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    http://multilingualbooks.com/freelessons-korean.html

    More ConsonantsHere are some new consonants, all of which have sound shifts.Letter Initial Position Medial Position Final Position

    t as in toy d as in day t as in toy

    p as in puff b as in boon p as in puff Found mostly in foreign words,

    closest to r as in r adioRomanized as r ,

    closest to soft d in American wa ter l at the end of i ll

    s as in sigh s as in sigh (see note) t at the end of we t

    Note: he com!ination is "ronounced li#e the $nglish word she , whether at the !eginning or in the middle of a word.

    A Consonant able

    !ormal Aspirated "lottali#ed

    # #% ##

    t t% tt

    " "% ""

    ch ch% &&

    s ss

    n

    r m

    '

    h

    Here%s a ta!le of the consonants and their various forms andromanizations.

    Notice the "attern he as"irated consonants have one e trahorizontal line in them, and the glottalized ones are *dou!led*versions of the normal consonant.

    he row outlined in yellow is a new consonant that you

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    $ome More %ords

    Now that you have all the consonants and most of the vowels, you can start learning alot of new words. Here are some words for food, !eginning with one that everyone in

    +orea #nows:

    t%s romanized as #im'ch%i, and it%s the s"icy "ic#led ca!!age that is a sta"le withalmost every +orean meal.

    -f course, no meal would !e com"lete without . hat%s the +orean word for rice.

    ou can clic# the +orean sylla!les in the ta!les !elow to hear them.

    Here are more things to eat:

    "ul'go'gi !roiled !eef #al'!i'&&im !eef ri! stew

    man'du dum"lings

    And here are things to drin#:

    hong'ch%a tea#%eo'"%i coffee

    mul water

    #%ol'la cola

    u'yu mil#

    Consonant Clusters

    ou now have all the single +orean consonants. As you learn more +orean, you maysee words li#e these:

    or

    /hat%s going on here 0" until now we%ve had only one consonant *in the !asement.*

    All of a sudden we%ve shoehorned two consonants ( ) into the !ottom of thesylla!le.

    his is called a consonant cluster . Here%s the general rule: if the sylla!le following acluster starts with a vowel sound, the second consonant attaches itself to the vowel1that means you "ronounce:

    as if it were

    http://top.extsound%28%27snd/chlmoso.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/uyu.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/uyu.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/kola.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/kola.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/mul.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/kopi.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/kopi.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/hongcha.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/hongcha.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/mandu.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/mandu.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/kalbichm.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/kalbichm.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/kalbichm.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/bulgogi.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/bulgogi.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/bulgogi.aif');

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    As you !lend the vowels together, it will turn into the sound of the word *we* (whichis romanized as *wi*)

    he (iphthong able

    )orean *omani#ed Pronouncedwi as in 'e

    ui see note

    wa as in 'a tt

    weo as in 'a ll

    wae as in 'ea r

    oe as in 'e t

    we as in 'e t

    Here is the ta!le of the remaining di"hthongs.

    3ue to the loss of distinction !etween the vowel

    and , the last three rows are all "ronounced "rettymuch the same in standard +orean s"eech.

    ou may clic# the +orean vowel to hear it "ronounced.

    Here%s some e tra information a!out how vowels com!ineinto di"hthongs .

    %ords 'ith (iphthongs

    Here are some useful +orean words with their Romanizations and meanings: (4lic#on the +orean word to hear it "ronounced.)

    a'rae down

    an'e in

    yeo'!o'se'yo Hello (tele"hone)

    tae'sa'gwan em!assy

    #wan'gwang'gae# tourist

    yeo'haeng tri"

    "ae shi" (noun)

    "an'ae# half'fare

    Alphabetical +rder

    5ac# to "revious "age

    http://www.unification.org/ucbooks/kintro/eui.htmhttp://www.unification.org/ucbooks/kintro/vwltype.htmhttp://www.unification.org/ucbooks/kintro/vwltype.htmhttp://www.unification.org/ucbooks/kintro/fork2.htmhttp://top.extsound%28%27snd/panaek.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/panaek.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/pae.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/yeohaeng.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/yeohaeng.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/tourist.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/tourist.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/tourist.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/taesagwn.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/taesagwn.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/taesagwn.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/yoboseyo.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/yoboseyo.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/yoboseyo.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/yoboseyo.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/ane.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/ane.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/arae.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/arae.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/we.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/oe.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/wae.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/weo.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/wa.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/ui.aif');http://top.extsound%28%27snd/wi.aif');http://www.unification.org/ucbooks/kintro/vwltype.htmhttp://www.unification.org/ucbooks/kintro/vwltype.htmhttp://www.unification.org/ucbooks/kintro/fork2.htmhttp://www.unification.org/ucbooks/kintro/eui.htm

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    his tutorial introduces the letters in an order that ma#es sense for learning theal"ha!et, which is not necessarily the same as al"ha!etical order.

    f you%re serious a!out +orean, though, you%ll eventually !uy a dictionary and will findal"ha!etical order useful when loo#ing u" words. ou can also do one of these twoe ercises:

    • 4onsonant order • 6owel order

    he ta!le !elow shows +orean al"ha!etical order. he to" row of ta!le shows theconsonants in al"ha!etical order1 the first column shows the vowels in al"ha!eticalorder.

    f you read the ta!le from to" to !ottom, left to right, you will see the sylla!les inal"ha!etical order. Note that there are em"ty entries in the ta!le1 these are sylla!lesthat don%t e ist in +orean words.

    http://www.unification.org/ucbooks/kintro/alphord2.htmhttp://www.unification.org/ucbooks/kintro/alphord3.htmhttp://www.unification.org/ucbooks/kintro/alphord2.htmhttp://www.unification.org/ucbooks/kintro/alphord3.htm

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    4ongratulations7 ou%ve learned 8uite a !it a!out reading and "ronouncing the +oreanal"ha!et.

    here%s more to +orean than the al"ha!et (of course), !ut now that you #now theal"ha!et, you%re ready to e "and your #nowledge further. Here are some +orean 9in#sthat might interest you:

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    +ther )orean Links

    Hangul and nternet in +orea FAhis "age answers nearly every 8uestion you ever had (and even ones you

    didn%t) a!out how to dis"lay +orean te t (Hangul) on your screen.;urvival +oreanhe content is solid in this visually delightful site.

    ;teve%s Hangul

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    Saying Goodbye

    If you are sa ying goodbye to so meone who is staying (you're leaving their

    house or place of business, for example), you say this:

    This p hrase means, "Stay in well-being."

    If, on the other hand, you're saying goodbye to someone who is going away(they're leaving your house or place of business), you say t his:

    It means " go in well-being." If you meet someone on the street, you're bothleaving after the conversation is d one, so you use this s econd phrase.

    Polite P hrases

    No civilized person would even think o f travelling without these phrasescommitted to memory!

    Thank you You're welcome

    Sorry That's all right

    Excuse me

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    Introductions

    Here a re the phrases you need to know when you meet people for the rst

    time.

    My name is ____

    How do you do?

    (Literally: We meet for the rst time)

    Pleased to meet you.

    Parts o f the Body

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    1.head

    2.ear

    3.forehead

    4.eye

    5.nose

    6.mouth

    7.nec#

    8. shoulder

    9.arm

    10.hand

    11.chest

    12.waist

    13.#nee

    14.leg

    15.foot

    Click forward to practice these words.

    Korean:

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    English:

    As yo u move the mouse over a word, you will see the word and its d enition inEnglish. When you're ready, go to the next page for a relatively ( get it?) quick

    quiz.

    The FamilyMain Index

    Family Quiz 1

    Vocabulary Items (section 1)American (person)

    Jong-no (district)

    to learn

    foreigner

    classroom

    Chinese ( person)

    Japanese ( person)

    German (person)

    on the weekend

    class, lesson

    theater

    movie

    http://langintro.com/kintro/family/family.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/index.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/family/fquiz1.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/family/family.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/index.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/family/fquiz1.htm

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    dinner, evening

    beer

    and (at beginning of sentence)

    Myeong-dong (district)

    these days

    morning, A.M.

    afternoon, P.M.

    homework

    Saturday

    market

    clothes, dress

    shoes

    fruit

    people, person

    very

    to be interesting

    family

    hometown

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    to exist [honoric]

    New York

    younger brother

    nineteen

    one month

    Vocabulary Items (section 2)

    trip

    to teach

    together

    to be far

    dinner (meal)

    Bulgogi

    to like

    Korean restaurant

    near

    particularly

    slowly

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    to go on foot

    City Hall

    to be nished

    a littl e

    every weekend

    hiking, climbing

    last, past

    week

    Mt. Pukhan

    downtown

    to be n ear

    front

    to be tired

    Hannam-dong (district)

    to live

    last year

    boarding house

    room

    to rent

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    meal

    preparation

    a wash

    Ondol-pang (heating system)

    to be big, to be large

    Vocabulary Items (section 3)to be warm

    guitar

    to play (guitar, piano, etc.)

    to sing a song

    to be difficult

    subway

    to ride

    bus

    to take (time)

    to be clean

    unoccupied se at

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    to sit down

    usually

    to see a sight

    married woman

    married man

    this time

    Mt. Solak

    tra in

    airplane

    sea, ocean

    to be beautiful

    fare

    Tonghae (sea)

    before, ago

    at rst

    to not know

    life, l iving

    to introduce

    to be happy

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    now

    (not) yet

    alone, by oneself

    East Gate

    next

    http://langintro.com/kintro/vocab/opposite.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/vocab/verb1.htm

    Pure Korean Numbers

    The table below shows t he “pure Korean” numbers. They a re used mostly for

    counting.

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    10

    20

    30

    4

    http://langintro.com/kintro/vocab/opposite.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/vocab/verb1.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/vocab/opposite.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/vocab/verb1.htm

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    7

    8

    9

    0

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    To put together numbers l ike "17" or "35" you just write the tens n umberfollowed by the ones n umber. Thus,

    17 =

    35 =

    Note: when they precede a “classier” (such as t he word for “o’clock” whentelling time), numbers e nding in digits 1 -4 and the number 20 change asfollows:

    becomes

    becomes

    becomes

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    becomes , and

    becomes

    Sino-Korean Numbers

    1

    2

    34

    5

    6

    7

    89

    10

    100

    1,000

    10,000

    Putting together Sino-Korean numbers i s a piece of cake. Split up the numberinto its p lace values a nd tack them together.

    Example: 495

    4 x 100 9 x 10 5

    Example: 317

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    Directions

    Back t o Main Index

    This is one section I’ve avoided writing, mostly because I didn’t like the topic. Irealized I needed more practice with it, so here it is.

    First, here are some of the phrases yo u’ll need when asking for or listening todirections.

    Turn left.

    Turn right.

    Go straight

    Go straight 3 blocks.

    Cross the street.

    It’s on the corner.

    It’s on the left.

    It’s on the right.

    It’s in the middle (of the block).

    Now, you can p ractice giving directions .

    http://langintro.com/kintro/index.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/direct/givedir.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/index.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/direct/givedir.htm

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    Korean Word Order

    The normal word order for Korean is subject - object - verb .

    This sen tence means “Young-Shik see s Joh n.”

    Young-Shik (subj)John (obj) sees

    The syllables in gray a re the markers, which, in technical terms, are

    called particles . These particles t ell us w hich word is w hich, so we can alsosay:

    and have the same m eaning. Does this m ean we can just throw the words u pin the air and say them in any order that they happen to land?

    No; in the interests o f consistency a nd making communication easier, Koreanalmost always u ses the subject - object - verb o rder, and the verb alwayscomes a t the end of the sentence.

    Three Important Particles

    Here are three of the particles yo u’ll need for forming basic Korean sentences.In the interest of making things e asy on your vocal cords, the particle you use

    depends o n whether it is t acked on to a word that ends with a consonant(like ) or a vowel (like ).

    FunctionAfter words ending

    in a consonant

    After words e nding

    in a vo wel

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    Subject

    Object

    Topic/Contrast

    On the next page, you get to choose the kind of sentences yo u’d like to learnabout. Each of them will use at least one of these markers.

    Types of Sentences

    Which type of sentence pattern would you like to learn to construct?

    Korean Pattern English Examples

    Subject-predicate-descriptive

    verb *Joe is a doctor.

    This is a pencil.

    Subject-object-action verb I see the cat.Mr. Kim buys a book.

    Subject-predicate-"existence"

    verb

    There is a school [in Seoul].

    There isn’t a book [on the table].

    Mr. Kim has a chair.

    I don’t have a key.

    (Yes, these all really t the same pattern inKorean!)

    *Note: A descriptive verb is similar to what we call a linking verb in English.

    http://langintro.com/kintro/grammar/splv.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/grammar/soav.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/grammar/spev.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/grammar/splv.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/grammar/splv.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/grammar/soav.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/grammar/spev.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/grammar/spev.htm

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    Verbs—An Introduction

    As yo u may r emember from your studies o f English, a verb is a word that

    expresses a ction or existence. Korean verbs n ot only e xpresss action (to walk)and existence (to be), but also express description (to be interesting; to begood).

    For the regular verbs in English, which are few and far between, you take theverb as yo u nd it in the dictionary a nd add endings a nd helping verbs a sappropriate:

    ictionar! #orm: $alk

    %e/she present#orm:

    $alk s

    &ast tense: $alk e'

    &rogressive #orm: is $alk in

    g

    Almost all Korean verbs a re regular, and they use a similar “stems a nd pieces”approach.

    Stems and Pieces

    When you look u p a verb in a dictionary, you see something like this:

    to go

    to speak

    to begoo'

    to rea'

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    Let’s call this the “dictionary form” of a verb. The stem of the verb is w hat you

    get when you take a way the . You'll be putting your verb endings onto thisstem.

    Note that the verbs to be good and to read have stems that end in aconsonant; the other two stems e nd in a vowel. This i s a n importantdistinction.

    The process o f adding endings t o the verb stem is ca lled conjugation . Beforewe can start conjugating, we need to know whom we’re talking to.

    Politeness Levels

    Many languages ( Spanish, Russian, and German to name a few) havedifferent verb forms d epending on whether you're addressing a peer or asuperior.

    Korean, like Japanese, raises t his c oncept to an art form. There are severallevels o f politeness. The level you use is d etermined by t he social relationshipbetween you and the person you’re talking with. You signify the politenesslevel by the endings t hat you tack on to the verb stem.

    The two main levels w e will be concerned with are:

    • Polite formal• Polite informal

    (There are other forms u sed when addressing intimate friends o r children. Wewon’t worry a bout them.)

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    Formal Endings

    The ordinary formal endings for present tense are:

    Vowel Ending Stems Consonant Ending Stems

    For vowel stems, the gets attached to the syl lable that has the vow el.

    Verb Stem Ending Conjugated Verb

    (to go)

    (to be good)

    These verbs are present tense—for all pronouns.

    ( go:

    !o) go:

    $e go:

    ( am goo':

    !o) are goo':

    $e are goo':

    PronunciationHere's w hat we've done: we've taken the dictionary form of the verb, removed

    the to get the stem, and added the appropriate ending.

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    Verb Stem Ending Result

    (to go)

    That’s the written half. However...

    If you've been through the section on the Korean alphabet, you know thatthe sounds of certain letters shift depending upon their position relative toother letters, and one of the most important sound shifts is:

    When is followed by , the is pronounced like ( m), not

    the normal p .

    This means that you pronounce as if it were ; ka M-ni-da,not kap-ni-da ;

    You pronounce as if it were ; choh-seu M-ni-da,not choh-seup-ni-da .

    Your Honor

    Sometimes yo u will be talking to someone who is cl early a superior (amanager at a business m eeting, a teacher, a clergyman). If you are using thepolite form, you will add something called an honoric to let the other person

    know you respect him or her. You never use an honoric in referring toyourself.

    The honoric comes b etween the stem and the verb ending.

    Vowel Stem Consonant Stem

    http://langintro.com/kintro/sndshft.htmhttp://langintro.com/kintro/sndshft.htm

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    Honoric Verb ending Honoric Verb Ending

    Here's an example:

    Verb Stem Honoric Ending Conjugated Verb

    (to go)

    (to be good)

    Special Honoric Verbs

    Some verbs h ave special forms w hen used in the honoric; they are totallydifferent from the normal verb. All the honoric v erbs yo u see below already

    have the worked into them.

    Verb Ordinary

    Form Honorifc Form Conjugated Form

    to eat

    to'rink

    to be

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    tosleep

    to sa!

    Polite Informal

    We use the polite informal when talking with peers; most ordinaryconversation will take place in the polite informal.

    Now relax a nd take a deep breath. To gure out the correct endings for apolite informal verb, we’re going to need to make quite a few decisions. At rstthis is going to take a long time to gure out how to say a verb while you workthrough the steps. After practice, it will be almost automatic ( trust me—it reallywill be).

    Step 1

    Look a t the stem of the verb.

    • If it ends with , change it to , and you're nished.• If it doesn't end with , proceed to st ep 2.

    Example

    Verb Ste

    m Result

    *to'o+

    Step 2

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    Look a t the last vowel of the stem.

    • If it is a or , add . If you end up with two vowels right nextto each other, combine them into one vowel.

    • Otherwise, proceed to step 3.

    Examples:

    Verb Ste

    m AddResult

    *to go+

    *to see+

    *to begoo'+

    Step 3

    In all other cases:

    • Add . Again, if you end up with two vowels next to each other, theywill contract into one vowel.

    Examples:

    Verb StemAdd

    Result

    *to learn+

    *toteach+

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    *to have+

    Take another deep breath, and congratulate yourself for having made itthrough this p age, which is p robably the most complicated one in the wholetutorial!

    Your Informal Honor

    Surprisingly, the polite informal honoric endings are a piece of cake. All youneed to know is whether the ve rb st em ends in a vowel or a co nsonant andtack o n the appropriate ending.

    VowelStem

    ConsonantStem

    Here are some of the verbs f rom the previous p age in their honorifc form:

    Verb Conjugated

    Verb

    *to'o+

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    I've left out the "stem" column - you should already know how to get the stem

    by dropping the !