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  • Network Routing

  • The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Networking

    Series Editor, David Clark, M.I.T.

    Computer Networks: A Systems Approach, 4eLarry L. Peterson and Bruce S. Davie

    Network Routing: Algorithms, Protocols, and ArchitecturesDeepankar Medhi and Karthikeyan Ramasamy

    Deploying IP and MPLS QoS for Multiservice Networks:Theory and PracticeJohn Evans and Clarence Filsfils

    Traffic Engineering and QoS Optimization of Integrated Voiceand Data NetworksGerald R. Ash

    IPv6 Core Protocols ImplementationQing Li, Tatuya Jinmei, and Keiichi Shima

    Smart Phone and Next-Generation Mobile ComputingPei Zheng and Lionel Ni

    GMPLS: Architecture and ApplicationsAdrian Farrel and Igor Bryskin

    Network Security: A Practical ApproachJan L. Harrington

    Content Networking: Architecture, Protocols, and PracticeMarkus Hofmann and Leland R. Beaumont

    Network Algorithmics: An Interdisciplinary Approach toDesigning Fast Networked DevicesGeorge Varghese

    Network Recovery: Protection and Restoration of Optical,SONET-SDH, IP, and MPLSJean Philippe Vasseur, Mario Pickavet, andPiet Demeester

    Routing, Flow, and Capacity Design in Communication andComputer NetworksMicha Piro and Deepankar Medhi

    Wireless Sensor Networks: An Information ProcessingApproachFeng Zhao and Leonidas Guibas

    Communication Networking: An Analytical ApproachAnurag Kumar, D. Manjunath, and Joy Kuri

    The Internet and Its Protocols: A Comparative ApproachAdrian Farrel

    Modern Cable Television Technology: Video, Voice, and DataCommunications, 2eWalter Ciciora, James Farmer, David Large, and MichaelAdams

    Bluetooth Application Programming with the Java APIsC. Bala Kumar, Paul J. Kline, and Timothy J. Thompson

    Policy-Based Network Management: Solutions for the NextGenerationJohn Strassner

    Network Architecture, Analysis, and Design, 2eJames D. McCabe

    MPLS Network Management: MIBs, Tools, and TechniquesThomas D. Nadeau

    Developing IP-Based Services: Solutions for Service Providersand VendorsMonique Morrow and Kateel Vijayananda

    Telecommunications Law in the Internet AgeSharon K. Black

    Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 2eRajiv Ramaswami and Kumar N. Sivarajan

    Internet QoS: Architectures and MechanismsZheng Wang

    TCP/IP Sockets in Java: Practical Guide for ProgrammersMichael J. Donahoo and Kenneth L. Calvert

    TCP/IP Sockets in C: Practical Guide for ProgrammersKenneth L. Calvert and Michael J. Donahoo

    Multicast Communication: Protocols, Programming, andApplicationsRalph Wittmann and Martina Zitterbart

    MPLS: Technology and ApplicationsBruce S. Davie and Yakov Rekhter

    High-Performance Communication Networks, 2eJean Walrand and Pravin Varaiya

    Internetworking MultimediaJon Crowcroft, Mark Handley, and Ian Wakeman

    Understanding Networked Applications: A First CourseDavid G. Messerschmitt

    Integrated Management of Networked Systems: Concepts,Architectures, and their Operational ApplicationHeinz-Gerd Hegering, Sebastian Abeck, and BernhardNeumair

    Virtual Private Networks: Making the Right ConnectionDennis Fowler

    Networked Applications: A Guide to the New ComputingInfrastructureDavid G. Messerschmitt

    Wide Area Network Design: Concepts and Tools forOptimizationRobert S. Cahn

    For further information on these books and for a list offorthcoming titles,please visit our Web site at

  • Network RoutingAlgorithms, Protocols, and Architectures

    Deepankar Medhi

    Karthikeyan Ramasamy


    SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYOMorgan Kaufmann is an imprint of Elsevier

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    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataMedhi, Deepankar.

    Network routing : algorithms, protocols, and architectures / Deepankar Medhi, Karthikeyan Ramasamy.p. cm.

    Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN-13: 978-0-12-088588-6 (hardcover : alk. paper)ISBN-10: 0-12-088588-3 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Computer networks. 2. Routers (Computer networks) 3. Computernetwork architectures. I. Ramasamy, Karthikeyan, 1967- II. Title.TK5105.5.M425 2007004.6dc22


    ISBN 13: 978-0-12-088588-6ISBN 10: 0-12-088588-3

    For information on all Morgan Kaufmann publications,visit our Web site at or

    Printed in the United States of America07 08 09 10 5 4 3 2 1

  • To Karen, Neiloy, and Robby: the core routers in our dynamic network where the distancecost varies instantaneously and over time, and where alternate routing and looping occur . . .



    To my parents, R. Chellammal and N. Ramasamybackplane of my life.

    Love and regards,


  • ContentsForeword xxiiiPreface xxvAbout the Authors xxxi

    Part I: Network Routing: Basics and Foundations 1

    1 Networking and Network Routing: An Introduction 21.1 Addressing and Internet Service: An Overview 41.2 Network Routing: An Overview 51.3 IP Addressing 7

    1.3.1 Classful Addressing Scheme 81.3.2 Subnetting/Netmask 91.3.3 Classless Interdomain Routing 10

    1.4 On Architectures 111.5 Service Architecture 121.6 Protocol Stack Architecture 13

    1.6.1 OSI Reference Model 131.6.2 IP Protocol Stack Architecture 14

    1.7 Router Architecture 191.8 Network Topology Architecture 201.9 Network Management Architecture 211.10 Public Switched Telephone Network 211.11 Communication Technologies 221.12 Standards Committees 24

    1.12.1 International Telecommunication Union 241.12.2 Internet Engineering Task Force 251.12.3 MFA Forum 25

    1.13 Last Two Bits 251.13.1 Type-Length-Value 251.13.2 Network Protocol Analyzer 26

  • viii Contents

    1.14 Summary 26Further Lookup 27Exercises 27

    2 Routing Algorithms: Shortest Path and Widest Path 302.1 Background 312.2 BellmanFord Algorithm and the Distance Vector Approach 33

    2.2.1 Centralized View: BellmanFord Algorithm 332.2.2 Distributed View: A Distance Vector Approach 36

    2.3 Dijkstras Algorithm 382.3.1 Centralized Approach 382.3.2 Distributed Approach 40

    2.4 Comparison of the BellmanFord Algorithm and Dijkstras Algorithm 422.5 Shortest Path Computation with Candidate Path Caching 432.6 Widest Path Computation with Candidate Path Caching 452.7 Widest Path Algorithm 47

    2.7.1 Dijkstra-Based Approach 472.7.2 BellmanFord-Based Approach 49

    2.8 k-Shortest Paths Algorithm 492.9 Summary 51

    Further Lookup 53Exercises 53

    3 Routing Protocols: Framework and Principles 563.1 Routing Protocol, Routing Algorithm, and Routing Table 573.2 Routing Information Representation and Protocol Messages 593.3 Distance Vector Routing Protocol 60

    3.3.1 Conceptual Framework and Illustration 603.3.2 Why Timers Matter 663.3.3 Solutions 703.3.4 Can We Avoid Loops? 743.3.5 Distance Vector Protocol Based on Diffusing Computation with

    Coordinated Update 743.4 Link State Routing Protocol 82

    3.4.1 Link State Protocol: In-Band Hop-by-Hop Disseminations 833.4.2 Link State Protocol: In-Band Based on End-to-End Session 913.4.3 Route Computation 92

    3.5 Path Vector Routing Protocol 933.5.1 Basic Principle 933.5.2 Path Vector with Path Caching 97

    3.6 Link Cost 1023.6.1 ARPANET Routing Metrics 1023.6.2 Other Metrics 103

  • Contents ix

    3.7 Summary 104Further Lookup 105Exercises 105

    4 Network Flow Modeling 1084.1 Terminologies 1094.2 Single-Commodity Network Flow 110

    4.2.1 A Three-Node Illustration 1104.2.2 Formal Description and Minimum Cost Routing Objective 1114.2.3 Variation in Objective: Load Balancing 1144.2.4 Variation in Objective: Average Delay 1164.2.5 Summary and Applicability 117

    4.3 Multicommodity Network Flow: Three-Node Example 1184.3.1 Minimum Cost Routing Case 1184.3.2 Load Balancing 1234.3.3 Average Delay 125

    4.4 Multicommodity Network Flow Problem: General Formulation 1284.4.1 Background on Notation 1294.4.2 Link-Path Formulation 1304.4.3 Node-Link Formulation 135

    4.5 Multicommodity Network Flow Problem: Non-Splittable Flow 1374.6 Summary 138

    Further Lookup 139Exercises 139

    Part II: Routing in IP Networks 141

    5 IP Routing and Distance Ve