nha1 - consonants plosives

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  • 8/3/2019 NHA1 - Consonants Plosives

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    ENGLISH CONSONANTS

    I> Structure of the larynx & 4 different position of

    the glottisII> Definition of & differences among consonantsIII> Consonant sounds

    III.1> Plosives (stops)

    III.2> FricativesIII.3> AffricatesIII.4> NasalsIII.5> Lateral

    III.6> Approximants

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    I> Structure of the larynx & differentposition of the glottis

    Larynx: in the neck; made of 2 largecartilages: thyroid & cricoid (page 27). Insidethe larynx: 2 vocal folds/cords (page 28)

    The glottis: the opening between 2 vocal folds

    (page 28) 4 different positions of the glottis: (see

    diagrams, p. 30)-wide apart: normal breathing, voiceless

    consonants-narrow glottis: voiceless fricative /h/-position for vocal fold vibration: voiced sounds-vocal fold tightly closed: glottal stop/plosive,

    coughing gently

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    II> Definition of & differences amongconsonants

    II.1>Definition: Consonants aresounds produced by partially orcompletely blocking air in its passage

    through the vocal tract. [Finegan,1994: 34]

    II.2> Differences among consonants

    i) place of articulationii) manner of articulation

    iii) voicing

    [Roach, 2002: 139]

    http://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnPalatoAlveolar.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnPalatal.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnVelar.htm
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    II>Definition of & differences among consonantsi> Place of articulation

    http://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnLabiodental.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnDental.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnAlveolar.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnRetroflejo.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnPalatoAlveolar.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnPalatal.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnUvular.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnBilabial.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnLabiodental.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnInterdental.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnDental.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnAlveolar.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnRetroflejo.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnPalatoAlveolar.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnPalatal.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnVelar.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnUvular.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnGlotal.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnBilabial.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnLabiodental.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnInterdental.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnDental.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnAlveolar.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnRetroflejo.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnPalatoAlveolar.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnPalatal.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnVelar.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnUvular.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnGlotal.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnBilabial.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnLabiodental.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnInterdental.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnDental.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnAlveolar.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnRetroflejo.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnPalatoAlveolar.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnPalatal.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnVelar.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnUvular.htmhttp://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/iDefnGlotal.htm
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    Bilabial: produced with the two lips: /p, b, m, w/ as inbill, pill, mill, will.

    Labio-dental: produced with the upper teeth and theinner lower lip: /f, v/ as in feel, veal.

    Dental: produced with the tongue tip on or near theinner surface of the upper teeth: /8, 5/ as in thirst, thus.For some speakers, /8 / and /5/ are interdental ratherthan dental.

    Alveolar: produced with tongue tip on or near the

    tooth ridge /t, d, s, z, n, l/ as in team, deem, seem,zero, new, lead.

    Alveo-palatal: produced with the tongue blade is justbehind the tooth ridge at the front part of the hardpalate: /~, 2, t~, d2/ as in shop, beige, chop, job.

    Palatal: produced with the front of the tongue bladenear or on the hard palate: /r, j/ as in red, yell.

    Velar: produced with the tongue blade on or near thesoft palate /9, k, 7/ as in guy, kite, singer.

    Glottal: produced with the air passing form the

    windpipe through the vocal cords: /h/ as in hello.

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    ii> Manner of articulation

    the way in which the airstream is affectedas it travels from the lungs up and out ofthe mouth and nose. [Fromkin & Rodman,1993: 193] Stop/Plosive: the airstream is blocked

    completely before its release, resulting inexplosion of sound: /p,b,t,d,k,7/

    Fricative: Air passage from the lungs is notalways completely stopped. In many cases, the airmoves through a narrow passageway created whenthe articulatory organs approach but do not toucheach other. The air being forced through thispassage causes friction. We call the resulting sounda fricative. [Celce-Murcia et al., 2002: 44]

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    Affricatives /t~, d2/: the air pressure is firstbuilt up, and then, rather than being releasedfreely, released through a narrow passagewaylike a fricative .

    Nasals /m, n, 7/: the oral passage iscompletely closed (due to there is a completeclosure of articulators e.g. two lips for /m/,the tip and the tooth ridge for /n/ and thetongue and the velum) and the air flowescapes through the nasal cavity.Nasals and fricatives are also calledcontinuants because they can be held so longas there is the air in the lungs to release

    through nasal cavity and oral cavity,respectively.

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    Approximants: formed when theairstream moves around the tongueand out the mouth in a relatively

    unobstructed manner [Celce-Murciaet al., 2002: 45] with two subcategories: liquids /l, r/and glides(semi-vowel) /w, j/.

    Lateral (liquid) /l/: produced bychanneling the air on each side of thetongue, for which /l/ is called thelateral sound.

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    iii> Voicing

    Voice, or voicing, occurs when the vocalfolds vibrate as a consequence of airpassing between them.

    Speech sounds which are produced withvocal vibration are said to be voiced(e.g. [b], [v], [z]). When the vocalfolds are wide apart so that air passes

    freely between them, there is no vocalvibration. Speech sounds producedwhen the folds are in this position aresaid to be voiceless (e.g. [p], [f], [s])

    [Finch:2000: 71-72]

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    III> Consonant soundsIII.1> Plosives (stops)

    III.1.1> Definition

    the air stream is blocked

    completely before its release,resulting in explosion of sound:

    /p,b,t,d,k,7/

    III.1.2> Classification

    Articulation of the plosives:

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    III> Consonant soundsIII.1> Plosives (stops)

    /p, b/: the air stream is stopped by two lips, causingpressure to build slightly before being released throughmouth.

    /t, d/: the air stream is blocked by the tongue tip

    contacting the alveolar ridge, and then released,resulting in a plosive sounds.

    /k, 9/: the tongue back rises to meet the velum,temporarily blocking the air flow and resulting in the

    phonemes /k/ and / 9/.

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    Characteristics:

    -can occur in initial, middle & final

    positions in a word, e.g.: play,appear, top

    -aspiration (sounds articulated withstrong puff of air): initial position in

    a syllable, followed by a stressedvowel, e.g.: pet, appear

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    -unaspirated characterisitcs: afterinitial /s/, before an unstressedvowel, e.g.: stop, happen

    -shortening effect of the precedingvowel (most noticeable: longvowels, diphthongs), e.g.: bit, beat

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    Fortis and lenis

    Fortis (strong=voiceless): soundsproduced with more force: /p,t,k/

    Lenis (weak=voiced): /b,d,g/

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    SUMMARY

    I> Structure of the larynx & 4different position of the glottis

    II> Definition of & differences amongconsonants

    III> Consonant sounds

    III.1> Plosives (stops)