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  • Report on the WMO-BIPM workshop on

    Measurement Challenges for Global Observation Systems for Climate Change Monitoring

    Traceability, Stability and Uncertainty

    30 March – 1 April 2010 WMO Headquarters Geneva, Switzerland

    IOM-Report No. 105 WMO/TD-No. 1557 Rapport BIPM-2010/08

    WMO

  • IOM-Report No. 105 Rapport BIPM -2010/08

    WMO/TD-No. 1557

    Report on the WMO-BIPM workshop on

    Measurement Challenges for Global Observation

    Systems for Climate Change Monitoring:

    Traceability, Stability and Uncertainty

    30 March - 1 April 2010

    WMO Headquarters

    Geneva, Switzerland

    World Meteorological Organization Bureau international des poids et mesures

  • © World Meteorological Organization, 2010

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    Edited by the BIPM,

    Pavillon de Breteuil,

    F-92312 Sèvres Cedex

    France

    Printed by: Imprimerie Centrale, Luxembourg

    ISBN 13 978-92-822-2239-3

  • WMO- BIPM workshop on Measurement Challenges for Global Observation Systems

    for Climate Change Monitoring: Traceability, Stability and Uncertainty.

    Main contributors (in alphabetical order)

    Chairmen

    Andrew Wallard, BIPM, France

    Wenjian Zhang, WMO, Switzerland

    Steering Committee

    Omar Baddour (co-coordinator of the workshop), WMO, Switzerland

    William Bell, ECMWF, UK

    James Butler, AREP, GAW and GCOS, USA

    Bertrand Calpini (co-chair of the Steering Committee, CIMO/WMO), MeteoSwiss, Switzerland

    Bruce Sumner, HMEI, Switzerland

    Pedro Espina (co-coordinator of the workshop), NIST, USA

    Werner Schmutz, WRC, Switzerland

    Nigel Fox, NPL, UK

    Gerald Fraser, GSICS, USA

    Martin Milton, NPL, UK

    Petra Spitzer, PTB, Germany

    David Walker, NIST, USA

    Andrew Wallard (co-chair of the workshop), BIPM, France

    Fuzhong Weng, NOAA, USA

    James Whetstone, NIST, USA

    Robert Wielgosz (co-chair of the Steering Committee), BIPM, France

    Wenjian Zhang (co-chair of the workshop), WMO, Switzerland

    Other major participants

    James G. Anderson, Harvard College, USA

    Urs Baltensperger, Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland

    Ernst O Göbel, PTB, Germany

    Michel Jarraud, Secretary General, WMO, Switzerland

    Pascal Lecomte, ESA, UK

    Karen St. Germain, IPO JPSS, USA

    Klaus-Dieter Sommer, PTB, Germany

    Jean-Pascal van Ypersele, IPCC, Switzerland

    For a list of speakers, see page 88

  • 1

    Table of Contents

    Links to the presentations are available on the BIPM website at:

    http://www.bipm.org/ws/AllowedDocuments.jsp?ws=WMO-BIPM

    Foreword .................................................................................................................................. 5

    Executive Summary................................................................................................................. 7

    Plenary Session ..................................................................................................................... 11

    Summaries of the sessions .................................................................................................. 13

    Session A: Climate trends from satellite sounding data...................................................... 13

    Session B1: Stable time series for key greenhouse gases and other trace species. ......... 14

    Session B2: Remote sensing of atmospheric composition and traceability issues in

    spectroscopic data. ............................................................................................................. 17

    Session C: Radiation and Earth energy balance. ............................................................... 20

    Session D: Earth surface (land and water) temperature..................................................... 22

    Session F: Microwave imagery data in climate and NWP. ................................................. 24

    Session G: Surface properties: Albedo, land cover, and ocean cover. .............................. 26

    Session H: Ocean salinity. .................................................................................................. 29

    Abstracts from the sessions ................................................................................................ 33

    Session A: Climate trends from satellite sounding data................................................... 33

    A1. Climate trends from microwave sounding data: Lessons learned - a post-launch

    perspective .......................................................................................................................... 33

    A2. Reanalysis, climate trends and an evaluation of the satellite sounding data record.... 34

    A3. Improved atmospheric sounding with ATMS ................................................................ 35

    A5. Microwave sounding and imaging requirements for the future EUMETSAT Polar

    System................................................................................................................................. 36

    A6. A review of microwave metrology at NIST in support of satellite sounding missions... 36

    A7. Towards to standard pre-launch and post-launch calibration/validation of microwave

    sensors................................................................................................................................ 37

    Session B1: Stable time series for key GHGs and other trace species........................... 38

    B11. Greenhouse gas observations in the GAW programme............................................. 38

    B12. Ensuring traceability and comparability of measurements for greenhouse gas

    monitoring............................................................................................................................ 39

    B13. The World Calibration Centre for VOCs ..................................................................... 40

    B14. Supporting traceable global measurements through international comparison

    exercises ............................................................................................................................. 41

    B15. Calibrating measurements of long-lived atmospheric trace gases: The dominant

    importance of precision over accuracy and the role of defined calibration scales.............. 42

  • 2

    B16. Trend analysis for greenhouse and reactive gases.................................................... 43

    B17. Ozone cross-sections and primary standards ............................................................ 44

    Session B2: Remote sensing of atmospheric composition and traceability issues in

    spectroscopic data. ............................................................................................................... 46

    B21. Relating point measurements of atmospheric composition to integrated-path and

    range-resolved measurements ........................................................................................... 46

    B22. Satellite measurements of tropospheric species from GOSAT .................................. 47

    B23. Reference standards for space-based remote sensing of carbon dioxide and

    greenhouse gases............................................................................................................... 48

    B24. Integration of column CO2 measurements into the existing in situ network for

    greenhouse gases............................................................................................................... 48

    B25. Global observations of greenhouse gases using SCIAMACHY ..................

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