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Nutrition & Exercise During Pregnancy

Post on 31-Mar-2015

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Nutrition & Exercise During Pregnancy Slide 2 Why is This Relevant to Me? Everyone knows someone who is pregnant/going to become pregnant Diet and Exercise are important for people who are not pregnant. Health problems are on the rise Slide 3 Weight Gain During Pregnancy Weight gain depends on many factors: Rate of weight gain Maternal age Appetite Pre-pregnancy body mass index Where the weight goes? Baby-7.5 lbs Breast growth- 2lbs Maternal stores- 7lbs Placenta 1.5 lbs Uterus growth- 2lbs Amniotic fluid- 2 lbs Blood 4 lbs Body fluids- 4 lbs Slide 4 What is a BMI? BMI- Body Mass Index (Weight/Height 2 ) x 703 Applies to adult men and women ClassificationBMI Underweight30 Slide 5 Weight Gain During Pregnancy Weight should be gained gradually First trimester 1-4 lbs total during the first 3 months Second & Third Trimester 2 to 4 pounds per month during the 4 th to 9 th months Most weight gained in last three months Avoid weight loss during pregnancy even if obese Weight gain during the 2 nd trimester predicts birth weight Seek proper weight before pregnancy Slide 6 Effects of Starting BMI Underweight (BMI Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency and Risk for Preeclampsia Methods Case study of Vitamin D levels in preeclamptic women >16 wks compared to non-preeclamptic women Results As maternal serum vitamin D concentrations increased, risk of preeclampsia decreased. Neonates born to preeclamptic mothers more likely to have poor Vitamin D status than neonates of controls Conclusion Maternal Vitamin D deficiency at less than 22 weeks was a risk factor for preeclampsia Slide 19 Folate Reduces risk of birth defects affecting the spinal cord Needed to produce blood and protein for the baby. Advised to increase intake when planning or capable of pregnancy. 400 micrograms/day for non-pregnant women 600 micrograms/day for pregnant women Sources Cereals Pasta Bread Supplements Slide 20 Folic Acid Fortification and Neural Birth Defects Introduction Mandatory fortification Increase by 3070% of folic acid 87% due to Spina Bifida Results Before fortification Neural tube defects was 1.85 per 1000 live births Introduction of fortification Neural tube defects was 1.07 per 1000 live birth After fortification Neural tube defects was.95 per 1000 live births Conclusion Significant decline of 49% in incidence of neural tube defects Slide 21 Iron Pregnant women are at high risk for anemia Iron deficiency Helps red blood cells deliver oxygen to the baby Non-pregnant women: 15-18 milligrams/day Pregnant women 27 milligrams/day Sources Spinach Kale Leafy greens Beans Fortified Cereals Red Meat Chicken Fish Slide 22 PICA Ingestion of non-food items are foods in higher amounts Associated with Iron deficiency Cravings for taste, smell, or texture Complications Depend on substance eaten GI disturbance Excess weight gain Hyperglycemia High Blood Pressure Metabolic Alkalosis Slide 23 Exercise During Pregnancy Requirements Then ACOG Should not exceed 140 beats/minute Strenuous exercise 15 minutes Now ACOG Moderate exercise 30 minutes Most days of the week Changes in body: Balance Joints Heart Rate Seek Healthcare professional Slide 24 Benefits of Exercising Mother Improved cardiovascular function Limited pregnancy weight gain Decreased musculoskeletal discomfort Reduced muscle cramps Reduced lower limb swelling Mood stability Fetus Decreased fat mass Improved stress tolerance Advanced neurobehavioral maturation Slide 25 Types of Exercise Beginners Walking Cycling Swimming Aerobics Exercisers Running Strength training Slide 26 Exercises to Avoid Downhill snow skiing Contact sport Football Basketball Ice Hockey Soccer Scuba Diving Gymnastics Horseback riding Standing for long periods of time Slide 27 Conclusion Proper weight gain is important in maintaining the health and well being of both the mother and the fetus Iron, Vitamin D, omega 3 fatty acids, and Folic Acid are important to supplement during pregnancy Exercise during pregnancy is beneficial not only for the mother but for the fetus These nutrition and exercise recommendations are important for pregnant women but can be maintained after pregnancy for a healthy lifestyle