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http://aesthetech.weebly.com/blog.html Angela Christopher The Smith and Ragan model for instructional design is rooted in the learning theory work of Robert Gagné. It is valuable for its prescriptive structure and detailed attention to instructional strategies for particular types of learning. Fall 11 Model Resource

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ModelResourceAngelaChristopher

TheSmithandRaganmodelforinstructionaldesignisrootedinthelearningtheoryworkof Robert Gagn. It is valuable for its prescriptive structure and detailed attention to instructionalstrategiesforparticulartypesoflearning.

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http://aesthetech.weebly.com/blog.html

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THESMIITH&RAGANMODEL HE M TH AG AN O D EL

OverviewGustafsonandBranch(2002),classifytheSmithandRaganmodelassystemsoriented.The classification signifies the model may be best suited for developing large amounts of instruction such as an entire course or curriculum. Other characteristics of systems orientedmodelsincludethefollowing;theavailabilityofsignificantresourcestoatrained design team, high frontend analysis, emphasis on tryout and revision, widespread dissemination,andinstructionaldeliveryoccurswithoutthedesignteam.IntheirSurvey ofInstructionalDevelopmentModels(2002),GustafsonandBranchsuggestthismodelmay beparticularlyusefulforthoseinterestedinthepsychologyofinstructionaldesign. Intheirpositionstatement,SmithandRaganclaimthattheydonotencouragetheuseof anyoneinstructionaldesignmodeloveranother.Instead,theyrecommendunderstanding the principles that guide design. A solid foundation in theory, models, and design principlesprovidesonewiththeknowledgebasenecessarytoselectandtweakelements fromvariousmodels.Theyrecommendusingthismodeltodevelopamentalframework thatwillguidetheprocessofbuildingyourownmodel,(Smith&Ragan,2005,p.11).

HistoryandKeyIndividualsSmithandRagancreditRobertM.Gagn,M.D.Merril,andC.M.Reigeluthfortheirworkin learning theory and significant contributions to the development of instructional theory. They recognize that Gang clarified the relationship between instructional events, the learning process, and learning outcomes. His work provided a foundation for conditions based models of instruction (Smith & Ragan, 1996). Implications of Gagnes work can clearlybeidentifiedinSmithandRagansphilosophyandconditionsbasedmodel.Inthe third edition of Instructional Design, Smith and Ragan expand Gagnes Nine Events of Instructiontoprovidegenerativeandsupplantiveinstructionalstrategies.Intheirarticle, OpeningtheBlackBox:InstructionalStrategiesExamined(1994),SmithandRaganexplore the balance between instructional strategies and learner strategies in relation to the variables of context, learner, and task. They offer the proposition that there is a middle ground connecting supplantive instruction and learnerinitiated actions in which the designfacilitatestherequiredcognitiveprocessing(SmithandRagan,2001). SmithandRaganhaveutilizedawidearrayofliteratureandstrategiesforthedevelopment of a highly prescriptive model. They credit Reigeluth and Jonassen for the foundational work of their instructional theory. In a review of the philosophical perspectives of instructionaldesign,theauthorssharethepossiblehazardsoftheconstructivisttheoryas havingthepotentialofslippingintotheactivityforactivityssakemode,(Smith&Ragan, 2005,p.21).

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Until the Black Box paper (Ragan & Smith, 1994), there was little design guidance for instructional activities and sequences. Smith and Ragan scrutinized the literature and created a synthesis of instructional strategies as related to the expanded events of instruction.Theresultingpaperprovidedastrategyforeachtypeoflearning;declarative knowledge, concepts, relational rules, procedural rules, problem solving, cognitive strategies,attitudes,andpsychomotorskills.Uponreadingthe4theditionofInstructional Design (2005), and related writings, it has become apparent that the authors are quite thoroughintheirresearchandsynthesisofrelatedandapplicabletheoriesandstrategies. In their publications, Smith and Ragan share the development of a conditionsbased approach that includes microlevel instructional organization strategies. Their analysis and strategy phases are built on theories from Gagn, Jonassen, Mager, Merril, Reigeluth, andmanyothers.SmithandRagandescribetheConcernsBasedAdoptionModel,(CBAM) fromHallandHord,forimplementation.

TheModelSmithandRagandonotproposethattheirdesignmodelisunique.Infact,theysuggestitis A Common Model of Instructional Design,(Smith & Ragan, Instructional Design, 2005, p. 10). The three major activities of analysis, strategy development, and evaluation are indeedpartofmanyinstructionaldesignmodels.Theprimarydistinctionbetweenthisand other models is the detailed treatmentofinstructionalstrategies. Careful attention and thoughtful prescription of instructional strategiesisnotoftenfoundinother design models(Gustafson & Branch, 2002). AvisualrepresentationoftheSmith and Ragan model can be seen in Figure1.2,(Smith&Ragan,2005,p.

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10).Intheirtext,SmithandRagandiscussthenaturalyetmistaken,tendencytoviewthe visual and assume the design process is linear in nature. The authors explain that the visual in figure 1.2 is a means to simplify and organize the discussion around the design processes. The authors describe the activities associated with the development of instruction as frequently being concurrent. The steps within each phase are often interwoven in such a way that changes in one step cause the designer or design team, to makechangesinothersteps(seefigure1.3). GeneraldescriptionsforeachphaseoftheSmithandRaganmodelhavebeensummarized fromtheirtext,InstructionalDesign(2005),andcanbefoundonthenextfewpages.They areorganizedasfollows:(1)Analysisandassessment,(2)Instructionalstrategies,and(3) Implementation,management,andevaluation.Allfiguresinthispaperareavailablefrom theInstructorCompanionWebsiteandareduplicatesofthefiguresfoundintheSmithand Ragantext.

ANALYSISANDASSESSMENTThe analysis and assessment phase occurs prior to the development of instruction and involvesfourcomponents:contextualanalysis,learneranalysis,taskanalysis,andplanning forassessmentofthelearning.Inanefforttosavetime,designersoftenoverlookorskip frontendanalysis.SmithandRaganarguethatinthelongterm,focusedattentiononearly analysiswillsavetime,money,andfrustration. ContextAnalysis Thisinvestmentallowsonetodesignanddevelopinstructionalmaterialsthat supportlearningwhatistrulycritical,inawaythatthematerialscanactually beusedbytheintendedlearnersintheirlearningenvironment(p42). The analysis of the learning context involves two major components: (1) substantiation of a need for instruction to help learners reach learning goals and(2)adescriptionofthelearningenvironmentinwhichtheinstructionwill beused(p43). NeedsAssessment The first component of a contextual analysis involves conducting a needs assessment. Instructional designers use needs assessments to determine if the developmentofinstructionandsubsequent learning will result in the desired performance. Since desired performance and need should be examined in parallel, Smith and Ragan advise planning for the summative evaluation in conjunction with thisphase(seefigure3.1).

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Theauthorsdiscussthreetypesofneedsassessmentmodels: ProblemModelthereisaproblemtobecorrected. InnovationModeltheremaybesomethingnewtolearn. DiscrepancyModelanevaluationofprogramisnecessaryorrequired. Aneedsassessmentshouldresultinalistoflearnergoalsthatwillpointtowardwhatthe learnersshouldbeabletodoafterinstruction. DescriptionofEnvironment Thesecondcomponentofacontextualanalysisshoulddescribetheenvironmentinwhich the instruction will be implemented. Smith and Ragan argue that a thorough understanding of the learning environment will help guarantee that the newly developed instructionwillactuallybeused.Theauthorsprovidethereaderwithsixquestionsaimed at gathering information about the learning environment. The questions focus on factors such as teachers, existing curricula, equipment, facilities, organization, and the larger system. AnalyzingtheLearner Smith and Ragan assert that careful identification and description of a target audience is crucial to the success of instructional design efforts. A thorough understanding of the learner provides the designer with the necessary information to build effective and appealinginstruction. TypesofLearnerCharacteristics Learnercharacteristicscanbeclassifiedintofourmajorcategories:cognitive,physiological, affective,andsocial.Theauthorsprovideadetailedlistoftheprimarycharacteristicsto consider within each category (pp.6970). Furthermore, every factor may not be necessaryforthelearninganalysisofsomeprojects. CognitiveCharacteristics Cognitive characteristics can be further divided into four subgroups (dimensions) of similaritiesanddifferencesthatchangeovertimeorremainthesame.Designerscanbegin gathering cognitive information about their learners within these four categories; stable similarities, stable differences, changing similarities, and changing differences(seefigure4.1). Smith and Ragan point out that each of the four dimensions of cognitive characteristics have varying implications for instructional designers. According to Smith and

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Ragan,priorknowledgeisthemostimportantcharacteristicoflearnercognition.Theyalso note that many educators have a propensity to focus on only one of the four dimensions and advise that careful study of learners, as presented in their text, will provide the designerwithathoroughunderstandingofthetargetedlearners. AnalyzingtheLearningTask The needs assessment provides the designer with an understanding of what learners are unabletodo.Learnerneedsdrivetheinstructionalgoalsandpreparethedesignertobegin analyzingthelearningtask.Theprimarystepsinperformingalearningtaskanalysisareas follows: 1. Writealearninggoal. 2. Determinethetypesoflearninginthegoal. 3. Conductaninformationprocessinganalysisofthatgoal. 4. Conduct a prerequisite analysis and determine the type of learning of theprerequisites. 5. Write learning objectives for the learning goal and each of the prerequisites. 6. Writetestspecifications. Thefinalproductofthelearningtaskanalysisisalistofgoals,amplifiedwith testspecifications,thatdescribewhatthelearnersshouldknoworbeabletodo atthecompletionofinstructionandtheprerequisiteskillsandknowledgethat learnerswillneedinordertoachievethosegoals.(Smith&Ragan,2005,p.76). AssessingLearningfromInstruction Learning assessments provide information about student performance. In other words, does the instruction have the desired effect on learners knowledge and skills? A good designer generally begins to think about assessment instruments as she develops the learning objectives, (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 104). Smith and Ragan recommend concurrent development of objectives and assessments because the result is criterion referenced assessment items. According to the authors, quality assessment instruments stem from high quality objectives. The following list is an abbreviated version of the sequencerecommendedfordesigningassessmentsintheSmithandRaganmodel(p.105). 1. Identifytheassessmentspurposeandthetypeofdevelopmentmodelthatwillbeused. 2. Determinewhatkindsofassessmentsarenecessaryandwheretheyshouldoccurinthe instruction. 3. Determinewhatformstheitemsshouldtake(essay,multiplechoice,etc.) 4. Writetestitemsanddirections. 5. Determinehowmanyitemsareneeded. 6. Writeaninstructionalblueprint.

INSTRUCTIONALSTRATEGIESSmith and Ragan credit Reigeluth (1983) for describing instructional strategies as comprisedofthethreefollowingcharacteristics:

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Organizational Strategy Howwillthe instructionbe sequenced? DeliveryStrategy Whatinstructional mediumwillbeused? Howwilllearnersbe grouped?

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ManagementStrategy Schedulingand allocationof resources.

In chapter seven of Instructional Design (2005), Smith and Ragan explain that the strategies above can be planned at the course level (macro) or lesson level (micro). The followingbriefdescriptionssummarizeinstructionalstrategiesatthemicrolevel. OrganizationalStrategies Individuals learn through mental operations, a process called selective perception. Smith and Ragan recommend carefully considering the type and amount of scaffolding to be provided by the instruction and/or by the learner. A designers organizational strategy shouldanswerthefollowingthreequestions:(1)whatcontentisneeded?(2)howshould the content be presented? (3) how should it be sequenced? The authors share their expanded version of Gagnes Nine Events of Instruction to provide generative and supplantive instructional strategies organized around the general instructional characteristics which seemtopromotelearning: introduction, body, conclusion, and assessment (see figure 7.1). The expanded nine events can be used as an instructional framework for sequencing events at thelessonlevel.Smithand Ragan write, Instruction at both ends of the generativesupplantive continuumcanbelearner centered, active, and meaningful (Smith & Ragan,2005,p.131). DeliveryStrategies Inchapters8through12ofInstructionalDesign(2005),SmithandRaganprovidedetailed examples and suggestions for developing knowledge specific delivery of instruction. According to Gustafson and Branch (2002), the detailed and prescriptive nature of

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instructional strategies provided by Smith and Ragan are unique to their model. A summarizationofthosestrategiesfollows. Generalsequenceofinstructionaldelivery Introduction Deployattention/arouseinterestandmotivation Establishinstructionalpurpose Previewthelesson Recallpriorknowledge Processinformationandexamples Focusattention Employlearningstrategies Practice Evaluatefeedback Employlearningstrategies Summarizeandreview TransferKnowledge Remotivateandclose Assessmentofconceptlearning Evaluatefeedbackandseekremediation

Body

Closure

Declarative Knowledge knowing something: labels and names, facts and lists, and organizeddiscourse. Theoryofpropositionalnetworks Deliverystrategies: Linkingwithexistingknowledge Organizing(chunking) Elaborating Classification Conceptmapping Advancedorganizers Metaphorictechniques Rehearsalstrategies Mnemonics Imagery Sequenceofdelivery: Previewthelesson Bodystimulatingrecallofrelevantpriorknowledge Processinformation FocusAttention Employlearningstrategies Practice Feedback Conclusionsummarizeandreview

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ConceptLearningapplyingknowledgeacrossavarietyofinstances:recognizepatterns andgeneralize. Deliverystrategies: Inquiryapproach(generative) Expositoryapproach(supplantive) LearningProceduresproceduresareusuallyunambiguous.Theynotvaryandtheymay require making decisions. The learning of a procedure involves the ability to apply that procedure in a variety of previously unencountered situations (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 189).Proceduresrequireconceptrecognitionandabottomupsequencingisnecessary forteachingthem. Conceptsareaprerequisitetolearningprocedures Proceduralrules Relationalrules Informationprocessanalysis o Recognizeaprocedureisappropriate o Recalltheprocedure o Applythesteps o Makedecisionswhenneeded o Choosethecorrectbrancheswhennecessary o Completethebranchsteps o Determineiftheprocedurehasbeenappliedappropriately Designdecisions o Writingtheprocedure o Simpleversuscomplex o Expositoryordiscoverystrategy LearningPrinciplestherelationshipbetweentwomoreconcepts.Therelationshipsare usuallycause/effectinnature. Mentaloperationsarecalledproductions Principlesareaprerequisitetoproblemsolving Meaningfullearning Priorknowledgeofrepresentedconceptsisneeded Instructionaldelivery(conditionstosupportlearningprinciples) o Share a perplexing situation depicting a relationship between variables (demonstrationordescription). o Learnersaskquestionstogatherdata(computeranswersmaybeyes/no). o By the end, learners should be able to state a principle or rule about the relationshipbetweentheconceptspresented. o Discusstheinquiryprocess.Whatworkedandwhatdidnotwork? Learning Problem Solving involves combining learned principles, procedures, declarative knowledge, and/or cognitive strategies in a new way with the purpose of solvingaproblem.

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Choosing,combining,andutilizingmultipleprinciplesuntiltheproblemissolved Complexorsimple(fewerprinciples,clearproblem) Welldefined(singlesolution)orilldefined(multiplecorrectsolutions) Cognitiveprocessesrequiredtheabilitytoapplyprinciplesisaprerequisite o Problemrepresentation o Solutionplanning o Solutionimplementation o Solutionevaluation Taskanalysis o 1.Clarifythegivenstate(includeobstaclesandconstraints) o 2.Clarifythegoal o 3.Searchforrelevantpriorknowledge,principles,andcognitivestrategies o 4.Determineifconditionsandgoalimplyaknownproblem o 5.Unpacktheproblemintosubproblemsandsubgoals o 6.Developaplanforaddressingtheproblems o 7.Thinkaboutsolutions(paths)forsubproblems o 8.Selectasolutionpathandapplyproductionknowledgeinthecorrectorder o 9.Evaluateforgoalaccomplishment,ifnonethenrepeat19. LearningCognitiveStrategiestechniqueslearnersusetothinkandlearn. Learningstrategies:learnerswhoguidetheirownlearning o Designersshouldaskhowmuchcognitiveprocessingcouldthelearnerprovide? o Cognitivedomainstrategiessupportinformationprocessing o Affectivedomainstrategies(supportstrategies)areselfmotivationalskills Divergentthinkingstrategies:guidelearnersthroughthinkingaboutproblemsand generatingnewideas Cognitiverequirements o Analyzethelearningtaskandrequirements o Analyzeabilitytocompletethetask o Selectansuitablestrategy o Applythestrategy o Evaluatetheusefulnessofthestrategy o Reviseasneeded Instructionaldelivery o Discovery/guideddiscovery o Observation o Guidedparticipation o Strategyinstruction o Directexplanation o Dyadicinstruction o Selfinstructionaltraining Impediments o Lowlevelstrategyskills o Lowmotivation o Lowselfefficacy

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MODELRESOURCE 1 1 o Lackawarenessofownmemoryandprocessingcharacteristics o Lackknowledgeoftaskcharacteristics o Insufficienttime o Insufficientknowledge Assessmentscanresembleproblemsolvingassessments

Learning Attitudes learning for transformation or change in attitude (choosing to do something). Affectivedomain Cognitive and Psychomotor domains have affective components, designers can integratethethreedomains Componentsofattitudelearning o Cognitivecomponent:knowinghow o Behavioralcomponent:needtoapplytheattitude o Affectivecomponent:knowingwhy Instructionaldelivery o Demonstratedesiredbehavior(byarespectedrolemodel) o Practicethedesiredbehavior(roleplay) o Providereinforcement Assessment o Examinevaluesorinterests o Directselfreport,indirectselfreport,andobservation LearningPsychomotorSkillsrequirescoordinatedmuscularmovementsthatarenewto thelearner.Smoothmovementsandprecisetimingcharacterizesuccessfullearning. Typesofpsychomotorskills o Discreteskillssingleorfewstepswithspecificbeginningandend o Continuousskillssubtlebeginningandend o Closedskillsnoactiveinfluencefromenvironment o Openskillstheenvironmentcausesthelearnertomakeadjustments o Personandobjectmotionpersonorobjectmayormaynotbeinmotion Elementsofpsychomotorskills o Executivesubroutines o Temporalpatterning Practice o Massedorspaced o Wholeorpart Progressivepartmethod Backwardschaining o Feedbackiscriticalbecauselearnerdoesnotknowwhatitfeelsliketocomplete thetasksuccessfully Product Process Tasksanalysis

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MODELRESOURCE 1 2 o Cognitivephaselearningthevocabularyandverbalinformationaswellas proceduralrules o Associativephaselearninghowtophysicallyperformtheskill o Autonomousphasepracticeandfeedbackguidelearnertosmooth,precise movements.Successmayappeareffortless.

MacroStrategieslargerunitsofinstructionorcurriculumdevelopment Curriculumsequencingstructures o Worldrelated o Inquiryrelated o Utilizationrelated o Learningrelated o Conceptrelated o Elaborationmodel Toolsandconcepts o Scopeandsequence o Objectorientedcurriculumarchitecture o Articulation

IMPLEMENTATION,MANAGEMENT,ANDEVALUATIONInthevisualrepresentationoftheSmithandRaganmodel,theevaluationphaseappearsto be separate from the strategies for instruction, implementation, and management. In reality,thesesectionsareinterwovenandthethreetopicsaremingledwithevaluationand revision. Implementation Implementation is the act of putting designs into use in the context for which they are intended,(SmithandRagan,2005.p.305).Theauthorsadvocateearlyconversationsand decisions regarding the four key concepts of implementation: diffusion, dissemination, adoption, and stakeholders. Chapter 17 illustrates principles for encouraging implementation through the stages of the adoption process: awareness, interest, evaluation,trial,adoption,andintegration.TheauthorspresentHallandHordsConcerns BasedAdoptionModel(CBAM)asamethodtofacilitateimplementation.TheCBAMhasa userfocusandaddressestheviewpointsofpotentialuserstowardtheimplementationofa new design. The models general purpose is to support users within an organization in accordance with their needs and interests. The CBAM is useful for instances where the implementation desired is complex and will result in high levels of change for the organizationandusers. ManagementofInstruction Project managers facilitate the work of a design team. Design teams and managers must function efficiently within the following interdependent restraints of a project: quality/performance, cost, time, and scope. In addition to being a skilled instructional designer, a project manager should also be adept at communication, meeting facilitation, presentation, learning, revision, ethics, evaluation, budgets, etc (Smith and Ragan, 2005. p.315). The manager keeps all of the components of a project coordinated and ensures

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deadlines are met. Management practices vary based on the culture and context of the workandrelyoneffectivedocumentationforplanningandtrackingthedevelopmentofa designproject.Ingeneral,thelargerthescopeofaproject,themoredocumentationwillbe essentialtothesuccessoftheproject.SmithandRaganlistthefollowingsevendocuments ascriticaltomanagement: o Proposal o ResourceAnalysis o Schedule o Budget o RiskAnalysis/TroubleshootingPlan o AssessmentandEvaluation o ProjectReport/Summary FormativeandSummativeEvaluation Evaluationoccursduringandafterdesigndevelopmentandinformsthedesignerandthe learnerifthedesiredlearninghastakenplace.Inotherwords,evaluationdeterminesifthe instructional strategies and materials function as intended. Formative evaluation aids in determining flaws within the instruction so that revisions can be made to improve the materials and strategies of the project. Summative evaluation occurs after project developmentandverifiestheoveralleffectivenessoftheinstructionalmaterials.Smithand Ragansuggestbothformativeandsummativeevaluationsshouldbeplannedintheinitial phasesofthedesignprocessinaccordancewiththetypesandlearningandstrategiesfor delivery. Smith and Ragan provide detailed guidelines for formative evaluation (Willis & Wrigth,2000). Formative evaluation involves tryouts of the instructional materials with the intended audience. Although such tryouts usually produce more efficient materials, formative evaluationisoftenpassedoverbecauseoftheexpenserequired.SmithandRaganargue that effective training results from quality formative evaluation and therefore creates a moreprofitableproduct. The instruction should be formatively tested with members of the intended learning population.Onetooneevaluationsresultinidentificationofoverarchingproblemswithin theinstruction.Smallgroupevaluationsenablethedesignertotestouttherevisionmade as a result of data collected from onetoone evaluation. Performance, attitude, and time data should be collected during smallgroup evaluations and used to revise instruction priortofieldtrials.Fieldtrialsevaluatethechangesmadeaftersmallgroupevaluationand areusedtodeterminepotentialproblemsthatcouldoccurduringtheadministrationofthe instructionwithintheintendedcontext.Finally,fieldtrialsenabletodesignertotestthe instructionwithalargersampleofthetargetpopulationandmakepredictionsaboutthe effectivenessoftheproduct. Summative evaluations collect and summarize data in regard to the overall effectiveness, appeal, and efficiency of the instruction. Smith and Ragan suggest the following specific questionstoguidesummativeevaluation(SmithandRagan,2005.p.343):

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o o o o o o

MODELRESOURCE 1 4 Dothelearnersachievethegoalsoftheinstruction? Howdothelearnersfeelabouttheinstruction? Whatarethecostsoftheinstruction? Howmuchtimedoesittakeforlearnerstocompletetheinstruction? Istheinstructionimplementedasitwasdesigned? Whatunexpectedoutcomesresultfromtheinstruction?

The authors suggest summative evaluation should not take place during the first implementationoftheprogram.Theycautionthattrainersandteachersareoftenlearning how to implement the instruction during the first administration. Summative evaluation proceduresincludethefollowing: o Determinegoalsofevaluation o Selectindicatorsofsuccess o Selectorientationofevaluation o Selectdesignofevaluation o Designorselectevaluationmeasures o Collectdata o Analyzedata o Reportresults

DifferentiationandConclusionsIn the Survey of Instructional Design Models (2002), Gustafson and Branch describe the uniquedetailedandprescriptivenatureofinstructionalstrategiesprovidedbySmithand Ragan. In fact, the entire model is prescriptive in nature and provides thorough descriptionsandrecommendationsfornotonlyeachphaseofthedesignprocessbutalso for the type of learning and learners involved. Other systems models such as the IPISD modelmayprovideexplicitanddetailedprocessesfordesignbutaresospecificthatthey canonlybeusedforonetypeofaudience(inthiscasethemilitary).TheDick,Carey,and Carey model provides detailed processes for analysis and evaluation but more general descriptionsforinstructionalstrategies. In the Handbook for Educational Communications and Technology (2001), Smith and Ragan review conditionsbased models from Landa, Tennyson and Rasch, Merril, Li, and Jones.TheyfurtherdescribehownotablescholarssuchasJonassen,Grabinger,andHarris, Horn,West,Farmer,andWolf,andE.Gagnhaveusedconditionsbasedmodelsintheir work. Smith and Ragans work is built on the conditionsbased theory that learning outcomes can be categorized and the different outcome categories require different internalcognitiveprocessingactivities.Furthermore,learningoutcomesaredependanton learninghierarchiesanddifferentlearningoutcomesrequiredifferentexternalconditions. Jonassen(1997,p.66),reportsthatSmithandRaganrecommendtheexpandedeventsof instruction,althoughnotentirelysufficient,forproblembasedlearningwhenthemajority ofinstructionaldesignliteraturehasnottackledthetask.Themodelcanalsobeadapted for scaffolding of Webbased instruction, (Dabbagh, 2002). In conclusion, the Smith and Ragan Model places a strong emphasis on specific instructional strategies designed for

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particular types of learning and learners. (Smith & Ragan, Conditionsbased models for designinginstruction,2001)

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BIIBLIIOGRAPHY BL O GRAPHYDabbagh,N.(2002).Scaffolding:AnImportantTeacherCompetencyinOnlineLearning. TechTrends,47(2),3944. Gustafson,K.L.,&Branch,R.M.(2002).Surveyofinstructionaldevelopmentmodels.(Fourth Editioned.).Syracuse,NewYork,SyracuseUniversity. Jonassen,D.H.(1997).InstructionalDesignModelsforWellStructuredandIllStructured ProblemSolvingLearningOutcomes.EducationalTechnologyResearchandDesign, 45,6594. Ragan,T.J.,&Smith,P.L.(1994).Openingtheblackbox:instructionalstrategiesexamined. AssocationforEducatonalCommunicationsandTechnology. Smith,P.L.,&Ragan,T.J.(2001).Conditionsbasedmodelsfordesigninginstruction. (Jonassen,Ed.)TheHandbookforEducationalCommunicationsandTechnology,623 644. Smith,P.L.,&Ragan,T.J.(1996).ImpactofR.M.Gagne'sworkoninstrctionaltheory. AssocationforEducatonalCommunicationsandTechnology. Smith,P.L.,&Ragan,T.J.(2005).InstructionalDesign(Thirded.).Hoboken,NJ:JohnWiley &Sons,Inc. Willis,J.,&Wrigth,K.E.(2000,MarchApril).AGeneralSetofProceduresforConstructivist InstructionalDesign.EducationalTechnology,520.

WEBRESOURCES EB ESO U RCES IDEAS:InstructionalDesignforElearningApproaches,Blog http://ideas.blogs.com/lo/instructional_design/ Reflections and insights on elearning strategies and instructional technology design by FerdinandKrauss. InstructionalAnalysis,AnalyzingtheLearners,studentsummaries http://www.angelfire.com/la2/learners/learners.html ThiswebpageprovidessummariesforchapterfourofSmithandRaganstext:Instructional Analysis, Analyzing the learners. Tables provide easy to understand organization of the keycomponentsdescribedintheSmithandRagantext. InstructionalDesign,3rdedition,InstructorCompanionSite

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http://bcs.wiley.com/hebcs/Books?action=index&bcsId=2112&itemId=0471393533 SmithandRaganprovideanextendedexampleforthedesigncomponentsoftheirmodel, textillustrations,PowerPointpresentations,andJobAidsinthisinstructorcompanionsite. InstructionalDesign,ComponentDisplayTheory http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/componentdisplay.html TheSmithandRaganmodelhasrootsinMerrilswork,ComponentDisplayTheory.This websiteprovidesthereaderwithadditionalbackgroundinformationCDTnotdiscussedin thispaper. InstructionalDesignKnowledgeBase http://classweb.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/IDKB/evaluation.htm Thiswebsiteprovidesamatrixforidentifyingscholarlyworkandresourcesforformative andsummativeevaluation. InstructionalDesignILIPG,PowerPointPresentation http://www.ilipg.org/sites/ilipg.org/files/bo/instructional_design.ppt This presentation provides background information on instructional design and a comparisonofmodels. Robert Gagnes Instructional Design Model, The Nine Events of Instruction, on SlideShare http://www.slideshare.net/CPappasOnline/robertgagnesinstructiondesignmodelthe nineeventsofinstructions The Smith and Ragan Model is built on their expanded events of instruction, this presentationprovidesathoroughdescriptionofGagnesoriginalnineevents. TenTrendsAffectingtheFieldofInstructionalDesignandTechnology,Blog http://drajphd.wordpress.com/2011/09/09/tentrendsaffectingthefieldof instructionaldesignandtechnology/ ThisblogpresentsnotesfromRobertReiserspresentationatCreatedescribingthecurrent trends(andbenefitsandchallenges)ininstructionaldesignandtechnology.

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