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Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3

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Page 1: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

Material Safety Data Sheets

Chapter 3

Page 2: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

Objectives

• How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information?

• What information is included in an MSDS?• How the information on an MSDS can help

protect you in the workplace?• The limitations of the MSDSs as applied to

laboratory-scale operations

Page 3: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

MSDS (Getting to Know MSDS)What is an MSDS?

• What is an MSDS?

– Provide concise information about the hazard of a particular chemical• So that a person handling or storing them can

protect themselves• And respond to emergency situation

Page 4: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

MSDS

• Provide detailed info. beyond that found on labels

• Knowing information on MSDS – interprets information that can help to reduce human and environmental risks, minimize accidents and save money

• Training, knowledge and understanding of technical data on MSDS – helps to deal with occupational hazards.

Page 5: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

Hazard Communication Standard

• Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OHSA) hazard communication standard of 1980 (right-to-know law)

• All firms manufacturing and/distributing chemicals – provide MSDS to their customers

• All employees must have access to MSDS

Page 6: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

OSHA definition of Hazardous chemical

• OSHA hazard definition:–1. Cancer-causing, toxic, irritant, flammable,

reactive - posses threat to health–2. If especially listed under OSHA act, 29,

CFR 1910, section 1200–3. If has an assigned threshold limit value

(TLV) by the American Conference of Governmental Hygienists

Page 7: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard

• Each MSDS must include according to OSHA

– 1. The material’s identity• Chemical and common names as shown on labels• Example

– brand name: Clorox– chemical name: sodium hypochlorite– common name: bleach

– 2. Hazardous ingredients that occur in the mixture in parts as small as 1%

Page 8: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard

–3. Cancer-causing ingredients that occur in the mixture in parts as small as 0.1%–4. List of properties of the material

(reactive, flammable, etc..)–5. List of acute and chronic health hazard–6. Precautions and safety equipments–7. Emergency and first aid procedures

Page 9: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard

– 8. Specific firefighting information– 9. Procedures for cleaning up spills and leaks– 10. Precautions for safe handling and use,

including personal hygiene– 11. identity of the organization responsible for

creating the MSDS, date of issue, and emergency phone number

Page 10: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

The MSDS Format

• No standard format is required

• Must have all section discussed above

• There is a specific format implemented few years ago– By Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA)– Accepted by American National Standard institute (ANSI)– But not yet adapted by OSHA

Page 11: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

MSDS (Getting to Know MSDS)Understanding Health Hazards

• Most important reason for MSDS– Info like:• Lethal concentration 50• Lethal dose 50

– Will learn term section 3c

Page 12: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

Obtaining MSDSs for the chemicals you work with

• Your employer required to have those available– Special folder– Computer– Also find on Web– Keep undated

Page 13: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

Limitations of MSDS

• Not originally developed by chemists and chemical techs

• Developed by many sources and lack the required format– So their quality varies

• You can supplement info in MSDS by:– CRC handbook (chemical technician handbook)– Prudent Practices in the Laboratory

Page 14: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

Exploring MSDS

• 16 sections organized around 4 key issues

– that address what people need to know about working with chemicals

• First 10 sections cover info. required by OSHA• Sections 11-16 provide additional information

Page 15: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

Exploring MSDS

• Sections 1-3 provide info on:– What is the material and what do I need to know

immediately in an emergency?• Sec1: chemical product and company

identification– Identifies material, same name as label– Identifies the supplier of MSDS– Identifies a source for more info

Page 16: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

Exploring MSDS

• Sec 2: composition/information on ingredients

– Lists OSHA hazardous components, chemical and common name if appropriate

– Lists corresponding CAS registry number– May list significant nonhazardous components– May also include additional info about components• Example exposure guidelines

Page 17: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

Exploring MSDS

• Sec 3: Hazards identification, including emergency overview– May provide material description• Example: form, color, odor

– May provide emergency overview– Provides info on potential adverse health effects

and symptoms• that might result from reasonably foreseeable use and

misuse of the material

Page 18: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

Exploring MSDS

• Section 4-6 provide info on:– What to do if hazardous situations occur?

• Sec 4: first-aid measures– Provides instructions to be followed if accidental

exposure requires immediate treatment– May also include instructions to medical

professionals

Page 19: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

Exploring MSDS

• Sec 5: firefighting measures– Provides basic firefighting guidelines, including

extinguishing media– Describes other fire and explosive properties useful for

avoiding and fighting fires involving the material• Such as flash point or explosive limits

– Includes NFPA hazard diamond code• Sec 6: accidental release measures– Describes actions to be taken to minimize adverse effects

of an accidental spill, leak

Page 20: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

Exploring MSDS

• Section 7-10 provides info on:– How to prevent hazardous situation from occurring

• Sec 7: handling and storage– Provide info on safe handling and storage

• Sec 8: exposure controls/personal protection– Provides info in practices and/or equipment that are useful

in minimizing worker exposure– May also include exposure guidelines– Provides guidance on personal protective equipment

Page 21: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

Exploring MSDS

• Sec 9: physical and chemical properties– Provides additional data that can be used to help

characterize the material and design safe work practices

• Sec 10: stability and reactivity– Describes the conditions to be avoided or other

materials that may cause a reaction that would change the intrinsic stability of the material

Page 22: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

Exploring MSDS

• Sections 11-16– Provides any additional useful information about

the material

• Sec 11: toxicological information– May provide background toxicological info on the material,

its compounds or both– Usually includes LD50 for oral toxicity and LC50 for

inhalation toxicity– Acute or long term effects and target organs

Page 23: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

Exploring MSDS

• Sec 12: ecological information– May provide info on the effects the material may have on

plants or animals– Info on the materials environmental fate if the material is

accidentally released into the environment

• Sec 13: disposal consideration– May provide info that is useful in determining the appropriate

disposal measures

• Sec 14: transport information– May provide basic shipping classification info– Includes specific DOT info

Page 24: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

Exploring MSDS

• Sec 15: regulatory information– May provide any additional info on regulations

affecting the material

• Sec 16: other information– May provide any additional information

Page 25: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

MSDS (Understanding Health Hazards)

• Toxicology: study of adverse effects of chemicals on living systems– Chemicals can have immediate adverse effect (acute)– Or over a long period of time (chronic)

• Poison: describes substances that cause human illness

• Toxic: any material that is destructive or deadly

• Toxin: refer to a poisonous or toxic substance secreted by a living organism

Page 26: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

MSDS (Understanding Health Hazards)

• MSDS provides variety of health hazard info:

– 1. Acute: immediate effects such as burns or unconsciousness

– 2. Chronic: long term effects such as allergic sensitization, skin problems, respiratory disease

– 3. Whether the material is listed as carcinogen by OHSA or International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs (IARC), or the National Toxicology Program (NTP)

Page 27: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

MSDS (Understanding Health Hazards)

– 4. Limits to which a worker can be exposed ( will discuss further shortly)

– 5. Primary routes of entry into the body

– 6. Specific target organs likely to sustain damage

– 7. Medical problems that can be aggravated by exposure

Page 28: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

MSDS (Understanding Health Hazards)

• MSDS must provide info for any hazardous ingredient that occur in parts of 1% or greater

• For cancer-causing ingredients info must be provided for occurrence for parts 0.1% or greater

• Note: exposure limits and toxicological info appear on MSDS for 100% concentration for each chemical listed

Page 29: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

MSDS (Understanding Health Hazards)

• Exposure limits:– Threshold limit value (TLVs)

– Also called permissible exposure limit (PEL)• Based on inhalation of chemical in the air• Refers to airborne concentration of substance and

represent conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed day after day without adverse health effects

Page 30: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

MSDS (Understanding Health Hazards) Threshold limit value expressed as:

• Number of parts of compounds in 1,000,000 parts of air (ppm)• Weight in mg in a cubic meter of air (mg/m3)• 2 types of TLV measures are used:

– 1. TLV-TWA: (threshold limit value-time weighted average)• Time weighted average concentration for a conventional 8hr

workday and 40hr workweek• To which it is believed that nearly all workers may be

repeatedly exposed without adverse effects

– 2. TLV-STEL: (threshold limit value-short term exposure limit)• Highest safe concentration for a 15-min exposure during 8hr

workday

Page 31: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

MSDS (Understanding Health Hazards)

– If MSDS does not Specify with TLV it is understood TWA

– In general, substances with TLV of less than 50ppm should be handled in the fume hood

Page 32: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

MSDS (Understanding Health Hazards)Toxicity Measures

• How harmful the chemical can be?

• Indicated as mean dose or concentration causing death to 50% of lab animals tested– Mice, rats, rabbits

Page 33: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

MSDS (Understanding Health Hazards)Toxicity Measures

• LC50:– Concentration of hazardous material in air that is expected to kill 50% of

a group of test animals– When given a single respiratory exposure in specific time period

• LD50:– A single dose, other than inhalation, – That causes death in 50% of an animal population from exposure to

hazardous substance– May be based on oral or skin contact dose

• LC50 and LD50– Are expressed in mg or g per kg of body weight

Page 34: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

MSDS (Understanding Health Hazards)Carcinogen Toxicity

• IARC classify carcinogens into 3 groups:– Group1:

• Known as “ known human carcinogens”• Carcinogens are chemical for which sufficient epidemiological

evidence exists that they cause cancer in human• Ex: asbestos, benzene, vinyl chloride

– Group 2:• Known as “ probable or possible carcinogens”• Group 2A (probable carcinogens)• Group 2B (possible carcinogens)

Page 35: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

MSDS (Understanding Health Hazards)Carcinogen Toxicity

• Group 2A (probable carcinogens)– Those shown to cause cancer-like changes in experimental animals or

mammalian cells– Ex: formaldehyde gas

• Group 2B (possible carcinogens)– Those that show cancer-causing effects in animal studies or genetic

mutations in specific strains of bacteria

• Group 3:– Wide variety of chemicals with no direct evidence of carcinogens in

humans– Although epidemiological correlation indicate that they may cause

cancer– Ex: hydrogen peroxide, toluene

Page 36: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

MSDS (Understanding Health Hazards)Carcinogen Designation

• A1: confirmed human carcinogen– Based on strong epidemiological or clinical evidence

• A2: suspected human carcinogen– Carcinogen to experimental animal at dose levels considered

relevant to worker exposure• A3: animal carcinogen

– Carcinogen in experimental animal at high dose NOT considered relevant to worker exposure

• A4: not classifiable as carcinogen– Inadequate data on which to classify

• A5: not suspected as human carcinogen– Based on properly conducted epidemiological studies in human

Page 37: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

Homework Questions

• 1. What is MSDS? What kind of information does it provide to its user?

• 2. What are the limitations of MSDS?• 3. What are the 4 key issues around which 16

sections of MSDS are organized?• 4. How are the exposure limits in MSDSs

expressed? What are the two ways in which TLV can be expressed?

• 5. Write the IARC classification of carcinogens.

Page 38: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

MSDS (Understanding Health Hazards)

• Exercise• Table page 61 – Review table– make sure understand PEL-TWA, STEL, LD50, LC50– For each compound category: Identify the solvent

with least health hazard– Explain your choices

Page 39: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

MSDS ( Finding MSDS on the Web)

LCSSs are available on:

www.qrc.com/hhmi/science/labsafe/lcss/start.htm.

Page 40: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

MSDS ( Finding MSDS on the Web)

• Exercise• Pull MSDS and LCSS for the following:

– Ammonia (anhydrous)– Nitric acid– Toluene– Ethanol

• From the MSDS pull out the following values 2nd paragraph page 64

• Answer question 1 and 3-7 on page 64

Page 41: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

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Page 42: Material Safety Data Sheets Chapter 3. Objectives How MSDSs can provide valuable safety information? What information is included in an MSDS? How the

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