metrology & statistical quality control
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DESCRIPTIONMetrology & Statistical Quality Control. 5 th Term, Batch: 2010. Standards Of Measurement (Cont..). Characteristics of line Standards: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Metrology & Statistical Quality Control
Metrology & Statistical Quality Control5th Term, Batch: 201021/01/20121lec# 3 & 4Standards Of Measurement (Cont..)Characteristics of line Standards:Accurate engraving on the scales can be done but it is difficult to take full advantage of this accuracy. Eg: a steel rule can be read up to 0.2mm of the true dimension. It is easier & quicker to use a scale over a wide range. The scale markings are not subject to wear although significant wear on leading end leads to undersizing21/01/20122lec# 3 & 4Standards Of Measurement (Cont..)Characteristics of line Standards (Cont..):4. There is no built in datum in a scale which would allow easy scale alignment with the axis of measurement, this again leads to under sizing. 5. Scales are subjected to the parallax effect, a source of both positive & negative reading error
21/01/20123lec# 3 & 4Standards Of Measurement (Cont..)Characteristics of End StandardsExcept for applications where microscopes can be used, scales are not generally convenient for the direct measurement of engineering products, where as slip gauges are in every day use in tool-rooms, workshop, & inspection departments throughout the worldModern end standards consists fundamentally of a block or bar of steel generally hardened, whose end faces are lapped flat & parallel to within a few millionth of a cm. 21/01/2012lec# 3 & 44Standards Of Measurement (Cont..)Characteristics of End Standards (cont..)Highly accurate & well suited to close tolerance measurementsDimensional tolerances as small as 0.0005mm can be obtainedSubjected to wear on their measuring facesTo provide a given size, the groups of blocks are wrung together. Faulty wringing leads to damageThere is a built-in datum in end standards, because their measuring faces are flat & parallel and can be positively located on a datum surfaceAs their use depends on feel they are not subject to the parallax error 21/01/2012lec# 3 & 45Standards Of Measurement (Cont..)Relative Characteristics of Line and End StandardsItemLine StandardEnd StandardManufacture &cost of equipmentSimple and lowComplex process & highAccuracy in measurementLimited to 0.2mm. In order to achieve high accuracy, scales have to be used in conjunction with micro scopeVery accurate for measurement of close tolerances up to 0.001mm Effect of useScale marking not subject to wear but the end of scale is worn. Thus it may be difficult to assume zero of scale as datum Measuring faces get worn out. To take care of this end pieces can be hardened, protecting type, buil-in datum is providedOther errorsThere can be parallax errorErrors may get introduced due to improper wringing of slip gauges. Some errors may be caused due to change in laboratory temperature21/01/2012lec# 3 & 46Limits, Fits & ToleranceTolerance: is the difference in size b/w limits, prescribed in order to allow reasonable errors in workmanship1.1. Unilateral Tolerance: one which is disposed either below or above the basic size1.2. Bilateral Tolerance: one which is disposed both above & below the basic size21/01/2012lec# 3 & 47Limits, Fits & Tolerance (cont..)2. Interference: is the difference in size b/w female feature & male mating feature when the later feature is larger3. Clearance: is the difference in size b/w female feature & male mating feature when male feature is smaller4. Allowance: is the specified difference b/w low limit of size of female feature & the high limit of size of male feature 21/01/2012lec# 3 & 48Limits, Fits & Tolerance (cont..)Limits: The extreme allowable range in any manufacturing feature , Ormaximum & minimum allowable errors above the basic size6. Fits: Literal meaning is to adjust. The fit b/w the two mating features is the relationship which results with respect to clearance or interference obtained 21/01/2012lec# 3 & 49Limits, Fits & Tolerance (cont..)7. Limits System: It consists of series of tolerances & allowances arranged to suit a specific range of sizes, so that limits of size may be selected & given to pairs of mating feature to ensure specific class of fit 21/01/2012lec# 3 & 410Limits, Fits & Tolerance (cont..)Definitions:Shaft: it refers not only the diameter of a circular shaft but to any external dimension on a componentHole: it refers not only the diameter of a circular hole but to any internal dimension on a component
21/01/2012lec# 3 & 411Limits, Fits & Tolerance (cont..)Definitions (cont..):3. Actual size of a shaft: this is the measured dimension of the part4. Basic Size: the basic size is a standard size for the part & is the same for both the hole & its shaft5. Zero line: this is the line which represents the basic size so that the deviation from the basic size is zero21/01/2012lec# 3 & 412Limits, Fits & Tolerance (cont..)Classes of Fits:Clearance Fit: A Clearance fit could be obtained by making the lower limit on the hole equal to a larger than the upper limit on the shaft. Any hole & any shaft made to these tolerances would assemble with a clearance fit with certainity21/01/2012lec# 3 & 413Limits, Fits & Tolerance (cont..)Classes of Fits (cont..):Interference Fit:An Interference fit would be obtained with equal certainty by making the lower limit on the shaft equal to or larger than the upper limit on the hole21/01/2012lec# 3 & 414Limits, Fits & Tolerance (cont..)Classes of Fits (cont..):Transition Fit: Transition fit, b/w these two conditions lies a range of fits known as transition fit. These are obtained when the upper limit on the shaft is larger than the lower on the hole, & the lower limit on the shaft is smaller than the upper limit on the hole. It must be realized that transition fits exist only as a class; any actual hole & shaft must assemble with either a clearance or interference fit.21/01/2012lec# 3 & 415Limits, Fits & Tolerance (cont..)Basis of Fits (or limit) System:This system may be arranged on the followingbasis:Hole Basis System: Hole basis system is one in which the limits on the hole are kept constant & the variation necessary to obtain the classes of fit are arranged by varying those on the shaft.
21/01/2012lec# 3 & 416Limits, Fits & Tolerance (cont..)Basis of Fits (or limit) System (cont..):Shaft basis System:Shaft basis system is one in which the limits on the shaft are kept constant & the variations necessary to obtain the classes of fit are arranged by varying the limits on the holes.
21/01/2012lec# 3 & 417Limits, Fits & Tolerance (cont..)Preferred Basis of Fits (or limit) System:In present day industrial practice hole basis system is usedbecause a great may holes are produced by standard tooling,for example reamers, drills etc, whose size is not adjustable.Subsequently the shaft sizes are more readily variable aboutthe basic size by means of turning & grinding operations. Thusthe hole basis system results in considerable reduction inreamers & other precision tools as compared to a shaft basis system,because in shaft basis system due to non-adjustable nature of reamersdrills etc. great variety (of sizes)of these tools are required forproducing different classes of holes for one class of shaft for obtainingdifferent fits
21/01/2012lec# 3 & 418Limits, Fits & Tolerance (cont..)Systems of Specifying Tolerances:For Detail refer bookDesignation of Holes, Shafts & Fits:A Hole or Shaft is completely described if the basic size, followed by the appropriate letter & by the number of tolerance grade, is given.Eg: - A 25mm H-hole with the tolerance grade IT8 is given as: 25mm H8 or simply 25H8 - A 25 mm f-shaft with the tolerance grade IT7 is given as: 25mmf7 or Simply 25f7
21/01/2012lec# 3 & 419Limits, Fits & Tolerance (cont..)Designation of Holes, Shafts & Fits (cont..):A Fit is indicated by combining the designations for both the hole & shaft with the hole designation written first, regardless of the system (i.e. hole system or shaft system), eg: 25H8-f7 Or 25H8/f7
21/01/2012lec# 3 & 420Limits, Fits & Tolerance (cont..)Commonly Used Holes & Shafts:In several engineering applications the fits required can be met by a quite small selection from the full range available in the standards. The holes & the shafts commonly used are as follows:Holes: H6, H7, H8, H9, H11.Shafts: c11, d10, e9, f7, g6, h6, k6, n6, p6, s6.IS: 919 gives the most commonly used holes & shafts up to 500mm for the purpose of general engineering21/01/2012lec# 3 & 421Limits, Fits & Tolerance (cont..)ISO System of Limits & Fits:ISO has presently been universally adopted & as a matter of fact IS:919 is almost in line with this system
Other characteristics such as fundamental deviations & tolerance unit etc are same in both the systems
21/01/2012lec# 3 & 422ISOIS: 919Classes of holes2825Tolerance grade1818Classes of shaft2825Limits, Fits & Tolerance (cont..)Types of Fits:Selective FitPush Fit Driving Fit Forced or Pressed Fit Shrinkage Fit Freeze Fit
21/01/2012lec# 3 & 423