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  • Mutual Learning Exercise

    Open Science:

    Altmetrics and

    Rewards

  • Mutual Learning Exercise: Open Science — Altmetrics and Rewards European Commission

    Directorate-General for Research and Innovation

    Directorate A — Policy Development and Coordination Unit A4— Analysis and Monitoring of National Research and Innovation Policies

    Contact (H2020 PSF – Mutual Learning Exercise: Open Science — Altmetrics and Rewards)

    Ana CORREIA, Coordinator of the MLE, Unit A4 - [email protected]

    René VON SCHOMBERG, Team Leader, Unit A.2 – [email protected]

    Irmela BRACH, Senior Policy Officer, Unit B.2 - [email protected]

    Contact (H2020 PSF coordination team):

    Román ARJONA, Chief Economist and Head of Unit A4 – [email protected]

    Stéphane VANKALCK, PSF Head of Sector, Unit A4 - [email protected]

    Diana SENCZYSZYN, PSF Team Leader, Unit A4 – [email protected]

    European Commission

    B-1049 Brussels

    Manuscript completed in April 2018.

    This document has been prepared for the European Commission however it reflects the views only of the

    authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information

    contained therein.

    More information on the European Union is available on the internet (http://europa.eu).

    Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2018

    Print ISBN 978-92-79-82004-5 doi: 10.2777/22329 KI-AX-18-005-EN-C

    PDF ISBN 978-92-79-82005-2 doi: 10.2777/468970 KI-AX-18-005-EN-N

    © European Union, 2018.

    Reuse is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. The reuse policy of European Commission

    documents is regulated by Decision 2011/833/EU (OJ L 330, 14.12.2011, p. 39).

    For any use or reproduction of photos or other material that is not under the EU copyright, permission must

    be sought directly from the copyright holders. Cover Image © Eurotop.be 2017

    mailto:[email protected]a.eu mailto:[email protected] mailto:[email protected] mailto:[email protected] mailto:[email protected] mailto:[email protected] http://eurotop.be/

  • EUROPEAN COMMISSION

    Mutual Learning Exercise

    Open Science: Altmetrics

    and Rewards

    Prepared by the independent experts:

    Frank Miedema (Chair)

    Katja Mayer (Rapporteur)

    Kim Holmberg

    Sabina Leonelli

    2018 Directorate-General for Research and Innovation EN

  • Table of Contents

    1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................... 12

    1.1 BACKGROUND ............................................................................. 12 1.2 PARTICIPATING COUNTRIES.......................................................... 12

    2 METHODOLOGY ...................................................................................... 14

    3 BACKGROUND TO OPEN SCIENCE ............................................................. 16

    3.1 THE STATUS OF OPEN SCIENCE IN EUROPE – IMPLEMENTATION AND ASPIRATION ......................................................................... 16

    3.2 INCENTIVISING AND REWARDING OPEN SCHOLARSHIP ................... 22 3.2.1 Altmetrics ............................................................................ 24 3.2.2 Incentives and rewards ......................................................... 28

    3.3 NATIONAL INITIATIVES FOR OPEN SCIENCE ................................... 36 3.4 CONCLUSION .............................................................................. 40

    4 POSITIONS AND PERSPECTIVES FROM MEMBER STATES AND PARTICIPATING COUNTRIES .................................................................... 41

    4.1 AUSTRIA ..................................................................................... 42 4.2 BULGARIA ................................................................................... 47 4.3 BELGIUM..................................................................................... 51 4.4 CROATIA ..................................................................................... 57 4.5 FRANCE ...................................................................................... 61 4.6 LATVIA ....................................................................................... 66 4.7 LITHUANIA .................................................................................. 69 4.8 MOLDOVA ................................................................................... 73 4.9 PORTUGAL .................................................................................. 76 4.10 SLOVENIA ................................................................................... 82 4.11 SWEDEN ..................................................................................... 87 4.12 SWITZERLAND ............................................................................. 92

    5 LESSONS LEARNED ................................................................................. 95

    5.1 KEY CONCERNS AND BEST PRACTICES IN OPEN SCIENCE IMPLEMENTATION ........................................................................ 96

    5.2 PRIORITIES ............................................................................... 108 5.3 ROADMAP FOR OPEN SCIENCE .................................................... 110 5.4 CONCLUSIONS AND NEXT STEPS ................................................. 117

  • List of Tables

    Table 1: Overview of Open Science dimensions ................................................ 18

    Table 2: OSCAM Open Science Career Assessment Matrix scheme ...................... 31

    Table 3: National Open Science Roadmap for the implementation of Open Science at the national level, comprising a list of stages involved and

    examples of relevant activities for each stage ......................................... 112

    Table 4 : Synoptic view of the approaches to incentivising and rewarding Open Science activities discussed in the MLE Report on Incentives and Rewards for Open Science Activities (Leonelli 2017) ................................ 115

    List of Figures

    Figure 1: Participating countries in MLE Open Science ....................................... 13

    Figure 2: Key Dimensions of Open Science....................................................... 17

    Figure 3: The Metric Tide: Report of the Independent Review of the Role of Metrics in Research ............................................................................... 25

    Figure 4: Recommendations by the European Commission Expert Group on

    Altmetrics, 2017 ................................................................................... 27

    Figure 5: Dutch National Plan Open Science – Declaration ................................. 36

    Figure 6: Objectives of the Dutch National Plan for Open Science ....................... 37

    Figure 7: Word cloud generated from this chapter ............................................ 95

  • 5

    THE PSF MLE PANEL

    Frank Miedema - Chair (The Netherlands)

    Frank Miedema is Dean and Vice-President of the

    Executive Board of UMC Utrecht. He studied

    biochemistry at the University of Groningen,

    specialising in immunology, with a minor in the

    Philosophy of Science. He obtained a PhD from the

    University of Amsterdam at the Central Laboratory of

    the Blood Transfusion Service (CLB), now Sanquin.

    From 1983, he was a project leader there in the

    immunovirology of HIV/AIDS, as part of the

    Amsterdam Cohort Studies. In 1996, he was

    appointed full professor at the AMC/University of

    Amsterdam and became Director of Sanquin Research in 1998. In 2004, he

    became head of the Immunology Department at the University Medical Center

    Utrecht. From 2009 he is dean and vice chairman of the Executive Board at the

    University Medical Center Utrecht. He is one of the initiators of

    www.scienceintransition.nl/english. Science in Transition believes that the

    scientific incentive and reward system is in need of fundamental reform. Next to

    Science for Science (articles in ‘high-impact’ journals), the added value for

    society requires greater appreciation and societal stakeholders should be

    involved more integrally in the production of knowledge.

    Katja Mayer - Rapporteur (Austria)

    Katja Mayer trained as a sociologist and works at

    the intersection of science-technology-society.

    She studies the interactions of social scientific

    method and its publics. She is currently studying

    open practices in Computational Social Science

    and Big Data as a postdoc at the School of

    Governance, Technical University Munich. She

    also works as a senior scientist at the Centre for

    Social Innovation in Vienna, and is an associated

    researcher for the Responsible Research and

    Innovation in Academic Practice platform at the

    University of Vienna. Furthermore, she has been teaching sociology of

    knowledge and STS at the University of Vienna, Danube University, Krems,

    University of Art and De