normal kidney development in medaka fish - jsps · pdf filenormal kidney development in medaka...

Click here to load reader

Post on 18-Aug-2018

212 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • NormalNormal kidneykidney developmentdevelopmentinin medakamedaka fishfish

    FedorovaFedorova SvetlanaSvetlanaLaboratory of Freshwater Fish StocksLaboratory of Freshwater Fish StocksBioscience and Biotechnology CenterBioscience and Biotechnology Center

    Nagoya UniversityNagoya University

  • Part IPart I

    General organization of kidneyGeneral organization of kidney

  • TotalTotal bodybody waterwater equalsequals approximatelyapproximately 60% 60% ofoftotaltotal bodybody weightweight inin youngyoung menmen,, aboutabout 50% 50% inin

    youngyoung womenwomen, , andand lessless ininolderolder personspersons. . BabyBabyss totaltotal bodybody waterwater isis betweenbetween

    65% 65% andand 75%. 75%. InIn a 70a 70--kg kg manman,, inin goodgood conditionsconditions, , totaltotal bodybody

    waterwater equalsequals 42 L42 Litersiters. . Water is always circulate in the body, it transport Water is always circulate in the body, it transport

    chemicals and chemicals and foodfood to every part of our to every part of our organisms and take out the wastes.organisms and take out the wastes.

  • KidneyKidney: e: eitherither oneone ofof a a pairpair ofof organsorgans, , functioningfunctioning toto maintainmaintain properproper waterwaterandand electrolyteelectrolyte balancebalance, , regulateregulate acidacid--basebase concentrationconcentration, , andand filterfilter thethe bloodblood

    ofof metabolicmetabolic wasteswastes, , whichwhich areare thenthen excretedexcreted asas urineurine..

    TheThe excretoryexcretory systemssystems ofof vertebratesvertebratesconsistconsist ofof filtrationfiltration unitsunits thatthat allowallowsmallsmall moleculesmolecules fromfrom bloodblood toto passpassoutout intointo thethe urinaryurinary spacespace, , specialispecializzededtransportingtransporting cellscells thatthat selectivelyselectivelyrecoverrecover certaincertain solutessolutes andand returnreturnthemthem toto thethe bloodblood, , andand alsoalso recoverrecoverwaterwater inin manymany speciesspecies, , andand taketake urineurineoutout ofof thethe bodybody. . In humans In humans thethe totaltotal volumevolume ofof bloodbloodfilteredfiltered byby thethe kidneykidney isis aboutabout 180 180 LLitersiters /24 h/24 hoursours. . OnlyOnly aboutabout 1 1 toto 1.5 1.5 LLiteriter isis excretedexcreted asas urineurine ..

    Basic Histology: text and atlas

  • General organization of the human kidneyGeneral organization of the human kidney

    CortexCortex-- the outer part of the outer part of kidney, it consists of kidney, it consists of glomeruliglomeruli..MedullaMedulla-- part of kidney, part of kidney, where water and salts where water and salts reabsorptionreabsorption occurs.occurs.UreterUreter -- eithereither ofof a a pairpair ofofthickthick--walledwalled tubestubes thatthatcarrycarry urineurine fromfrom thethekidneykidney toto thethe urinaryurinarybladderbladder

    Basic Histology: text and atlas

  • The functional units of the kidneysThe functional units of the kidneys-- nephronsnephrons, , glomerulusglomerulus, ,

    proximal and distal tubulesproximal and distal tubules

    NephronNephron--, , thethe functionalfunctional unitsunits ofofkidneykidney. . TheThe nephronnephron consistsconsists ofof threethreemajormajor componentscomponents: : thethe glomerulusglomerulus, , thethe renalrenal tubuletubule, , andand thethe collectingcollectingductduct. . GlomerulusGlomerulus isis responsibleresponsible forfor bloodbloodfiltrationfiltration ..Renal tubules (proximal and distal Renal tubules (proximal and distal tubules) tubules) extendextend fromfrom thethe glomerulusglomerulustoto itsits junctionjunction withwith thethe collectingcollecting ductduct..It It isis linedlined byby a a singlesingle layerlayer ofofepithelialepithelial cellscells thatthat functionfunction ininselectiveselective reabsorptionreabsorption ofof waterwater, , inorganicinorganic ionsions, , andand otherother moleculesmoleculesfromfrom thethe glomerularglomerular filtratefiltrate ..Collecting duct Collecting duct communicatescommunicates withwiththethe exteriorexterior andand servesserves asas thethe exitexitchannelchannel forfor thethe remainingremaining wastewasteproductsproducts. .

    Basic Histology: text and atlas

  • Urea concentrationUrea concentration

    Atlas of Kidney Diseases

  • Renal corpuscle Renal corpuscle -- glomerulusglomerulus

    glomerulusglomerulus -- a a smallsmallgroupgroup ofof capillariescapillaries , , covered by special covered by special cells, cells, podocytespodocytes; ; glomeruliglomeruli filterfilter bloodbloodduringduring urineurine formationformation

    Basic Histology: text and atlas

  • PodocytesPodocytes

    GlomerularGlomerular capillary capillary is highly fenestrated.is highly fenestrated.Capillary is covered Capillary is covered by by podocytespodocytes special cells that have special cells that have many many legslegs. Urea . Urea filtration filtration ocursocursbetween between podocytepodocytelegslegs

    Basic Histology: text and atlas

  • Types of kidneys.Types of kidneys.

    There are 3 types of kidneys: There are 3 types of kidneys: pronephrospronephros, , mesonephrosmesonephros and and metanephrosmetanephros..ThisThis terminologyterminology cancan bebe confusingconfusing, , butbutyouyou shouldshould bebe ableable toto keepkeep thethe orderorder ofofformationformation straightstraight ifif youyou rememberremember thatthat propromeansmeans ""firstfirst", ", mesmes meansmeans ""intermediateintermediate" " andand metameta meansmeans ""beyondbeyond" " oror ""laterlater". ".

  • PronephrosPronephros -- most primitive of the three vertebrate kidneys, active in the amost primitive of the three vertebrate kidneys, active in the adults dults of some primitive fish (lampreys and hagfish), the embryos of moof some primitive fish (lampreys and hagfish), the embryos of more advanced re advanced fish, and the larvae of amphibians. It is a paired organ consistfish, and the larvae of amphibians. It is a paired organ consisting of a series of ing of a series of

    nephronsnephrons that filter urine.that filter urine.

    TneTne zebrafishzebrafish pronephrospronephros. . (A) Diagram ofthe larval pronephros at 72 hours postfertilization.

    (B) Special stainig of a 84 hours embryoshows the anatomy of the pronephros. Pt pronephric tubules, PD pronephric duct.

    Development. 1998. 125(23):4655-67

  • MesonephrosMesonephros -- permanent kidney of amphibians and most fish, developing permanent kidney of amphibians and most fish, developing

    posterior to and replacing the posterior to and replacing the pronephrospronephros of the embryonic and larval stages. It is a of the embryonic and larval stages. It is a

    paired organ consisting of a set of paired organ consisting of a set of nephronsnephrons having capsules, that filter blood from having capsules, that filter blood from

    the the glomerulusglomerulus and tubules, whose cells reabsorb water and nutrients and secreand tubules, whose cells reabsorb water and nutrients and secrete te

    nitrogenous wastes.nitrogenous wastes.

    MetanephrosMetanephros -- permanent kidney in reptiles, birds, and mammals, developing by permanent kidney in reptiles, birds, and mammals, developing by

    the 10th week in human embryos and replacing the embryonic structhe 10th week in human embryos and replacing the embryonic structure called the ture called the

    mesonephrosmesonephros. During their development, mammalians go through all types of . During their development, mammalians go through all types of

    kidney: kidney:

    pronephrospronephros is generated first, then it degenerated and is generated first, then it degenerated and mesonephrosmesonephros is formed. Only is formed. Only

    after that after that metanephrosmetanephros will replaced will replaced mesonephrosmesonephros

  • Part II: Kidney in Part II: Kidney in medakamedaka fishfish

    ModelModel organismsorganisms, , includingincluding thethemedakamedaka, , allowallow forfor experimentalexperimentalanalysisanalysis ofof kidneykidney functionfunction andand thethedetaileddetailed characterizationcharacterization ofof diseasediseaseprocessesprocesses ..

    In the In the medakamedaka fish, kidney development progresses from the simple fish, kidney development progresses from the simple pronephrospronephros to the more complex to the more complex mesonephrosmesonephros

  • PronephrosPronephros in in medakamedaka fish:fish:

    InIn medakamedaka, , thethe functionalfunctional pronephrospronephros consistsconsists ofof onlyonly twotwo nephronsnephrons withwith

    glomeruliglomeruli fusedfused

    MedakaMedaka embryo of 1 day of embryo of 1 day of development. Special staining development. Special staining reveals place of future reveals place of future pronephrospronephros. Photo: R. . Photo: R. Miyamoto.Miyamoto.

    22--days old days old medakamedaka embryo. embryo. PronephricPronephric kidney begins to kidney begins to develop on the second day of develop on the second day of embryogenesisembryogenesis... Photo: R. . Photo: R. MiyamotoMiyamoto

  • MedakaMedakass pronephrospronephrosPronephrosPronephros is mostly formed is mostly formed on the 4th day of embryo on the 4th day of embryo development, and finally development, and finally formed on the 5th day. formed on the 5th day.

    Photo: R. MiyamotoPhoto: R. Miyamoto

  • MesonephrosMesonephros..First First mesonephricmesonephric glomerulusglomerulusappears approximately on 5th appears approximately on 5th day after fish hatching. day after fish hatching. Photo: R. MiyamotoPhoto: R. Miyamoto

    GlomerulogenesisGlomerulogenesis in in medakamedakais continued duri