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Slides of a portion in Management of production systems taught at NIT Calicut


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Warehouses & Distribution Centers


Material Costs

Transportation Costs Manufacturing Costs

Transportation Costs Inventory Costs

Transportation Costs


The Supply Chain Another ViewPlan Source Make Deliver Buy



Warehouses & Distribution Centers


Material Costs

Transportation Transportation Costs Transportation Costs Manufacturing Costs Inventory Costs Costs


What Is Supply Chain Management (SCM)?Plan Make Buy Source Deliver

A set of approaches used to efficiently integrate

Suppliers Manufacturers Warehouses Distribution centers

So that the product is produced and distributed

In the right quantities To the right locations And at the right time


System-wide costs are minimized and

Why Is SCM Difficult?Plan Source Make Deliver Buy

Uncertainty is inherent to every supply chain

Travel times Breakdowns of machines and vehicles Weather, natural catastrophe, war Local politics, labor conditions, border issues

The complexity of the problem to globally optimize a supply chain is significant

Minimize internal costs Minimize uncertainty Deal with remaining uncertainty


The Objective of a Supply Chain

Maximize overall value created Supply chain value: difference between what the final product is worth to the customer and the effort the supply chain expends in filling the customers request Value is correlated to supply chain profitability (difference between revenue generated from the 12/29/12 customer and the overall cost across

The Objective of a Supply Chain

Supply chain incurs costs (information, storage, transportation, components, assembly, etc.) Supply chain profitability is total profit to be shared across all stages of the supply chain Supply chain success should be measured by total supply chain profitability, not profits at an 12/29/12 individual stage

The Objective of a Supply Chain

Sources of supply chain revenue: the


Sources of supply chain cost: flows of information, products, or funds between stages of the supply chain Supply chain management is the management of flows between and among supply chain stages to maximize total supply chain 12/29/12 profitability

Decision Phases of a Supply Chain

Supply chain strategy or design Supply chain planning Supply chain operation


Supply Chain Strategy or Design

Decisions about the structure of the supply chain and what processes each stage will perform Strategic supply chain decisions

Locations and capacities of facilities Products to be made or stored at various locations Modes of transportation Information systems

Supply chain design must support strategic objectives12/29/12

Supply chain design decisions are long-term and expensive to reverse must take into account

Supply Chain Planning

Definition of a set of policies that govern short-term operations Fixed by the supply configuration from previous phase Starts with a forecast of demand in the coming year


Supply Chain Planning

Planning decisions:

Which markets will be supplied from which locations Planned buildup of inventories Subcontracting, backup locations Inventory policies Timing and size of market promotions

Must consider in planning decisions demand uncertainty, exchange rates, 12/29/12

Supply Chain Operation

Time horizon is weekly or daily Decisions regarding individual customer orders Supply chain configuration is fixed and operating policies are determined Goal is to implement the operating policies as effectively as possible Allocate orders to inventory or production, set order due dates, generate pick lists at a warehouse, allocate an order to a particular shipment, set delivery schedules, place replenishment orders 12/29/12

Process View of a Supply Chain

Cycle view: processes in a supply chain are divided into a series of cycles, each performed at the interfaces between two successive supply chain stages Push/pull view: processes in a supply chain are divided into two categories depending on whether they are executed in response to a customer order (pull) or in 12/29/12

Cycle View of Supply ChainsCustomer Order Cycle Replenishment Cycle

Custom er Retail er Distribut or Manufactur er Suppli er

Manufacturing Cycle Procurement Cycle12/29/12

Each cycle occurs at the interface between two successive stages Customer order cycle (customer-retailer) Replenishment cycle (retailer-distributor) Manufacturing cycle (distributormanufacturer) Procurement cycle (manufacturer-supplier) Cycle view clearly defines processes involved and the owners of each process. Specifies the roles and responsibilities of 12/29/12 each member and the desired outcome of

Cycle View of a Supply Chain

Customer Order Cycle

Involves all processes directly involved in receiving and filling the customers order Customer arrival Customer order entry Customer order fulfillment Customer order receiving12/29/12

Replenishment Cycle

All processes involved in replenishing retailer inventories (retailer is now the customer) Retail order trigger Retail order entry Retail order fulfillment Retail order receiving12/29/12

Manufacturing Cycle

All processes involved in replenishing distributor (or retailer) inventory Order arrival from the distributor, retailer, or customer Production scheduling Manufacturing and shipping Receiving at the distributor, retailer, or customer12/29/12

Procurement Cycle

All processes necessary to ensure that materials are available for manufacturing to occur according to schedule Manufacturer orders components from suppliers to replenish component inventories However, component orders can be determined precisely from production schedules (different from retailer/distributor orders that are based on uncertain customer demand) Important that suppliers be linked to the manufacturers production schedule 12/29/12

Push/Pull View of Supply ChainsProcureme Manufacturing nt, and Replenishment cyclesCustomer Order Cyc le

PUSH PROCESSES Custom er Order Arrives



Push/Pull View of Supply Chain Processes

Supply chain processes fall into one of two categories depending on the timing of their execution relative to customer demand Pull: execution is initiated in response to a customer order (reactive) Push: execution is initiated in anticipation of customer orders (speculative)12/29/12

Push/pull boundary separates push

Push/Pull View of Supply Chain Processes

Useful in considering strategic decisions relating to supply chain design more global view of how supply chain processes relate to customer orders Can combine the push/pull and cycle views

L.L. Bean (Figure 1.6) Dell (Figure 1.7)


The relative proportion of push and pull processes can have an impact on supply chain performance

Summary of Learning Objectives

What are the cycle and push/pull views of a supply chain? How can supply chain macro processes be classified? What are the three key supply chain decision phases and what is the significance of each? What is the goal of a supply chain and what is the impact of supply 12/29/12 chain decisions on the success of the


Traditional management Supply chain management

(1)Inventory management approach (2)Total cost approach (3)Time horizon

Independent efforts inventories Minimize firm costs

Joint reduction of channel Channel-wide cost efficiencies

Short term

Long term

(4)Amount of information sharing and monitoring (5)Amount of coordination between levels in of multiple levels in the channel (6)Joint planning (7)Compatibility of corporate philosophies

Limited to needs of current As required for planning and transaction monitoring processes Multiple contacts

Single contact for the transaction between channel pairs

firms and levels of channel

Transaction-based Not relevant

Ongoing Compatibility at least for key relationships Small to increase

12/29/12 (8)Breadth of supplier base Large to increase competition coordination

Achieving a strategic fit

Strategic fit means that both the competitive and supply chain strategy must fit together. i.e. both the competitive and supply chain strategies have aligned goals. It refers to consistency between the customer priorities that the competitive strategy hopes of satisfy and the supply chain capabilities that 12/29/12 supply chain aims to build the

How strategic fit is achieved

Understanding the customer and supply chain uncertainty

The quantity of the product needed in each lot The response time that customers are willing to tolerate The variety of products needed The service level required The price of the product


Drivers of Supply Chain

Facilities Inventory Transportation Information Sourcing Pricing12/29/12

Decision areas of SCM

There are four major decision areas in 1) location, 2) production, 3) inventory, and 4) transportation (distribution),

and There are both strategic and 12/29/12 operational elements in each of these

Facility PlanningModule edit Click to III Master subtitle style Session 17


Facility LocationClick to edit Master subtitle style