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Global IP Summit 2000 Global IP Summit 2000 Migrating from IPv4 to IPv6: planning an effective IPv6 transition Ivano Guardini - CSELT S.p.A. e-mail: [email protected]

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Page 1: Migrating from IPv4 to IPv6: planning an effective IPv6 transi · Migrating from IPv4 to IPv6: ... tunnel broker server operated by the IPv6 ISP ... Migrating from IPv4 to IPv6: planning

Global IP Summit 2000Global IP Summit 2000

Migrating from IPv4 to IPv6:planning an effective

IPv6 transition

Ivano Guardini - CSELT S.p.A.e-mail: [email protected]

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Why a transition to IPv6?• The IPv4 addresses are running out• The Internet routing system is getting

overloaded• IPv6 provides new features

– virtually unlimited addressing space– native support for mobility, security, multicast, etc.– plug & play

• The cost of a “non-transition”– the use of private addresses and NATs breaks

end-to-end transparency (failure of someapplications & loss of flexibility )

– enhancing IPv4 to make it IPv6-like is costly

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Availability of IPv4 addresses

• Theoretical upper bound: 232 ~ 4 billions• Practical upper bound: ~ 200 millions

– the hierarchical nature of the Internet limits theassignment efficiency (rfc1715)

• Assigned IPv4 addresses– ~ 72 millions (January 2000)– these are just the addresses registered in the DNS

system (i.e. a lower bound)– the growth is exponential

• When will we reach the upper bound of200 million hosts in the Internet?

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Internet growth forecasts

1

10

100

1,000

93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05year

N. H

ost

s (m

illio

ns)

host counts 1996-1999 1993-1999

200 Millions

Source: Internet Software Consortium (http://www.isc.org)

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Backbone routing overload

Source: http://telstra.net/ops/bgptable.html

Growth rate: ~15000 routes/year

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When should we start?

• Certainly not later then 2003– sometime between 2001 and 2003 getting a

bunch of global IPv4 addresses might becomereally difficult

• But it is much better to start sooner– more time to plan a smooth transition– more time to gain the necessary IPv6 expertise– just setting up an early IPv6 service is cheap– several ISPs and user communities have already

begun

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IPv6 deployment issues

• IPv4 and IPv6 do not interoperate– IPv4 applications do not work with IPv6– IPv4 nodes can not communicate with IPv6 nodes

• The applications have to be modified– a lot of work still has to be done......

• It is likely that IPv4 and IPv6 will coexistfor a long period of time– how to enable communications among IPv6

islands isolated in the IPv4 world?– how to enable communications between the

existing IPv4 world and the new IPv6 world?

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Basic transition mechanisms

• Dual IP Stack– provision of complete support for both IPv4 and

IPv6 in hosts and routers

• IPv6 over IPv4 tunneling– encapsulation of IPv6 packets within IPv4 headers

to carry them over an IPv4 network (e.g. Internet)– two types of tunneling: configured and automatic

IPv6 IPv4

TCP/UDP

Application

Data Linkdual-stack node

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Configured tunneling

IPv4/v6Router

IPv4/v6Router

Encapsulate Decapsulate

S R1 DR2

R1 R2

IPv4 networkIPv6 island IPv6 island

Tunnel

IPv6 Header

TCP Header

User Data

IPv6 Header

TCP Header

User Data

IPv4 Header

IPv6 Header

TCP Header

User Data

Src = R1.IPv4Dst = R2.IPv4

on R1 and R2

IPv6 host IPv6 hostIPv6 host

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Automatic tunneling

R1 R2

IPv4 networkIPv4 site IPv4 site

Tunnel

IPv4Router

IPv4Router

Encapsulate Decapsulate

S R1 DR2

IPv6 Header

TCP Header

User Data

IPv4 Header

IPv6 Header

TCP Header

User Data

Src = S.IPv4Dst = D.IPv4

dual-stackdual-stackhosthost

dual-stackdual-stackhosthost

Src = ::S.IPv4Dst = ::D.IPv4

AutomaticDerivation

IPv4 compatibleaddresses

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The need for other tools

• Issues with simple dual-stack– it does not reduce the demand for globally

routable IPv4 addresses– it increases network complexity due to the need

for a double (IPv4/IPv6) routing infrastructure

• Issues with simple tunneling– configured tunneling requires heavy manual

configuration and therefore does not scale well– automatic tunneling is not the solution because it

can be used only between individual hosts

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Other dual-stack approaches

• DSTM (Dual Stack Transition Mechanism)– deployment of dual-stack nodes with dynamically

assigned IPv4 addresses– IPv4 over IPv6 tunneling to avoid the need for a

dual-stack routing infrastructure

• Application Level Gateways (ALG)– the client is IPv6-only and the communication with

the IPv4 world goes through a dual-stack proxy

IPv6-only node

IPv6 network

IPv6 IPv4

IPv4 Web Site

IPv4 network

IPv6Connection

IPv4Connection

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A dual-stack alternative

• NAT-PT (NAT - Protocol Translator)– the customer site is an IPv6-only network– the communication with the IPv4 world relays on a

NAT box that translates between IPv4 and IPv6

IPv6-only island

Dual-StackRouter

NAT-PT

IPv4 network (e.g. Internet)

IPv4 addresspool

IPv6 addresspool

- address translation- protocol translation

Operations

IPv6 traffic IPv4 traffic

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Issues with NAT-PT

• More or less the same as IPv4 NATs– some applications may not work (need for ALGs)– IPsec, Mobile IP, etc. fail (no e2e transparency)– performance degradation– single point of failure– need for strict coordination with DNS for automatic

translation state initialization

• But– unlike IPv4 NATs, NAT-PTs are just a temporary

solution– after the transition has been completed the

NAT-PT box may be removed

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Tunneling enhancements• Tunnel Broker

– automatic tunnel and DNS setup assisted by atunnel broker server operated by the IPv6 ISP

• 6over4– IPv6 hosts in an IPv4 site communicate through

automatic IPv6 over IPv4 encapsulation– a virtual link is created relaying on IPv4 multicast

to enable IPv6 Neighbor Discovery over IPv4

• 6to4– interconnection of isolated IPv6 domains in an

IPv4 world (e.g. Internet)– the egress router of the IPv6 domain automatically

creates a tunnel to the other domain

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The tunnel broker service at CSELT

Client Tunnel Broker DNS Server

R4/6R4/6

R4/6

Tunnel Servers

Dual-StackNode

Service available at: https://carmen.cselt.it/ipv6tb

https

The client providesminimal configuration

information

The client providesminimal configuration

information1

rsh

rshTunnel Broker configures

client, DNS and theselected Tunnel Server

Tunnel Broker configuresclient, DNS and the

selected Tunnel Server

2

The tunnel is now upand working

The tunnel is now upand working

3

Wide area IPv6 network(6bone, 6REN, etc.)

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6over4 operation

R4/66over4Dual-Stack

IPv4 Multicast Network

Dual-Stack

6over4Cloud

Encapsulated

NativeCloud

6over4Cloud

- the whole IPv4 network becomes a virtual IPv6 link- IPv6 multicast mapped over organization-local IPv4 multicast

IPv4 end-point and router discovery via ND

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6to4 operation

• IPv6 Addressing– any isolated IPv6 domain can autonomously build

its own globally unique IPv6 prefix– the globally unique IPv4 address of the domain

border router is used for this purpose

Internet

R4/6

IPv6 island

6to4 TLA IPv4 address

16 32

Interface ID

16

SLA ID

64 bit

Well known0x2002

Public IPv4 address of the dual-stack GW

IPv4 address = 163.162.1.16to4 prefix = 2002:A3A2:0101::/48

Example

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6to4 operation (cont.)

• Communication among 6to4 sites– the egress router automatically creates a tunnel to

the destination domain– the IPv4 endpoint is extracted from the destination

IPv6 prefix– only the egress router has to be 6to4 capable

Internet

R6to4

R6to4

2002:A3A2:0101::/48

163.162.1.1

2002:8264:0F01::/48

130.100.1.1

Tunnel

6to4 Site

6to4 Site

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6to4 operation (cont.)

• Communication with the native IPv6 world– based on 6to4 relays– a 6to4 router must be able to locate at least one

6to4 relay (e.g. manual conf.)

R6to4

Isolated6to4 Site

Growing IPv6 world

6to4relay

ISPISP

2002:8264:0F01::/48

130.100.1.1 SiteSite2002::/16

ISPISP

2001:0600::/48

Internet

Tunnel

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Summary• How to enable communications among IPv6

islands isolated in the IPv4 world?– simple tunneling (configured or automatic)– Tunnel Broker– 6over4– 6to4

• How to enable communications between theexisting IPv4 world and the new IPv6 world?– simple dual-stack– Application Level Gateways (ALG)– DSTM– NAT-PT

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Availability of IPv6 applications

• A lot of work still has to be done– just a few IPv6 applications are available to time

(e.g. ftp, telnet, ping, some WWW browsers)

• BIS (Bump In the Stack) may be of help– to use of IPv4 applications over an IPv6 network– it is like NAT-PT implemented within the host

IPv6

IPv4

IPv4Application

Data LinkIPv6-only network

Translator

IPv6 traffic

TCP/UDP

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Transitions scenarios

• Company– new organization– existing organization with lots of IPv4 addresses– existing organization with private IPv4 addresses

and NATs

• ISP– backbone ISP– small/medium ISP

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New organization

• Network technology:– deploying an IPv6-only network is future proof

• Communication with the IPv4 world– at least one global IPv4 address– NAT-PT or dual-stack ALG (e.g. WWW proxy)

• Communication with other IPv6 domains– IPv4-only ISP: configured tunneling or 6to4– dual-stack ISP: relay on the upstream IPv6 service

• DNS– a dual-stack DNS is required if the upstream ISP

does not provide native IPv6 DNS

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New organization (cont.)

• Applications– at least all the basic Intranet/Internet services (e.g.

WWW, e-mail) must be provided over IPv6– BIS may be used to support IPv4-only applications

IPv6-onlyIPv6-onlynetworknetwork

dual-stackLAN

dual-stackDNS

Internet

R4/6NAT-PT6to4

R6to4

6to4 cloud

IPv4userIPv6

IPv4IPv6 over IPv4

IPv6

R4/6

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Existing organization

• Network technology– migration to dual-stack anywhere with configured

tunneling or 6over4 during the transition

• Communication with the IPv4 world– IPv4 end-to-end (if lots of addresses are available)– or use the existing proxy or NAT box

• Communication with other IPv6 domains– IPv4-only ISP: configured tunneling or 6to4– dual-stack ISP: relay on the upstream IPv6 service

• DNS– AAAA Records must be supported

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Backbone ISP• IPv6 equipment

– deployment of dedicated IPv6 routers and servers

• Addressing– apply for a TLA prefix (RIPE, ARIN or APNIC)

• IPv6 connectivity in the backbone– initially configured tunneling over the existing IPv4

infrastructure should be enough– migration to native links as the IPv6 traffic grows

• IPv6 connectivity with other ISPs– setup of IPv6 peerings with other big ISPs– the IPv6 peering policies should be similar to

those in place for IPv4

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IPv6user

Backbone ISP (cont.)

• IPv6 connectivity to customers– configured tunneling or native connections– provision of a 6to4 relay service to reach isolated

6to4 clouds– the Tunnel Broker approach may be suitable for

residential customers or small networks

IPv6user

IPv4

R6 R4/6

R4/6R4/6IPv6 ISP

IPv6IPv6userR4/6 R6

6to4relay

DNSTunnelBroker

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Transition steps

1995

1996

1997

IPv6 lab

R6R6

• Laboratory experiments– network services– applications

• Geographical experiments (6bone)– DNS– IPv6 addressing– BGP4+ routing

IPv6lab

IPv6lab

IPv6lab

Internet

R4/6R4/6

R4/6

Tunnel

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Transition steps (cont.)

1998

1999

2000

Internet

IPv6lab

R6R6

R6

Native IPv6Network

IPv6user

IPv6 ISP

R4/6IPv4

R4/6

R4/6

R4/6IPv6

Exchange

IPv6Exchange

R6

IPv6lab

R6 R6

R6R4/6

Tunnel

R4/6

R6

• The transition to IPv6has already begun.....

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For further information....

• IETF ipng working group– http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/ipngwg-charter.html

• IETF ngtrans working group– http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/ngtrans-charter.html

• 6bone– http://www.6bone.net

• IPv6 Forum– http://www.ipv6forum.com

• CSELT Official IPv6 Site– http://carmen.cselt.it/ipv6 (IPv4)– http://carmen.ipv6.cselt.it/ipv6 (IPv4 & IPv6)