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  • 1Part I:Non-photorealistic Rendering

    Adam Finkelstein

    Line Drawings from 3D ModelsSIGGRAPH 2005 Course Notes

    Part I:Non-photorealistic Rendering

    Adam Finkelstein

    Line Drawings from 3D ModelsSIGGRAPH 2005 Course Notes

  • 2Computer graphics todayStunning success!

    Final Fantasy Square 2001

    Final Fantasy Square 2001

    Dont try this at home!

    Computer graphics boasts an amazing success story with regard torealistic rendering.Unfortunately, to make pictures like these you need to have a huge modeling budget.

  • 3What is 3D content?

    shape texture motion renderingrendering

    modelingmodeling

    bottleneckbottleneck

    Computer graphics people often mean just shape when they talk about modeling.I mean everything. To create a model for which the rendered image is going to look photoreal is VERY expensive.

  • 4Rendering alternatives

    photorealismphotorealism

    non-photorealism(NPR)

    non-photorealism(NPR)

    modelmodel

    Fortunately there is an alternative. There is a branch of computer graphics that has been looking for more than a dozen years at how can we exploit principles of abstraction known to artists for many centuries to avoid having to worry about a myriad of perhaps unnecessary details.

  • 5Art omitted from notes to avoidcopyright issues.

    Art omitted from notes to avoidcopyright issues.

    Bouguereau, The Little Shepherdess, 1891 Bouguereau, The Little Shepherdess, 1891

    Photorealism in painting

    The distinction between photorealism and non-photorealism has been known by artists long before computer graphics came around.If you squint your eyes you could imagine that this painting byBouguereau was a photo.

  • 6Art omitted from notes to avoidcopyright issues.

    Art omitted from notes to avoidcopyright issues.

    Non-photorealism in painting

    van Gogh 1889van Gogh 1889 Gris 1912Gris 1912 Kandinsky 1923Kandinsky 1923

    In contrast, these images exhibit a range of abstraction that clearly departs from realism.

  • 7Realistic modeling and rendering

    [Deussen 99]

    To make a similar and obvious comparison in computer graphics, here is a rendering of a realistic outdoor scene due to Deussen and others. The model is very complex -- the number of polygons would not fit in the memory of most computers today.

  • 8[Deussen 2000][Deussen 2000]

    Non-photorealistic rendering

    Here is a different rendering of an outdoor scene by Deussen and others. Obviously, there is a lot less complexity there, and yetdepending on the application it may be just as appropriate for conveying a particular sense of a place.

  • 9 CG concerns tools for generating various forms of imagery.

    Humans use imagery to communicate visual information.

    An appropriate form of imagery depends on nature of the communication.

    Role of computer graphics (CG)

    Consider the role played by computer graphics for the content creator. Perhaps stated most broadly, CG is concerned with the development of tools for generating various forms of imagery be it photorealistic, NPR, or what have you.

    People, as content creators, are interested in these tools for the production of imagery to communicate visual information. But theimportant point is: The appropriate form of imagery for a given task depends upon the nature or purpose of this communication.

  • 10

    Photorealism vs. NPR

    Photorealism Documentation Simulation

    Non-photorealism Explanation Illustration Storytelling

    Many applicationsuniquely suited toPR or NPR

    One can imagine various tasks for which photorealism is uniquelysuited and NPR is notand conversely, there are certainly applications for which the opposite is true.

    CG has traditionally focused upon the production of photorealistic imagery. Lets consider some of its applications.

  • 11

    Photorealism: Applications

    Photorealism Documentation Simulation

    Non-photorealism Explanation Illustration Storytelling

    [The Bill]

    Photorealism is certainly well-suited for the job of documentation, where the task is to record imagery in all its detail for posterity. Crime scene photography is a perfect example. Should new evidence or theory prompt a reinvestigation, crime scene photos may be probed for new clues. NPR, such as a sketch of the scene,could certainly record the relative positions of the purse, garment and fence in the image above, but any details missed by the artist at the time would be permanently lost once the items are taken into evidence.

  • 12

    Photorealism: Applications

    Photorealism Documentation Simulation

    Non-photorealism Explanation Illustration Storytelling [ILM]

    Likewise, photorealistic computer graphics are uniquely suited to the situation where one seeks live-action imagery (e.g. movies of television) but where its difficult to stage the actual scene.Here the task is to simulate the desired effect -- huge explosions, tidal waves washing over manhattan, and Yoda dropping his cane and grabbing his light saber -- requiring photorealistic computer graphics imagery for convincing effect.Even though we know that these effects are not real, cartoonish NPR could not be employed in there circumstances because it would destroy the illusion necessary for the audience to suspend disbelief and enjoy the story.

  • 13

    NPR: Applications

    Photorealism Documentation Simulation

    Non-photorealism Explanation Illustration Storytelling

    Many untappedopportunities for NPR

    Depending upon the task at hand NPR may be the appropriate means for communication. Because computer graphics has traditionally focused on tools for photorealistic rendering, there remain many untapped opportunities for new forms of content for authors. One might even argue that there should be more applications under the NPR heading because photorealism is fairly narrowly defined. Nonetheless, there remain compelling reasons why computer graphics has focused on realism, not the least of which are limited tools for stylization and abstraction.

  • 14

    NPR: Applications

    Photorealism Documentation Simulation

    Non-photorealism Explanation Illustration Storytelling

    [Birkey]

    Of course, there are also various applications uniquely suited to NPR, for example when imagery is used for explanation such as this technical illustration of a mechanical tool. Since the intended viewer probably has the real tool in front of him, a photographic image is redundant; instead, the artist can better explain the form and function of the item by disambiguating different components in contrasting colors and suppressing physically accurate shading that obscures this clarity. Silhouette and feature lines are also frequently used to further enhance the objects description.

  • 15

    NPR: Applications

    Photorealism Documentation Simulation

    Non-photorealism Explanation Illustration Storytelling

    [Sutter]

    Stylization is often also used to illustrate abstract concepts using very succinct imagery. In this example the artist communicates an abstract idea to accompany an op-ed piece originally in the new york times concerning the role of higher education in our society.

    If, instead, we imagine replacing this with a comparable photoreal image the abstract concept would be lost amid the details. Rather wed be distracted by the absurd image of a tiny man standing astride the mortar boards of two giant college graduates.

  • 16

    Art removed from notes to avoidcopyright infringement.

    Art removed from notes to avoidcopyright infringement.

    NPR: Applications

    Photorealism Documentation Simulation

    Non-photorealism Explanation Illustration Storytelling [Dr. Seuss]

    Finally, storytelling is example where stylized and abstract imagery can help to communicate scenes which exist only in the authors imagination. Nere NPR is particularly adept for the fantastical nature of the Dr. Seusss stories. The effect would be wholly different with comparable photoreal imagery. But theres also another reason. Children, the intended audience in this case generally respond best to brightly colored illustrations, and somehow find them more engaging than photos. So if you look down the row of shelves devoted to childrens books at your local book store youll see that the great preponderance of kids books use hand-crafted imagery rather than photos.

  • 17

    -- David Byrne When Bad Art is GoodUtne, March-April 2003

    Now that perfect design is possible with the click of a mouse, the industrialized world has become nostalgic for imperfect design. As computer-aided everything takes over our lives we begin to realize, little by little, what is missing from the high-tech world. We realize that a crooked line sometimes has more soul than a perfectly straight one.

    David Byrne wrote this comment in an article for Utne. In the article he was mostly talking about 2D design and illustration, but I believe his point translates to renderings from 3D as well. This may explain the recent emergence of NPR as a research area within computer graphics.

    Let me quickly run through a few of the benefits of NPR

  • 18

    Art omitted from notes to avoidcopyright issues.

    Art omitted from notes to avoidcopyright issues.

    Non-photorealismLess detail

    Picasso

    I have already made the point that NPR can use abstraction to reduce the level of detail necessary. Picasso was a master of elision of detail as you can see in this drawing.

  • 19

    Non-photorealism

    Design studies(Hewlett-Packard)

    Quick

    Obviously, drawings can be made very quickly, and can c

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