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  • OF NON-FORMAL AND INFORMAL LEARNING

    VALIDATION

    Validation and open educational resources (OER)

    Thematic report for the 2016 update of the European inventory on validation

    This thematic report focuses on validation of learning acquired through open educational resources (OER), such as participation in massive open online courses. Based on a review of the literature and data collected for the European inventory, the report explores how validation may relate to the use of OER. It explores relevant main types of validation mechanism and provides an overview of validation practices, with particular focus on assessment and certification; it also outlines a range of conclusions and recommendations. These recommendations emphasise the importance of knowledge-sharing and spreading good practice on validation of OER-derived learning, including awarding full qualifications, raising stakeholder awareness, strengthening measures that link OER-derived learning to more generic systems for validation, and further investing in high-quali- ty assessment systems.

    Validation and open educational resources (OER) Thematic report for the 2016 update of the European inventory on validation

    ENEN

    Europe 123, 570 01 Thessaloniki (Pylea), GREECE PO Box 22427, 551 02 Thessaloniki, GREECE Tel. +30 2310490111, Fax +30 2310490020, E-mail: [email protected]

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training

    4149 EN – TI-04-16-546-EN-N – doi:10.2801/80977

    ISBN: 978-92-896-2197-7

  • Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2016

    Validation and open educational resources (OER) Thematic report for the 2016 update of the European inventory on validation

  • Please cite this publication as: Cedefop; European Commission; ICF (2016). Validation and open educational resources (OER). Thematic report for the 2016 update of the European inventory on validation. Luxembourg: Publications Office.

    A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu).

    Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2016

    ISBN: 978-92-896-2197-7 doi:10.2801/80977

    Copyright © European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop), 2016 All rights reserved.

    Designed by [email protected] Printed in the European Union

    http://europa.eu

  • The European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop) is the European Union's

    reference centre for vocational education and training. We provide information on and analyses of vocational

    education and training systems, policies, research and practice. Cedefop was established in 1975

    by Council Regulation (EEC) No 337/75.

    Europe 123, 570 01 Thessaloniki (Pylea), GREECE PO Box 22427, 551 02 Thessaloniki, GREECE

    Tel. +30 2310490111, Fax +30 2310490020 E-mail: [email protected]

    www.cedefop.europa.eu

    Joachim James Calleja, Director Micheline Scheys, Chair of the Governing Board

    http://www.artdirectors.gr/c_adam_share/Archive1.zip

  • Foreword

    There is an overwhelming consensus on the importance of making visible the knowledge, skills and competences gained through life and work experience. To value what they have learned, people should be able to demonstrate what they have learned in all settings in life and to use this in their career and for further education and training.

    This is why validation of non-formal and informal learning can make an essential contribution to the EU ambition of achieving smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as set by the Europe 2020 strategy. Its impact can be significant in better matching of skills and labour demand, promoting transferability of skills between companies and sectors and supporting mobility across the European labour market. It can also contribute to fighting social exclusion by providing a way for early school leavers, unemployed individuals and other groups at risk, particularly low-skilled adults, to improve their employability.

    This is one of a series of four thematic reports prepared within the framework of the 2016 update to the European inventory on validation of non- formal and informal learning. The inventory, together with the European guidelines, is a major tool supporting the implementation of the 2012 recommendation on validation that calls on Member States to establish, by 2018, validation arrangements allowing individuals to identify, document, assess and certify their competences to obtain a qualification (or parts of it).

  • The thematic reports take a closer look at specific aspects that are particularly relevant for the development of validation arrangements in Europe. They have contributed to the development of the country report updates, which will be available at Cedefop’s webpage at the end of 2016. The reports treat the following themes: (a) validation in the care and youth work sectors: this looks into how validation

    arrangements link to specific sectors of care and youth work; (b) monitoring validation: this provides an overview of the way the use of

    validation of non-formal and informal learning is recorded across Europe; (c) funding validation: this presents an overview of funding sources for

    validation of non-formal and informal learning and discusses associated issues such as sustainability and accessibility of validation arrangements;

    (d) validation and open educational resources (OER): this focuses on validation of learning acquired through OER, for instance through participation in massive open online courses. The thematic reports are a source of information to support dialogue

    between the different stakeholders in developing and implementing validation in Europe. Our key objective is to assist Member States in thinking European but acting locally, so that more learners and workers provide new skills to support competitiveness.

    Joachim James Calleja Detlef Eckert Cedefop Director Director for Skills, DG Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion

    Foreword 5

  • Acknowledgements

    This report was written by Axelle Devaux and Manuel Souto-Otero and reviewed by the steering committee set up by the European Commission to oversee work on the update of the European inventory on validation of non-formal and informal learning 2016, comprising the European Commission (Godelieve van den Brande, Koen Nomden, Martina Ní Cheallaigh, Corinna Liersch and Anna Nikowska), Cedefop (Jens Bjørnåvold, Hanne Christensen and Ernesto Villalba) and the European Training Foundation (Anna Kahlson).

    Work was carried out under Cedefop service contract No 2014-0182/AO/ECVL/JB-EVGAR/ 2016-Validation-Inventory/014/14.

  • Table of contents

    Foreword 4 Acknowledgements 6

    1. Introduction 9 1.1. Objectives of the report 9 1.2. Research method and process 9 1.3. Limitations 10 1.4. Structure of the report 11

    2. OER in the context of validation 12 2.1. ICT in education, OER and MOOCs 12

    2.1.1. ICT in education in Europe 13 2.1.2. A brief introduction to OER 13 2.1.3. OER development in Europe: institutional and

    individual perspectives 14 2.1.4. OER and validation in the EU policy agenda 16

    2.2. The relationship between validation and OER 17

    3. Assessment of OER-derived learning 20 3.1. Introduction 20

    3.1.1. Assessment formality level 21 3.1.2. Types of assessment method 22

    3.2. Validation on course entry and credit recognition 23 3.3. Certification 25 3.4. The scale of validation 29 3.5. OER ‘soft’ recognition arrangements 30

    4. Validation for OER-derived learning 32 4.1. Introduction 32 4.2. Standard arrangements: national level 34 4.3. Standard arrangements: project work 35 4.4. Standard arrangements: institutional level 35 4.5. Problems in using generic arrangements 36 4.6. Specific arrangements 37 4.7. Labour market recognition