parties that have yet to submit their initial national communication

* Least developed countries

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

Total NCs submitted: 39 out of 53

Page 9: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

PACIFIC ISLANDS

Legend:

Parties that have already submitted their initial national communication

Underlined Parties that have yet to submit their initial national communication

* Least developed countries

*

*

*

*

Page 10: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

Legend:

Parties that have already submitted their initial national communication

Underlined Parties that have yet to submit their initial national communication

LATI N AMERI CA AND THECARIBBEAN

*

Total NCs submitted: 30 out of 33

Page 11: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

REP. OF MOLDOVA

SERBIA AND MONTENEGROBOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINASAN

MARINO

MALTA

THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA GEORGIAARMENIA AZERBAIJAN

ALBANIA

OTHERS

Legend:

Parties that have already submitted their initial national communication

Underlined Parties that have yet to submit their initial national communicationTotal NCs sumitted: 7 out of 10

Page 12: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

Legend:

Parties that have already submitted their second national communication

SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

BAHAMAS

CUBA

BELIZE

NICARAGUA

PANAMA

BOLIVIA

PARAGUAY

BURKINAFASO

CÔTED’IVOIRE

NIGERIA CENTRAL AFRICAN

REP.

ALBANIA ARMENIA AZERBAIJAN

THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

Highlighted - Parties that have started the process of preparation of second national communication

ALGERIA

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

ARGENTINA

BARBADOS

BENIN

BOTSWANA

BURUNDI

CHILE

CONGO

COSTA RICA

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

EGYPT

EL SALVADOR

GEORGIA

GHANA

IRANJORDAN

KENYA

MADAGASCAR

MALAWI

MAURITANIA

MOROCCO

PERU

REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

ST. LUCIA SENEGAL

SEYCHELLES

SOUTH AFRICA

SUDAN

SWAZILAND

UNITED REP. OF TANZANIA

ZIMBABWE

Page 13: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

KAZAKHSTAN

KYRGYZSTAN

TAJIKISTAN

MONGOLIA

THAILAND

CAMBODIA

MALAYSIA

PHILIPPINES

KIRIBATI

NAURUTUVALU

SAMOA

NIUE

VANUATU

MARSHALL

ISLANDS

COOK

ISLANDS

UZBEKISTAN

Page 14: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

6 4

12

27 27

1

2015

1

5

1

77

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Nu

mb

er o

f n

atio

nal

co

mm

un

icat

ion

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Year of submission

Submission of national communications, by year

??*

reported that they have started the process of preparation of second national

communication

initial national communication (116)

second national communication (3)

* projection onlyAs of 20 August 2004

Page 15: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

Guidelines for inclusion of adaptation issues in national communications (COP Decision 17/CP.8)

• PART IV – GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF STEPS TAKEN OR ENVISAGED TO IMPLEMENT THE CONVENTION

1. Non-Annex I Parties SHALL provide information on “programmes containing measures to facilitate adequate adaptation to climate change.”

2. NAI Parties “SHOULD provide information on their vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change, and on adaptation measures…”

3. NAI Parties MAY use appropriate methodologies they consider better able to reflect their national situation.

4. Non-Annex I Parties ARE ENCOURAGED to use appropriate methodologies for the evaluation of adaptation strategies and measures

Page 16: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

Guidelines for inclusion of adaptation…..(cont.)

Reporting

Scope of V&A Assessment (a)

Non-Annex I Parties are encouraged to provide information on the scope of their vulnerability and adaptation assessment, including identification of vulnerable areas that are most critical

Participation of stakeholders

Sectors identified and studied

Methods/approaches used, spatial/geographical boundaries and time horizons

Description of exposure units – agriculture, forests, water, health, ecosystems, human settlements, infrastructure, industry, energy, etc

Page 17: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

Guidelines for inclusion of adaptation…. (cont.)

Reporting

Description of approaches, methods and tools (b)

Non-Annex I Parties are encouraged to include a description of approaches, methodologies and tools used, including scenarios for the assessment of impacts of, and vulnerability and adaptation to climate change, as well as any uncertainties inherent in these methodologies

General approach, framework and specific methodologies for analysis - e.g. IPCC guidelines, MAGICC-SCENGEN, PRECIS, downscaling, etc.

Environmental and socio-economic scenarios – i.e., climate is not the only factor

Population characteristics and resources, food, housing, arable land and other development trajectories

Page 18: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

Guidelines for inclusion of adaptation… (cont.)

Reporting

Key findings and integrating effects (c)

Non-Annex I Parties are encouraged to provide information on their vulnerability to the impacts of, and their adaptation to, climate change in key vulnerable areas. Information should include key findings, and direct and indirect effects arising from climate change, allowing for an integrated analysis of the country’s vulnerability to climate change

Describe and quantify effects of climate change in key vulnerable areas/sectors

Indirect and combined effects and socio-economic changes (integrated effects)

Broad implications for the country as a whole

Sectoral linkages and associated effects

Emphasize and qualify the effects of climate change and their interactions with non-climatic changes

Page 19: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

Guidelines for inclusion of adaptation… (cont.)

Reporting

Adaptation strategies and measures (d)

Non-Annex I Parties are encouraged to provide information on and, to the extent possible, evaluation of, strategies and measures for adapting to climate change, in key areas including those which are of the highest priority

Possibilities for responding to climate change effects and their interactions- no-regret options and other policies and development priorities (planning, economic development, land-use, etc)

Specific adaptations to effects identified in the study

Evaluation/prioritization (costs, practicability, environmental and cultural appropriateness)

General policies with implications for adaptation

Implementation of adaptation measures, pilot and/or demonstration adaptation projects.

Needs for capacity building and institutional strengthening, public awareness, education, and information

Page 20: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

Guidelines for inclusion of adaptation…. (cont.)

ReportingFrameworks for adaptation (e)

Where relevant, Parties may report on the use of policy frameworks, such as national adaptation programmes, plans and policies for developing and implementing adaptation strategies and measures.

Frameworks such as adaptation policy framework and national adaptation programmes of action can assist in the identification of options, strategies and measures - e.g. design specific adaptation projects and mainstreaming adaptation into sustainable development

Priority adaptation needs (most urgent)

Barriers to and opportunities for adaptation (legal, institutional, financial, technological)

Specific gaps and limitations – socio-economic and baseline data, climate and sea-level change scenarios, direct and indirect effects and their interactions

Appropriate adaptive options and capacity building needs

Page 21: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

Ejemplo de una matriz para presentar los impactos y las opciones de vulnerabilidad y adaptación

Sectores o sistemas críticos

vulnerables

Impactos Opciones de adaptación I

Opciones de adaptación II

Opciones de adaptación III

Opciones de adaptación IV

Opciones de adaptación V

Dificultades/ barreras

para la adaptación

Recursos hídricos

1. Cambios en la disponibilidad de agua 2. . Cambios en la calidad del agua 3. Cambios en la frecuencia e intensidad de inundaciones y sequías

Mejoramiento en el uso de la eficiencia del agua

Predicción estacional

Fortalecimiento de los trabajos de tratamiento de aguas

Mejoramiento de sistemas de alerta temprana de inundaciones, y diseminación de información

Manejo de cuencas para reducir la contaminación y la escorrentía

Falta de recursos financieros; capacidad técnica inadecuada

Agricultura 1. Cambios en la longitud de la estación de crecimiento 2. Cambios en la productividad de los cultivos 3. Cambios en la productividad del ganado

Selección de plantas y ganados

Sistemas de cultivo múltiple y agroforestería

Fortalecimiento del papel de participación de la comunidad y las políticas públicas

Mejoramiento de sistemas de irrigación

Desarrollo de cultivos y especies de ganado tolerantes al calor y las sequías

Zonas costeras

1. Inundación costera 2. Erosión costera 3. Intrusión de aguas salinas 4. Retroceso de líneas costeras

Identificación de áreas perdidas y de zonas donde no se debe construir

Manejo de la reubicación de estructuras o actividades costeras

Construcción de rompeolas o diques o alimentación de playas

Introducción de nuevos diseños de construcción y de cultivos tolerantes a la sal

Reubicación de la población y de las actividades económicas

Page 22: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

Ejemplo de una matriz para presentar los impactos y las opciones de vulnerabilidad y adaptación

Sectores o sistemas críticos

vulnerables

Impactos Opciones de adaptación I

Opciones de adaptación II

Opciones de adaptación III

Opciones de adaptación IV

Opciones de adaptación V

Dificultades/ barreras para la

adaptación Salud 1. Estrés térmico

2. Incremento en la incidencia de enfermedades infecciosas

Sistemas de alerta temprana

Promoción de la educación en salud

Promoción de hábitos de higiene personal

Mejoramiento del diseño de casas y edificios

Monitoreo continuo de enfermedades, programas de control y prevención

Ecosistemas 1. Pérdida de hábitat para especies; 2. Cambios en la estructura de las comunidades biológicas; 3. Cambios en el número y distribución de especies;

Establecimiento de instituciones nacionales y regionales de manejo de recursos

Expansión de la acuicultura para suplir la demanda creciente de alimentos marinos por crecimiento de la población

Apoyo para la investigación innovadora y para el manejo integrado de ecosistemas

Desarrollo de bases de datos sobre los resultados del monitoreo ecológico integrado para identificar cambios antropogénicos y predecir la productividad

Organización de biosferas de reservas marinas y terrestres y de áreas protegidas

Page 23: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

  Methods and tools for vulnerability and adaptation assessments  1. IPCC Technical Guidelines for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations

(Carter, T.R., M.L. Parry, H. Harasawa, S. Nishioka 1994)2. The UNEP Handbook on Methods for Climate Change Impact Assessment and

Adaptation Strategies (Feenstra, J.F., I. Burton, J.B. Smith, R.S.J. Tol, 1998) (http://130.37.129.100/IVM/research/climatechange/Handbook.htm)

3. Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessments: An International Handbook on (Benioff, R., S. Guill, J. Lee, 1996) (http://www.neutrino.co.jp/abi_enst/0-7923-4140-6.PDF)

4. An Adaptation Policy Framework: Capacity Building for Stage II Adaptation (UNDP-GEF, 2000) (http://www.undp.org/cc/apf.htm)

5. PRECIS (http://www.metoffice.com/research/hadleycentre/models/PRECIS.html)6. Toolkit for Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment (T. Downing) (http://www.

aiaccproject.org/resources/ele_lib_docs/Toolkit_VAA.pdf)7. Integrated modelling system for climate change impact and adaptation assessment

(IGCI) (http://www.waikato.ac.nz/igci/modelling/modelling1.html)8. Disaster Vulnerability Assessment, Tools Website (http://www.unisdr.org/)9. Guidelines for the preparation of national adaptation programmes of action

(http://unfccc.int/text/program/sd/ldc/documents/13a04p7.pdf)10. Annotated guidelines for the preparation of national adaptation programmes of

action (http://unfccc.int/text/program/sd/ldc/documents/annguide.pdf)11. Compedium on Methods and Tools to Evaluate Impacts, Vulnerability and

Adaptation to Climate Change (2004) (http://unfccc.int/program/mis/meth/compendium.pdf)

User-ManualReference material and web links

Page 24: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

Baseline climatologies and climate change scenarios

1. High-resolution Climate Grids Prepared by the Climatic Research Unit and the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia (http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/hrg.htm)

2. Baseline Climate Datasets and Outputs of General Circulation Models (GCMs) Provided by the IPCC Data Distribution Centre (http://ipcc-ddc.cru.uea.ac.uk)

3. Guidelines on the Use of Scenario Data for Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment (Carter, T.R., Parry, M. L., Harasawa, H., Nishioka, S. 1999) (http://www.aiaccproject.org/resources/ele_lib_docs/TGCIAguidance_99.pdf)

4. MAGICC/SCENGEN (http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/cas/ACACIA/publications/magicc.html)5. MAGICC/SCENGEN Workbook (M. Hulme et al., 2000)

(http://www.aiaccproject.org/resources/ele_lib_docs/magicc_scengen_workbook.pdf)6. Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM): A Decision Support Tool for Assessing Regiónal

Climate Change Impacts (R. Wilby et al., 2001) (http://www.aiaccproject.org/resources/ele_lib_docs/SDSM_manual.pdf)

7. The IPCC Data Distribution Centre (http://ipcc-ddc.cru.uea.ac.uk/ipcc_ddc.html)

Socio-Economic Scenarios

1. Guidance Materials on Spataially Distributed Socio-economic Projections of Population and GDP per Unit Area (S.Gaffin,G. Yerman, A. Mellinger. CIESIN, 2002) (http://www.aiaccproject. Org/resources/ele-libdocs/GM/Gridded.pdf)

User-ManualReference material and web links

Page 25: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

1. Special Climate Change FundVoluntary, Convention fund

2. LDC FundVoluntary, Convention fund

3. Adaptation Fund2% share of CDM proceeds, Kyoto fund, will fund ‘concrete’ measures

Funds for adaptation (Marrakesh Accord)

Page 26: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

Special Climate Change Fund

a) Adaptation, in accordance with decision 5/CP.7 para. 8

— Starting to implement adaptation activities— Monitoring of diseases, vectors, forecasting— Capacity building for planning, preparedness, management of

disasters— Strengthening of regional centers for rapid response to extreme

weather events

b) Technology Transfer, in accordance with decision 4/CP.7

c) Energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management

d) Economic diversification in fossil-fuel dependent economies.

Decision 7/CP.7 paragraph 2:

Page 27: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

Special Climate Change Fund

Adaptation, top priority for funding technology transfer, also essential activities should be

– country-driven, cost-effective– integrated into national sustainable-

development and poverty-reduction strategies– complementary to those funded by the LDC

Fund and the CC focal area of the GEF Trust Fund

SCCF to serve as a catalyst to leverage additional resources

Decision 5/CP.9, para. 1:

Page 28: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

GEF’s Support for Pilot Adaptation Measures

COP 7 requested GEF to provide support for establishing pilot or demonstration projects to show how adaptation planning can be translated into projects, and integrated into national policies and SD planning

The Delhi Declaration (COP 8) reflected growing Convention support for efforts to identify and avoid the adverse impacts of CC

In response, GEF has included a new strategic priority, “Piloting an Operational Approach to Adaptation,” (SPA) in- its Business Plan - 2005-2007 ($50 million)

COP 9 requested GEF to operationalize ASAP.

GEF Council approved the operational guidelines (May 2004)

The SPA is operational since 1 July 2004

Page 29: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

Funding and technical support for Adaptation

Adaptation Projects

AdaptationFund

Special ClimateChange Fund

LDCFund

GEF Trust Fund

SGP

Capacity Building

Climate ChangeFocal Area Enabling

Activity

Existing Operational Programs in all

Focal Areas (incremental cost)

Source - GEF

Page 30: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

198819921996200020042008

Country Case Studies of Sources and Sinks of GHG

Asia Least-Cost GHG Abatement Strategy (ALGAS)

Building Capacity in Sub-Saharan Africa

CC:TRAIN – Phase I

Building Capacity in Maghreb

Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Global CC (CPACC)

CC Enabling Activities - Full Projects

Country Studies on CC Impacts and Adapt. Assessm. (Phase I)

CC:TRAIN – Phase II

Economics of GHG Limitations – Phase I

CC Enabling Activities Expedited Projects (phase I) - (10/CP.2)

National Communications Support Programme (NCSP) - Phase I

CC Enabling Activities Expedited Projects (phase II)

Building Capacity for Cond. V&A Assessm. in the Caribb. Region

Assessm. of Impacts & Adapt. to CC in Mult. Regions and Sect. (AIACC)

Building Human and Institutional capacities to address CC Issues in LDCs

Capacity-building for Improving the Qual. of GHG Invent. (Europe and CIS)

Capacity-building for Stage II Adapt. to CC (Central Am., Mexico, Cuba)

Capacity Building for Improving Nat. GHG Invent. (West Africa)

Capacity Building for Observ. Syst. for CC (Pacific and Africa)

Mainstreaming Adaptation to CC (MACC)

CC Enabling Activities Expedited Projects - (17/CP.8)

National Communications Support Programme (NCSP) - Phase II

GEF funded projects and programmes supporting the process of preparing national communications from non-Annex I Parties - 1988-2008 (projected)

Yellow = Ongoing

Page 31: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

198819921996200020042008

IPCC

Japan - Asia Pacific Seminar on CC

Switzerland - Global environment credit

US Country Studies Program (USCSP)

Germany (GTZ) – Measures to Implement the UNFCCC

Netherlands CC Assist. Prog. (NCCSAP) - phase I

UNFCCC Secretariat

UK Climate Impacts Prog. (UKCIP)

Finland – Supp. to the Imp. of the UNFCCC in Nicaragua

Japan - Asia-Pacific Network on CC (AP-net)

Consultative Group of Experts - CGE

Canada - The Canada CC Development Fund (CCCDF)

Greece – Capacity-Building to Deal with the CC Problem

Finland - Preparedn. to clim. var. + glob. change in SIDS in the Caribb. region

Germany (GTZ) - Climate Protection Prog. (CaPP)

OECD - Development and CC Project

Japan - Workshop on GHG Invent. in the Asia Region

US - GHG Inventory Supp. for Central Am.

Aust., Jap., NZ, US - Scient. Cap. Building/Enhanc. for Sust. Develop. in Dev. Countries

Netherlands CC Assist. Prog. (NCCSAP) - phase II

Other projects and programmes supporting the process of preparingnational communications from non-Annex I Parties - 1988-2008 (projected)

Yellow = Ongoing

Page 32: Martha Perdomo UNFCCC secretariat mperdomo@unfccct

Relevance of AIACC to the second national communication process

• To provide further understanding of the impacts of climate change

• To introduce new approaches/methods/tools

• To enhance the linkages between scientists and policy makers

• To highlight the vulnerabilities of developing countries

• To analyze the best options for adaptation

• To build capacity