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Process Engineering Current Awareness Report April 30, 2011 BP Information & Library Services “You have Questions - We have Answers. Just Ask Us! Process Engineering Current Awareness Report April 30, 2011 Mary Ann Palma, Publisher BP Information & Library Services [email protected] Requests to subscribe to Process Engineering Current Awareness report and other comments or questions should be directed to Mary Ann Palma, [email protected] For BP Internal Use Only. Contract & Copyright Restrictions Apply. Per BP's agreement with this provider, these materials must stay within BP. 1

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Process Engineering Current Awareness Report

April 30, 2011

BP Information & Library ServicesYou have Questions - We have Answers. Just Ask Us!

Process Engineering Current Awareness ReportApril 30, 2011

Mary Ann Palma, Publisher BP Information & Library Services [email protected] to subscribe to Process Engineering Current Awareness report and other comments or questions should be directed to Mary Ann Palma, [email protected]

For BP Internal Use Only. Contract & Copyright Restrictions Apply. Per BP's agreement with this provider, these materials must stay within BP.

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Process Engineering Current Awareness Report

April 30, 2011

CHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING NEWS.....................................................................................................................................7 Race to the pump...........................................................................................................................................................................7 Petrochemicals: Cheap raw materials and a muted industry downturn add up to good times for U.S. companies.....................7 Making solar panels greener: Producing photovoltaic panels more sustainably will require reducing energy consumption, toxic substances.............................................................................................................................................................................8 USDA approves ethanol corn: Agriculture: Genetically modified crop will boost biofuel production, but critics raise red flags................................................................................................................................................................................................9 Organic Intermediates: Selective cascade isomerization reaction converts alkynes into alpha,omega-diesters.........................9 BP spill commission calls for sweeping changes in industry practices, federal regulation.......................................................10 New zeolite technologies help refiners crack crude and trucks clean up emissions..................................................................11 Field campaigns target the chemistry behind air quality and climate........................................................................................12 Gulf Spill: Researchers find that an anionic surfactant lingers months after its use in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill..............................................................................................................................................................................................12 Growing demand for renewable energy and electricity spurs push for smart............................................................................13 Renewable Energy: Continuous cerium oxide-based syngas generator suggests.......................................................................14 CHEMICAL ENGINEER.................................................................................................................................................................15 Analysis: Tce: From the credible to the incredible.....................................................................................................................15 Tce: Membranes, filtration & separation: A sieve for CO SUB 2...............................................................................................16 Tce: Health & safety: Testing times ahead..................................................................................................................................16 Tce: Process news: Bacteria make cellulosic isobutanol............................................................................................................17 Tce: Asia/contracts: Honeywell company to design biomass project.........................................................................................18 Tce: United Kingdom: Valero buys Chevron's Pembroke refinery.............................................................................................19 Tce: Australia: CO SUB 2 storage stocktake..............................................................................................................................19 News: Tce: US stretches ahead in race for CCS.........................................................................................................................20 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND PROCESSING: PROCESS INTENSIFICATION...........................................................21 A review of membrane selection for the dehydration of aqueous ethanol by pervaporation.....................................................21 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY..................................................................................................................22 Morphology prediction of benzoic acid crystals: Thermostats...................................................................................................22 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL.....................................................................................................................................23 Catalytic combustion kinetics of acetone and toluene over Cu SUB 0.13 Ce.............................................................................23 Effect of the organic additions on crystal growth behavior of ZrO SUB 2 nanocrystals prepared via sol-gel process............24 Fluidized bed processing of sodium tungsten manganese catalysts for the oxidative coupling of methane..............................25 Surface-modified cerium oxide nanoparticles synthesized continuously in supercritical methanol: Study of dispersion stability in ethylene glycol medium..............................................................................................................................................26 Theory of flow distribution in manifolds.....................................................................................................................................27 The simulations of tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)..........................................................................................................28 Transesterification kinetics of Camelina sativa oil on metal oxide catalysts under conventional and microwave heating conditions.....................................................................................................................................................................................29 CFD simulation of natural gas sweetening in a gas-liquid hollow-fiber membrane contactor.................................................29 Aqueous phase adsorption of toluene in a packed and fluidized bed of......................................................................................30 The effect of organosolv pretreatment variables on enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse.............................................31 Carbon dioxide adsorption over zeolite-like metal organic frameworks (ZMOFs) having a sod topology: Structure and ionexchange effect.............................................................................................................................................................................32 Copper-ion exchanged Ti-pillared clays for selective catalytic reduction of NO by propylene................................................33 Enzymatic hydrolysis of microalgal biomass for bioethanol production....................................................................................34

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Kinetics of VOC absorption using capillary membrane contactor.............................................................................................35 Decomposition mechanism of phenol in water plasmas by DC discharge at atmospheric pressure.........................................35 Treatment of highly polluted paper mill wastewater by solar photocatalytic oxidation with synthesized nano TiO SUB 2......37 Diesel particulate matter combustion with CeO SUB 2 as catalyst. Part II:..............................................................................38 The catalytic stability of Mo/HZSM-5 in methane dehydroaromatization at..............................................................................39 Thermal and hydrothermal stability of a metal monolithic anodic alumina support for steam reforming of methane.............40 Kinetics of hydrotalcite catalyzed transesterification of tricaprylin and methanol for biodiesel synthesis................................41 Utilizing differential evolution (DE) technique to optimize operating conditions of an integrated thermally coupled direct DME synthesis reactor................................................................................................................................................................42 Cold modeling of a direct coupling autothermal methane reforming reactor............................................................................43 Kinetic study of catalytic esterification of butyric acid and n-butanol over Dowex 50Wx8-400................................................44 Extraction of sunflower (Heliantus annuus L.) oil with supercritical CO SUB 2 and subcritical propane: Experimental and modeling......................................................................................................................................................................................45 VOC absorption in a countercurrent packed-bed column using water/silicone oil mixtures: Influence of silicone oil volume fraction.........................................................................................................................................................................................46 Removal of methanol and 1-butanol from binary mixtures by absorption in rotating packed beds with blade packings.........47 Membrane foulants characterization in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating hypersaline oily wastewater........................48 CFD simulation of water removal from water/ethylene glycol mixtures by pervaporation.......................................................49 Studies on adsorption/desorption of nitrobenzene and humic acid onto/from activated carbon................................................49 Performance of calcium oxide as a heterogeneous catalyst in biodiesel production: A review.................................................50 Activity of nanocasted oxides for gas-phase dehydration of glycerol.........................................................................................51 Phenolic compounds biosorption onto Schizophyllum commune fungus: FTIR analysis, kinetics and adsorption isotherms modeling......................................................................................................................................................................................52 Preparation of supported Ni catalysts on various metal oxides with core/shell structures and their tests for the steam reforming of methane...................................................................................................................................................................53 Effect of temperature and concentration on treating NO in simulated diesel exhaust via SOFCs with Cu-added (LaSr)MnO SUB 3 cathode.............................................................................................................................................................................54 Significance of gas velocity change during the transport of CO SUB 2.....................................................................................55 Electricity generation from synthetic penicillin wastewater in an..............................................................................................55 Biomass pyrolysis in a micro-fluidized bed reactor: Characterization and kinetics.................................................................56 Effects of limestone calcination on the gasification processes in a BFB coal gasifier...............................................................57 Reactor modeling of sorption-enhanced autothermal reforming of methane. Part II: Effect of operational parameters.........58 Improvement of acidification on dewaterability of oily sludge from flotation...........................................................................59 Amine-modified mesocellular silica foams for CO SUB 2 capture.............................................................................................60 Adiabatic operation of chromatographic fixed-bed reactors......................................................................................................61 Hydrodynamics of an FCC riser using energy minimization multiscale drag model................................................................62 Reactor modeling of sorption-enhanced autothermal reforming of methane. Part I: Performance study of hydrotalcite and lithium zirconate-based processes...............................................................................................................................................63 Remediation of phenol-contaminated water by adsorption using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA).....................................64 Exerting the structural advantages of Ir-in-CeO SUB 2 and Ir-on-CeO SUB 2 to widen the operating temperature window for preferential CO oxidation............................................................................................................................................................65 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS...................................................................................................................................66 Algal biofuels: The research........................................................................................................................................................66 Algal biofuels: The process.........................................................................................................................................................66 Algal biofuels: The backstory......................................................................................................................................................67 Reactions and separations: Preventing maldistribution in multi-pass trays...............................................................................68 Back to basics: Designing four-pass trays..................................................................................................................................68 Understanding electromagnetic flowmeters................................................................................................................................69

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Capturing CO SUB 2 : Membrane systems move forward..........................................................................................................69 Bringing a star to earth...............................................................................................................................................................70 Renewable power: Not yet ready for prime time.........................................................................................................................71 Back to basics: Agitating fibrous materials.................................................................................................................................71 On the horizon: Gazing into an energy crystal ball....................................................................................................................72 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND DESIGN........................................................................................................73 Esterification of fatty acids in a thermally coupled reactive distillation column by the two-step supercritical methanol method .....................................................................................................................................................................................................73 Fuzzy cognitive approach of a molecular distillation process....................................................................................................74 Effect of beta-cyclodextrin on dissolution of methane in water...................................................................................................75 Molecular components-based representation of petroleum fractions.........................................................................................75 Enhanced ammonia synthesis in multifunctional reactor with in situ adsorption.......................................................................76 Kinetic study of the liquid-phase selective hydrogenation of 1-butyne in presence of 1-butene over a commercial palladiumbased catalyst...............................................................................................................................................................................77 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE.......................................................................................................................................79 Kinetics of structure II gas hydrate formation for propane and ethane using an in-situ particle size analyzer and a Raman spectrometer................................................................................................................................................................................79 A CFD model for biomass fast pyrolysis in fluidized-bed reactors.............................................................................................79 Enclathration of hydrogen by organic-compound clathrate hydrates........................................................................................80 Dopant-free, polymorphic design of TiO SUB 2 nanocrystals by flame aerosol synthesis........................................................81 Experimental and modeling studies on the low-temperature water-gas shift reaction in a dense Pd-Ag packed-bed membrane reactor..........................................................................................................................................................................................82 Attainable regions of reactive distillation-Part III. Complex reaction scheme: Van de Vusse reaction....................................83 Adsorption and separation of CH SUB 4 /CO SUB 2 /N SUB 2 /H SUB 2 /CO.........................................................................84 Sorption-enhanced dimethyl ether synthesis-Multiscale reactor modeling.................................................................................85 Reaction kinetics and producer gas compositions of steam gasification of coal and biomass blend chars, part 2: Mathematical modelling and model validation..........................................................................................................................86 Effect of a dispersed immiscible liquid phase on the hydrodynamics of a bubble column and ebullated bed...........................87 Vapor-liquid equilibrium in amino acid salt system: Experiments and modeling......................................................................88 Reaction kinetics and producer gas compositions of steam gasification of coal and biomass blend chars, part 1: Experimental investigation.................................................................................................................................................................................89 Modeling of dry pressure drop for fully developed gas flow in structured packing using CFD simulations.............................90 Oxygen transport through dense BaBi SUB 0.05 Sc SUB 0.1 Co SUB 0.85 O SUB 3-delta ceramic membrane....................91 HYDROCARBON ENGINEERING................................................................................................................................................93 Sweet and sour.............................................................................................................................................................................93 Process insight: Comparing physical solvents for acid gas removal..........................................................................................93 Third generation heat tracers improve safety.............................................................................................................................94 Going a step further.....................................................................................................................................................................94 10 steps to successfully choose monitoring and diagnostic technologies...................................................................................95 Seeing the light............................................................................................................................................................................96 Sulfur review 2011: WorleyParsons............................................................................................................................................96 Sulfur review 2011: Thermo Fisher scientific.............................................................................................................................97 Sulfur review 2011: Sulfur recovery engineering........................................................................................................................97 Sulfur review 2011: Siirtec Nigi..................................................................................................................................................98 Sulfur review 2011: Sandvik........................................................................................................................................................99 Sulfur review 2011: Prosernat.....................................................................................................................................................99 Sulfur review 2011: Merichem Company..................................................................................................................................100

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Sulfur review 2011: Jacobs Comprimo(R) sulfur solutions......................................................................................................100 Sulfur review 2011: Goar, Allison & Associates, Inc: An Air Products...................................................................................101 Company................................................................................................................................................................................101 Sulfur review 2011: Fives-Pillard.............................................................................................................................................102 2 S from any gas stream, including natural gas, refinery fuel gas,.......................................................................................102 Sulfur review 2011: Brimrock...................................................................................................................................................103 Sulfur review 2011: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc..............................................................................................................103 Making a breakthrough.............................................................................................................................................................104 Ethylene: Going global..............................................................................................................................................................104 The mid-way...............................................................................................................................................................................105 India: A dynamic country..........................................................................................................................................................105 INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH..........................................................................................107 Optimization of the design and operation of an extractive distillation system for the production of fuel grade ethanol using glycerol as..................................................................................................................................................................................107 Optimization of water consumption in second generation bioethanol plants...........................................................................108 Market journal: Japan quake scrambles market.......................................................................................................................108 Watching government: Regulatory roadblocks' costs...............................................................................................................109 Watching the world: OPEC irks the speculators.......................................................................................................................110 Journally speaking: Variations in product supplied.................................................................................................................110 Market journal: War, disaster jolt oil markets..........................................................................................................................111 Equipment/software/literature: Flame detectors now come with ATEX approval....................................................................112 Equipment/software/literature: New noise attenuation option for type FL regulators.............................................................112

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FILE 954/UD=201103W3, 201103W4, 201104W1, 201104W2, SER. DBPECAL File(s) searched: FILE 954: Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc.

Sets selected: Set 1 2 3 4 5 Items 19 0 79 13 2 Description JN="CHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING NEWS" OR JN="CHEMICAL ENGINEER" JN="PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY QUARTERLY" NOT (EXPLORATION (1W) DEVELOPMENT)/TI JN=CHEMICAL ENGINEERING? NOT (ECONOMIC()INDICATOR)/TI JN="INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH":JN="INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH" S4 AND (PROCESS CONTROL OR PROCESS DESIGN OR OPTIMIZATION OR MATHEMATICAL MODEL OR ENGINEERING OR DISTILLATION OR SEPARATION EQUIPMENT)/DE* JN="COMPUTERS AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING" (JN="HYDROCARBON PROCESSING" OR JN="HYDROCARBON ENGINEERING") NOT NEWS/TI JN="OIL AND GAS JOURNAL" NOT (SCOREBOARD OR STATISTICS OR NEWS OR QUICK()TAKES OR INDUSTRY()TRENDS OR HOTLINE OR GENERAL()INTEREST OR MARKET()MOVEMENT OR GOVERNMENT()DEVELOPMENTS)/TI JN="PROCESS ENGINEERING" S1:S3 OR S5:S9 Sort 10/ALL/JN

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Prints requested : ('*' indicates user print cancellation) 30Apr 12:05:19 PRINT 11/7/ALL ADDR PALMA Total items to be printed: 130 Dialog user number: 52700

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Chemical and Engineering NewsRecord - 1 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009254547 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011010926

Race to the pump Author: Ritter S.K. Source: Chemical and Engineering News (United States) v89, n7, (8) (ISSN 0009-2347) (ISSN 1520-605X) (2011) Language: English Summary Language: English ISSN: 0009-2347 eISSN: 1520-605X CODEN: CENEA Journal Name: Chemical and Engineering News Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Trade Journal DOI: 10.1021/CEN020911090424 Publication Date: February 14, 2011 (110214) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Automotive; Automotive Gas Engine Fuels; Motor Fuels; Non-Fossil Fuels; Other Fuels; Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals; Petroleum Substitutes; Primary Products Abstract: Scientists have largely met the technical challenge of developing biofuels to supplement and then replace petroleum-derived transportation fuels in the coming decades. However, for biofuels to reach the US market, these technologies have to fit into the existing transportation fuel infrastructure. A discussion on biofuel technologies covers the stake of major chemical and petrochemical firms in the race to biofuel commercialization; engineering of chemical technologies; success of synthetic biology in ethanol production; advantages of chemical approaches; aqueous-phase chemistry as one of the primary pathways to biofuels; testing of biodiesel candidates; Virent Energy Systems' BioForming technology; pyrolysis and biofuels; challenge to scale up technology; commercial biofuels produced by microbes, e.g., use of an engineered microbe to produce 2-methylpropanol (isobutanol); ands logistics of biomass availability, transport, and storage. Record - 2 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009254546 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011010925

Petrochemicals: Cheap raw materials and a muted industry downturn add up to good times for U.S. companies Author: Tullo A.H. Source: Chemical and Engineering News (United States) v89, n10 (ISSN 0009-2347) (ISSN 1520-605X) (2011)

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Language: English ISSN: 0009-2347 eISSN: 1520-605X CODEN: CENEA Journal Name: Chemical and Engineering News Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Trade Journal Publication Date: March 7, 2011 (110307) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Chemical Products and Processes; Crude Oils; Crudes; Economics and Statistics; Natural Gas, Natural Gasoline and LPG; Oxygen Compounds; Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals; Pure Hydrocarbons Abstract: A discussion on the state of US companies in the petrochemical industry covers demand for petrochemicals; cost of raw materials; new capacity and new petrochemical output; impact of the recession and financial crisis on the petrochemical industry; challenges associated with feedstock supply; concerns on the lack of engineering talent for facilities; trends in oil prices; China and Europe as potential target markets for Middle Eastern petrochemical output; developments on European ethylene capacity; expansion plans in North America; the fibers market, with emphasis on ethylene glycol and acrylonitrile, which are used in polyester and acrylic fibers; profitability issues related to cheap natural gas; natural gas production and underground shale; and Dow Chemical's plans to increase ethane-cracking capabilities at its Gulf Coast ethylene crackers. Record - 3 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009254499 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011010878

Making solar panels greener: Producing photovoltaic panels more sustainably will require reducing energy consumption, toxic substances Author: Everts S. Source: Chemical and Engineering News (United States) v89, n8 (ISSN 0009-2347) (ISSN 1520-605X) (2011) Language: English ISSN: 0009-2347 eISSN: 1520-605X CODEN: CENEA Journal Name: Chemical and Engineering News Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Trade Journal Publication Date: February 21, 2011 (110221) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Conversion and Storage; Energy Sources; Energy Supply; Petroleum Substitutes; Solar Abstract: A discussion on producing photovoltaic panels more sustainably covers the environmental impact of photovoltaic technology; characteristics of silicon-based photovoltaic solar panels, which boast (similar) 80% of the global market; need for more environmentally-friendly manufacturing processes; programs that will collect and recycle panels after their 20-25-yr lifespan; scientists'

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efforts to develop more energy-efficient ways to purify and crystallize silicon; economic aspects; and improving the energy efficiency of cells. Record - 4 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009254498 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011010877

USDA approves ethanol corn: Agriculture: Genetically modified crop will boost biofuel production, but critics raise red flags Author: Erickson B.E. Source: Chemical and Engineering News (United States) v89, n8 (ISSN 0009-2347) (ISSN 1520-605X) (2011) Language: English ISSN: 0009-2347 eISSN: 1520-605X CODEN: CENEA Journal Name: Chemical and Engineering News Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Trade Journal Publication Date: February 21, 2011 (110221) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Chemical Products and Processes; Non-Fossil Fuels; Other Fuels; Oxygen Compounds; Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals; Petroleum Substitutes Abstract: The USDA has cleared the way for farming corn that is genetically modified to produce alpha-amylase, an enzyme that rapidly breaks down starch into sugar. The decision - denounced by environmental groups marks the first US approval of a crop designed for ethanol production. Syngenta will sell corn seed with the amylase trait under the name Enogen. The company has shown that the trait can boost ethanol production efficiency at a 50 million-gal-yr facility by (similar) 10%, providing producers with a proven means to generate more gallons of ethanol from their existing facilities. However, grain millers and food manufacturers worry that the amylase trait will escape from Enogen crops and comingle with corn intended for human consumption. They say it will affect the quality and shelf life of processed foods containing corn, e.g., breakfast cereals, snack foods, and battered products. Record - 5 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009254492 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011010871

Organic Intermediates: Selective cascade isomerization reaction converts alkynes into alpha,omega-diesters Author: Ritter S.K. Source: Chemical and Engineering News (United States) v89, n2, (3) (ISSN 0009-2347) (ISSN 1520-605X) (2011) Language: English ISSN: 0009-2347

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eISSN: 1520-605X CODEN: CENEA Journal Name: Chemical and Engineering News Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Trade Journal Publication Date: January 10, 2011 (110110) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Catalysts and Catalysis; Catalysts/Zeolites; Chemical Products and Processes; Chemicals-Processing Catalysts; Oxygen Compounds; Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals Abstract: A research team in the UK has devised a method to convert the terminal triple bond of an alkyne into a diester with the two ester groups at opposite ends of the molecule. This unusual reaction made possible by a cascade of double-bond isomerization steps, provides new versatility in preparing chemical intermediates from alkynes, which are popular chemical feedstocks. In the reactions, CO and methanol are added sequentially to a carbon-carbon double or triple bond to form an ester. The Pd catalyst used for the reaction is highly selective for producing linear esters rather than branched esters. The catalyst was also used to make methyl propanoate from ethylene as part of a commercial route to methyl methacrylate monomer. In the new reaction, the first step is the methoxycarbonylation of an alkyne to form an alpha,beta-unsaturated ester. The ester's carbon-carbon double bond then isomerizes stepwise to each carbon along the molecule's chain. Record - 6 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009254491 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011010870

BP spill commission calls for sweeping changes in industry practices, federal regulation Author: Johnson J. Source: Chemical and Engineering News (United States) v89, n4, (4) (ISSN 0009-2347) (ISSN 1520-605X) (2011) Language: English ISSN: 0009-2347 eISSN: 1520-605X CODEN: CENEA Journal Name: Chemical and Engineering News Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Trade Journal Publication Date: January 24, 2011 (110124) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: General; Health and Environment; Legal Considerations; Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals; Plant Safety; Safety; Socioeconomics; Transportation and Storage Abstract: The BP spill has forced a reexamination of US offshore safety practices, regulations, and energy policy. A discussion covers recommendations of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill & Offshore Drilling; review of industry operations and government regulation of offshore drilling and production in federal waters; errors and misjudgments related to the BP spill; safety procedures of industry players; concerns on enforcing existing

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regulations; call to adopt practices of other nations; creation of an independent safety agency within Interior to oversee offshore drilling and to be led by an expert in science and management; use of a safety case approach to offshore regulation; funding for the additional regulations; and conflicts in regulations and oil development. Record - 7 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009254490 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011010869

New zeolite technologies help refiners crack crude and trucks clean up emissions Author: Bomgardner M.M. Source: Chemical and Engineering News (United States) v89, n4, (3) (ISSN 0009-2347) (ISSN 1520-605X) (2011) Language: English ISSN: 0009-2347 eISSN: 1520-605X CODEN: CENEA Journal Name: Chemical and Engineering News Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Trade Journal Publication Date: January 24, 2011 (110124) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Air Pollution; Catalysts and Catalysis; Catalysts/Zeolites; Chemical Products and Processes; Control; Health and Environment; Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals; Petroleum-Processing Catalysts; Pollution Control Catalysts; Pollution-Control Catalysts; Pure Hydrocarbons; Zeolites Abstract: Rive Technology will attempt to enter the market for FCC zeolites with its method for introducing larger pore spaces into synthetic zeolites, while zeolite manufacturer Zeolyst is going after a new market on the back end of the fossil-fuel chain. Its specialty zeolite catalysts are used in new diesel emissions control systems that meet more stringent US air pollution regulations. Rive inked a development and commercialization agreement with Grace. The partnership is a major step for Rive because Grace will formulate catalysts with Rive's zeolites and take on manufacturing responsibilities. The goal is to have a drop-in zeolite-based catalyst for FCC applications. In addition to working with Y-type zeolites, Grace introduced a zeolite called ZSM-5 to enhance the production of propylene and other high-value olefins in FCC units. Zeolyst also makes both Y-type and ZSM-5, along with a number of specialty zeolites, and rising demand has triggered several expansions at the company's Kansas City, KS., and Delfzijl, the Netherlands, plants. The new SCR systems reduce soot and nitrogen oxide at the tailpipe. Record - 8 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009254489 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011010868

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Field campaigns target the chemistry behind air quality and climate Author: Kemsley J.N. Source: Chemical and Engineering News (United States) v89, n6, (6) (ISSN 0009-2347) (ISSN 1520-605X) (2011) Language: English ISSN: 0009-2347 eISSN: 1520-605X CODEN: CENEA Journal Name: Chemical and Engineering News Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Trade Journal Publication Date: February 7, 2011 (110207) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Air Pollution; Air Quality; Health and Environment; Sources Abstract: A set of three field campaigns was carried out to analyze physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere in California. Early results from the campaigns indicated that there are still new things to learn in understanding of the atmosphere. The main focus of one of the campaigns, the Carbonaceous Aerosols & Radiative Effects Study, in the Sacramento area, was to look at the evolution of various carbon-rich aerosols. Such aerosol particles can be directly emitted from vehicles, industrial processes, and biomass burning. Scientists were able to monitor both precursor gases and aerosol particles as they were emitted in Sacramento, then were able to see how the aerosols evolved and aged as the air was transported north and east to Cool. A second campaign, CalNex, involved two ground sites, i.e., one at Pasadena in the coastal Los Angeles Basin and the other at Bakersfield in the inland San Joaquin Valley. The third field campaign, Cal-Mex, focused on atmospheric chemistry in the California-Mexico border region. Emissions in the area come from motor vehicles, including a high proportion of older, more pollution-prone vehicles; power plants; industrial facilities; agricultural operations; mining; dust from unpaved roads; and open trash burning. Record - 9 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009254488 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011010867

Gulf Spill: Researchers find that an anionic surfactant lingers months after its use in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill Author: Cassiday L. Source: Chemical and Engineering News (United States) v89, n6, (3) (ISSN 0009-2347) (ISSN 1520-605X) (2011) Language: English ISSN: 0009-2347 eISSN: 1520-605X CODEN: CENEA Journal Name: Chemical and Engineering News Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Trade Journal Publication Date: February 7, 2011 (110207) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Control; Health and Environment; Water

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Pollution; Water Quality Abstract: Crews worked feverishly to plug the Deepwater Horizon wellhead in the Gulf of Mexico. BP officials decided to inject 2.9 million L of a chemical dispersant into the stream of oil gushing from the ocean floor - the first time that crews had applied dispersant deep underwater. Researchers have tracked a key ingredient in the dispersant and found that it was persistent in deep ocean waters. At high concentrations, dispersants can be toxic to marine life. The chemical barely degraded over 2 mo. The surfactant spread with the oil plume as it diffused from the wellhead. The study is expected to help understand the fate and potential effects of dispersant use in deep water, which will inform decision making for future responses. Record - 10 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009254487 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011010866

Growing demand for renewable energy and electricity spurs push for smart electricity grid Author: Johnson J.W. Source: Chemical and Engineering News (United States) v89, n1, (5) (ISSN 0009-2347) (ISSN 1520-605X) (2011) Language: English ISSN: 0009-2347 eISSN: 1520-605X CODEN: CENEA Journal Name: Chemical and Engineering News Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Trade Journal Publication Date: January 3, 2011 (110103) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Energy Sources; Petroleum Substitutes; Solar; Unconventional Abstract: A discussion on the growing demand for renewable energy and electricity, which consequently pushes for the smart electricity grid covers the US' dependence on renewable energy, e.g., solar and wind; incentives enacted for more renewable energy; background information on the US' electricity distribution system; impact of a shift to wind power on today's energy world; characteristics of a smart grid, which merge new technologies with changing energy needs and drive electricity generation, transmission, and distribution systems; variables influencing the success of the smart grid; inadequacies in existing grids; balancing the grid's electricity generation; and cost and economic issues. Record - 11 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009254486 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011010865

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Renewable Energy: Continuous cerium oxide-based syngas generator suggests possible industrial use Author: Borman S. Source: Chemical and Engineering News (United States) v89, n1, (3) (ISSN 0009-2347) (ISSN 1520-605X) (2011) Language: English ISSN: 0009-2347 eISSN: 1520-605X CODEN: CENEA Journal Name: Chemical and Engineering News Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Trade Journal Publication Date: January 3, 2011 (110103) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Chemical Products and Processes; Energy Sources; Motor Fuels; Other Fuels; Oxygen Compounds; Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals; Petroleum Substitutes; Primary Products; Solar; Synthesis Gas Abstract: Researchers have developed a novel thermochemical reactor that uses sunlight to convert CO SUB 2 and water into hydrocarbon-fuel precursors at a relatively high efficiency. This feat is a key step toward using solar energy to produce much-needed liquid fuels more efficiently than may be possible with alternative methods, e.g., photocatalysis or microbial fermentation-based hydrocarbon-fuel production. A discussion on the new thermochemical reactor covers the possibility of developing an industrial-scale version of the process for solar towers; design background; CO and H SUB 2 form synthesis gas, which can be processed to generate methanol, gasoline, etc; solar-to-syngas energy conversion efficiency; and benchmarks for further improvements in the use of pure solar thermal energy to split CO SUB 2 .

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Chemical EngineerRecord - 12 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009255940 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011012319

Analysis: Tce: From the credible to the incredible Author: Gowland R. Corporate Source: European Process Safety Centre (EPSC), United Kingdom Source: Chemical Engineer (United Kingdom) n838, (55-56) (ISSN 0302-0797) (2011) Language: English ISSN: 0302-0797 CODEN: CMERA Journal Name: Chemical Engineer Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Business Article; Trade Journal Publication Date: April 12, 2011 (110412) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: General; Safety; Transportation and Storage Abstract: The events at the Buncefield oil-storage terminal in the UK in 2005 were documented in a number of detailed reports by the various bodies tasked with finding out what happened, identifying root causes and ensuring that the learning experiences are applied to prevent similar incidents in the future. To the casual reader and observer, it seems that a facility like Buncefield should be simple to operate since the range of likely hazards should be limited to tank overflow and tanker filling. The final report into the accident, "Buncefield: Why did it happen" (published only in February 2011) shows us how wrong this is. This report may prove to be the most valuable of all the reports on the causes of the accident in that it is simple in structure and answers questions that were quite difficult to extract from all the other documents. The report details the inadequacies that led to the event. These could be the known unreliability of the devices used to measure the level and provide information on high levels or transfer completion. Regarding the failures of management and control of maintenance activities, the report indicated that the lack of an effective fault-logging process and maintenance regime that could reliably respond to those faults were two of the most important root-cause managerial and organizational failures underlying the incident. The report also demonstrates inadequacies in shift handover. The report also clearly identifies that bunding integrity was taken for granted without proper review of design and performance. Record - 13 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009255939 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011012318

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Tce: Membranes, filtration & separation: A sieve for CO SUB 2 Author: Dambrowitz A. Corporate Source: Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Canada Author email: [email protected] Source: Chemical Engineer (United Kingdom) n838, (42-44) (ISSN 0302-0797) (2011) Language: English ISSN: 0302-0797 CODEN: CMERA Journal Name: Chemical Engineer Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Business Article; Trade Journal Publication Date: April 12, 2011 (110412) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Air Pollution; Catalysts/Zeolites; Control; Health and Environment; Hydrogen; Other Fuels; Petroleum Substitutes; Synthetic Crudes; Tar Sands; Zeolites Abstract: CO SUB 2 emissions are a pressing problem for Alberta's rapidly expanding oil-sands industry. A significant percentage of Alberta's CO SUB 2 emissions are produced through bitumen extraction and the upgrading of synthetic crude oil. University of Alberta's Steven Kuznicki and GE's Anthony Ku have found a naturally occurring sieve that can separate CO SUB 2 for sequestration and produce pure H SUB 2 at the same time. In their scheme, the membranes separate H SUB 2 from CO SUB 2 , resulting in two desirable products, i.e., pure H SUB 2 and concentrated CO SUB 2 . The benefits of this approach would be reduced costs for CO SUB 2 capture from shifted synthesis gas streams, and reduced costs for H SUB 2 production. The reduced cost for CO SUB 2 capture, which would largely stem from reduced energy input, is expected to encourage widespread adoption of the technology in Alberta's oil-sands upgrading facilities. If this was to happen, this technology has the potential to reduce the CO SUB 2 emissions related to the Alberta oil sands by up to 25%. This approach was already proven on a laboratory scale. In addition, Kuznicki and his team are also pioneering efforts to purify contaminated oil-sands process water by direct molecular sieving. Early results in the laboratory are very promising. Geomorphic molecular sieves, with their 3 A pores, have already been shown to separate hydrocarbons and dissolved salts from water, as only water is small enough to pass through the zeolite pores. An added benefit is the ruggedness of the natural zeolite materials. Record - 14 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009255938 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011012317

Tce: Health & safety: Testing times ahead Author: Singh J. Corporate Source: HEL Ltd., United Kingdom Author email: [email protected] Source: Chemical Engineer (United Kingdom) n838, (36-37) (ISSN 0302-0797) (2011) Language: English

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ISSN: 0302-0797 CODEN: CMERA Journal Name: Chemical Engineer Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Business Article; Trade Journal Publication Date: April 12, 2011 (110412) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Automotive; Automotive Gas Engine Fuels; Conversion and Storage; Energy Supply; Petroleum Substitutes Abstract: The push towards electric vehicles means that rechargeable batteries will become a very common feature of the roads in years to come. While the dream of electric cars running on renewably generated power could be some years away, governments are encouraging car drivers to switch to battery power already, and even rewarding them. The large amounts of money being poured into battery research is based very largely around the use of highly reactive chemicals such as lithium, and this has brought to attention the potential safety issues that could make the flammability hazards of petroleum fuels look like mere child's play. If a prototype Li-ion battery is heated beyond its safe temperature (while safely contained inside a steel test cell that can withstand > 200 bar internal pressure, naturally), this will result in an impressive explosion. The need to develop safe batteries from the outset is a major part of the development effort and safety testing involves adaptation of classic chemical engineering techniques. Batteries can lead to problems, either due to internal malfunction within the battery itself, e.g., internal shorting or chemical degradation, or as a result of external problems during legitimate use. The latter includes inadvertently taking the battery to an unsafe temperature and charging it too fast or at too high a voltage. These problems are collectively called battery "abuse", which, in turn, has resulted in "abuse testing" procedures that must be carried out before batteries can be shipped or used in different applications. Record - 15 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009255937 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011012316

Tce: Process news: Bacteria make cellulosic isobutanol Source: Chemical Engineer (United Kingdom) n838, (18-19) (ISSN 0302-0797) (2011) Language: English ISSN: 0302-0797 CODEN: CMERA Journal Name: Chemical Engineer Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Business Article; Trade Journal Publication Date: April 12, 2011 (110412) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Chemical Products and Processes; Non-Fossil Fuels; Other Fuels; Oxygen Compounds; Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals; Petroleum Substitutes Abstract: James Liao, a professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at the University of California, LA (UCLA), has claimed a biofuel

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breakthrough with direct production of isobutanol from cellulose using Clostridium cellulolyticum. Isobutanol shows great promise as a biofuel, not least because it has a much higher energy density, volatility and octane rating than ethanol. Before being used for biofuel production, cellulose must usually first be pre-treated with either heat, acid or alkali, then broken down into sugars using cellulase enzymes before being fermented to produce alcohol, usually ethanol. However, C. cellulolyticum, produces its own cellulase, eliminating the second step, and Liao and his colleagues engineered the bacterium to produce isobutanol, rather than ethanol, from the cellulose breakdown products. The process takes place at around 30(deg)C and has produced yields of 660 mg/L of isobutanol. So far the process was only performed on a laboratory scale, but this is the first demonstration of the feasibility of using this type of idea to produce isobutanol. Record - 16 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009255936 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011012315

Tce: Asia/contracts: Honeywell company to design biomass project Source: Chemical Engineer (United Kingdom) n838, (16) (ISSN 0302-0797) (2011) Language: English ISSN: 0302-0797 CODEN: CMERA Journal Name: Chemical Engineer Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Business Article; Trade Journal Publication Date: April 12, 2011 (110412) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Non-Fossil Fuels; Other Fuels; Petroleum Substitutes Abstract: Premium Renewable Energy (PRE) has selected Envergent Technologies to carry out the engineering design for a new palm biomass plant in Malaysia. Envergent, a US-based unit of the engineering conglomerate Honeywell, will be using its rapid thermal processing (RTP) technology to produce biofuels. The technology works by rapidly heating biomass at ambient pressure to generate liquid biofuel, which can be used in electrical generators and burnt in furnaces. It is currently being used in seven commercial plants throughout the US and Canada. Construction of the facility is expected to begin in the later part of 2011, to be completed early in 2013. According to Honeywell and PRE, the project is in line to create 1000 jobs and generate $1 billion in annual revenue by 2020. By this time, they hope to have followed up the initial facility with additional RTP units. Record - 17 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved.

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0009255935

EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011012314

Tce: United Kingdom: Valero buys Chevron's Pembroke refinery Source: Chemical Engineer (United Kingdom) n838, (14) (ISSN 0302-0797) (2011) Language: English ISSN: 0302-0797 CODEN: CMERA Journal Name: Chemical Engineer Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Business Article; Trade Journal Publication Date: April 12, 2011 (110412) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Economics and Statistics; Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals Abstract: Valero Energy, the largest independent US refiner, has bought Chevron's UK refinery for $730 million. In addition to the 220,000 bpd Pembroke refinery, Valero will pay an estimated $1 billion for Chevron's inventory and other assets in the UK. Valero intended to retain all staff, including the 1400 workers at the refinery. Meanwhile, Shell is in the process of selling its Stanlow refinery in the UK, and BP announced plans in early 2011 to sell two of its refineries in the US. This has opened up opportunities for more specialized refiners like Valero, which has 14 refineries across North America. Valero has discussed moving to Europe for some 6 yr but its previous effort to buy a 45% stake in Total's Vlissingen refinery in the Netherlands for $725 m failed in 2009. Pembroke was an attractive target because the refinery remained profitable and cash flow positive even during the depths of the economic downturn in 2009. Record - 18 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009255934 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011012313

Tce: Australia: CO SUB 2 storage stocktake Source: Chemical Engineer (United Kingdom) n838, (12) (ISSN 0302-0797) (2011) Language: English ISSN: 0302-0797 CODEN: CMERA Journal Name: Chemical Engineer Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Business Article; Trade Journal Publication Date: April 12, 2011 (110412) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Air Pollution; Control; Health and Environment Abstract: The Otway Project partners are investigating exactly how CO SUB 2 is being stored after injecting > 65,000 ton of CO SUB 2 in spent-gas reservoirs 1.4 km below southeast Australia. U-tube technology developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a partner in the project, is being deployed to chemically analyze samples of water and dissolved gas direct from the reservoir without loss of pressure. The

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mix of storage outcomes depends on the porosity of the storage medium, according to Peter Cook, CEO of Australia's Cooperative Research Center for Greenhouse Gas Technologies. Fine pores are more likely to hold residual storage, but the finer the pores, the harder it is to inject the gas. Record - 19 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009255933 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011012312

News: Tce: US stretches ahead in race for CCS Source: Chemical Engineer (United Kingdom) n838, (9) (ISSN 0302-0797) (2011) Language: English ISSN: 0302-0797 CODEN: CMERA Journal Name: Chemical Engineer Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Business Article; Trade Journal Publication Date: April 12, 2011 (110412) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Air Pollution; Coal Conversion; Control; Enhanced Recovery; Gasification; General Aspects; Health and Environment; Oil Field Chemicals; Petroleum Substitutes Abstract: According to an annual report from the Global CCS Institute, the US has taken the lead in global installation of carbon-capture and storage (CCS) facilities, ahead of Europe. The US has 18 of the 35 newly identified large-scale integrated projects (LSIP), bringing the global total to 77. Acceleration was driven by a range of incentives offered by the US government as well as the extensive use of EOR. The number of operating LSIPs has not increased from the eight identified in 2009. The number of new projects progressing to the detailed design and construction phase has doubled to 4 in the past 18 mo, adding the Southern Company IGCC project in the US and the Gorgon project in Australia. All 12 projects are related to the oil and gas industry, though 42 of the remaining projects being planned are for the power-generation sector, dominated by pre- and post-combustion capture. The highest levels of activity remain unchanged, with efforts concentrated in the US (31 identified LSIP), Europe (21), Canada (8), Australia (6), and China (5). China is expected to become a bigger player in the CCS market but, at the moment, its approach remains focused on R&D.

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Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process IntensificationRecord - 20 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009255128 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011011509

A review of membrane selection for the dehydration of aqueous ethanol by pervaporation Author: Bolto B.; Hoang M.; Xie Z. Corporate Source: CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Private Bag 33, Clayton South MDC, Vic. 3169, Australia Author email: [email protected] Source: Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification (Netherlands) v50, n3, (227-235) (ISSN 0255-2701) (2011) Language: English Summary Language: English ISSN: 0255-2701 CODEN: CENPE No. of references: 62 Journal Name: Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Journal DOI: 10.1016/j.cep.2011.01.003 Publication Date: April 1, 2011 (110401) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Chemical Products and Processes; Other Separations; Oxygen Compounds; Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals; Unit Operations Abstract: Four broad types of membranes are categorised: organic polymers generally, crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol), organic-inorganic hybrids and charged polymers. The best performers in terms of flux, which reaches a maximum of 5 kg/m SUP 2 h, are anionic or cationic polymers, including polysalts. Polyanion and polysalt membranes are superior. Two examples are thin layers of the active polysalt membrane on a supporting membrane. The best combination for flux and selectivity is a polyethyleneimine/poly (acrylic acid) polysalt deposited on a reverse osmosis membrane, at 4 kg/m SUP 2 h and 1075 respectively. It is noticeable that hybrid poly(vinyl alcohol)/inorganic membranes do not show enhanced fluxes. Very high separation factors were observed, covering a range of polymers, of neutral, anionic or cationic character. The top results (>10,000) were for charged membranes, either cationic or anionic, but not polysalts. The fluxes encountered here were miniscule, the best being caesium alginate at about 1 kg/m SUP 2 h. The ideal structure for high fluxes would appear to be one containing discrete domains of oppositely charged species of optimal size. Fresh approaches are being actively studied, such as layer-by-layer deposition of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, with due attention to appropriate separation of the sites of opposite character. Crown Copyright (c) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Chemical Engineering and TechnologyRecord - 21 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009255102 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011011483

Morphology prediction of benzoic acid crystals: Thermostats Monographic Title: Industrial Crystallization Author: Schmidt C.; Ulrich J. Corporate Source: Martin-Luther-Universitat Halle-Wittenberg, Zentrum fur Ingenieurwissenschaften, Verfahrenstechnik/TVT, 06099 Halle (Saale), Germany Author email: [email protected] Source: Chemical Engineering and Technology (Germany) v34, n4, (563-570) (ISSN 0930-7516) (ISSN 1521-4125) (2011) Language: English Summary Language: English ISSN: 0930-7516 eISSN: 1521-4125 CODEN: CETEE No. of references: 16 Journal Name: Chemical Engineering and Technology Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Journal DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201000506 Publication Date: April 1, 2011 (110401) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Chemical Products and Processes; Oxygen Compounds; Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals Abstract: Industrial crystallization processes are frequently bound to the application of additives. Additives can modify the crystal morphology. Computer methods allow a precise prediction of the crystal modifications induced by additives. The effect of water as additive molecule on crystal morphology predictions by means of molecular dynamics (MD) is insufficiently explored. This work focuses on the prediction of the crystal habit of benzoic acid in the presence of three-site water. The selection of the temperature control algorithm the thermostat - applied in MD simulations is highlighted for water. Significant modifications in the crystal morphology can be observed. The given data allow a decision for a certain thermostat in advance. If a fast equilibration is required, the Direct Velocity Scale thermostat should be used. However, for a precise prediction of the morphology, the Nose temperature control algorithm is recommended. (c) 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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Chemical Engineering JournalRecord - 22 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009260328 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011016707

Catalytic combustion kinetics of acetone and toluene over Cu SUB 0.13 Ce SUB 0.87 O SUB y catalyst Author: Hu C. Corporate Source: State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex System, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China; Department of Chemistry, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Author email: [email protected] Source: Chemical Engineering Journal (Netherlands) v168, n3, (1185-1192) (ISSN 1385-8947) (2011) Language: English Summary Language: English ISSN: 1385-8947 CODEN: CMEJA No. of references: 39 Journal Name: Chemical Engineering Journal Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Journal DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2011.02.006 Publication Date: April 15, 2011 (110415) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Air Pollution; Catalysts/Zeolites; Control; Health and Environment; Pollution Control Catalysts; Pollution-Control Catalysts Abstract: Catalytic combustion kinetics of acetone and toluene at low concentrations in air over the previous Cu SUB 0.13 Ce SUB 0.87 O SUB y catalysts calcined at different temperatures was investigated in order to gain more insight into their catalytic behaviors. A differential packed-bed tubular reactor operated at atmospheric pressure was used to obtain the kinetic data. Reactions were carried out at temperatures between 423 and 483 K and organic compound partial pressures ranging from 10 to 101 Pa. Results showed that the simple power-law model was not enough to represent the kinetics of acetone or toluene combustion over the catalyst. The apparent reaction order and the apparent activation energy for acetone or toluene combustion over the catalyst varied with inlet compound partial pressure and reaction temperature, respectively. Based on the experimental evidence and available information in literature, a kinetic expression assuming reaction between adsorbed acetone and lattice oxygen was proposed to describe acetone combustion and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) equation assuming reaction between adsorbed toluene and adsorbed oxygen on different adsorption sites was used to account for toluene combustion. It was found that the kinetic equation derived from the mechanistic considerations provided fairly good fits to the kinetic data for catalytic combustion of acetone or toluene over the Cu SUB 0.13 Ce SUB 0.87 O SUB y catalyst. The estimated kinetic parameters of the Cu SUB 0.13 Ce SUB 0.87 O SUB y catalysts calcined at different temperatures

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were compared and the main difference among the three catalysts for acetone and toluene combustion was revealed. (c) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Record - 23 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009260104 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011016483

Effect of the organic additions on crystal growth behavior of ZrO SUB 2 nanocrystals prepared via sol-gel process Author: Huang W.; Yang J.; Meng X.; Cheng Y.; Wang C.; Zou B.; Khan Z.; Wang Z.; Cao X. Corporate Source: State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resources Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, Jilin, China; Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, Jilin, China Author email: [email protected]; [email protected] Source: Chemical Engineering Journal (Netherlands) v168, n3, (1360-1368) (ISSN 1385-8947) (2011) Language: English Summary Language: English ISSN: 1385-8947 CODEN: CMEJA No. of references: 41 Journal Name: Chemical Engineering Journal Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Journal DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2011.02.027 Publication Date: April 15, 2011 (110415) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Chemical Products and Processes; Oxygen Compounds; Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals Abstract: ZrO SUB 2 powders were synthesized via sol-gel process using zirconium oxychloride octahydrate as the raw material. The effects of addition of glacial acetic acid and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) on crystal growth and chemical bond of powders were discussed. The structural evolution, phase transformation and morphological characteristic of powders were investigated by differential scanning calorimetric analysis (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After adding the acetic acid and DMF, the crystallite size of ZrO SUB 2 decreased from about 26.48 to 13.94 nm when calcination at 600 (deg)C for 40 min, and the activation energy for crystal growth reduced approximately from 7.76 +/- 0.62 to 2.74 +/- 0.28 kJ/mol in the initial stage, while abruptly increased to 26.48 +/- 1.09 kJ/mol in the later stage. The specific surface area decreased from 26.73 to 0.51 m SUP 2 /g. Meanwhile, the metastable tetragonal phase could be stabilized in ZrO SUB 2 nanocrystals at 600 (deg)C for 40 min. Crown Copyright (c) 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Record - 24 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009260103 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011016482

Fluidized bed processing of sodium tungsten manganese catalysts for the oxidative coupling of methane Author: Simon U.; Gorke O.; Berthold A.; Arndt S.; Schomacker R.; Schubert H. Corporate Source: Institute for Material Science and Technologies, Technische Universitat Berlin, Englische Str. 20, D-10587 Berlin, Germany; Department of Chemistry, Technische Universitat Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 124, D-10623 Berlin, Germany Author email: [email protected] Source: Chemical Engineering Journal (Netherlands) v168, n3, (1352-1359) (ISSN 1385-8947) (2011) Language: English Summary Language: English ISSN: 1385-8947 CODEN: CMEJA No. of references: 23 Journal Name: Chemical Engineering Journal Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Journal DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2011.02.013 Publication Date: April 15, 2011 (110415) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Catalysts and Catalysis; Catalysts/Zeolites; Chemical Products and Processes; Chemicals-Processing Catalysts; Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals; Pure Hydrocarbons Abstract: Na-W-Mn/SiO SUB 2 catalysts have been prepared via a new processing route using optimized fluidized bed processing. The coating process enables the production of large batches of catalysts closely related to industrial application. Thus, amorphous silica granules as core structures have been homogenously coated with finely dispersed Mn SUB 2 O SUB 3 and Na SUB 2 WO SUB 4 crystallite layers in a fluidized bed. Due to a calcination procedure at 800 (deg)C for 8 h under air, a transformation of the amorphous silica support into macroporous crystalline alpha-cristobalite was observed. The catalytic performance in OCM was evaluated in a packed-bed tubular reactor. 76% of C SUB 2 -selectivity and 7% CH SUB 4 -conversion have been obtained in a co-feed of CH SUB 4 , O SUB 2 and N SUB 2 in a ratio of 4:1:4 at 750 (deg)C. During the stability test, the catalytic performance remained constant over 24 h on stream. Characterization of the post reaction catalyst indicates a beginning phase transformation from Mn SUB 2 O SUB 3 to MnWO SUB 4 which implies the reduction from Mn(III) to the more stable Mn(II) oxidation state. Thus, the number of WO SUB 4 SUP 2tetrahedrons which are thought to be essential for catalytic performance maintained constant over the whole testing period. However, the local coordination of the WO SUB 4 SUP 2- tetrahedron changed partially from a symmetrical tetrahedron with equal W-O distances for the Na SUB 2 WO SUB 4 phase to distorted tetrahedron for the MnWO SUB 4 phase. The catalytically active coating was stable during OCM and did not flake off. However, it appeared to have melted partly. EDX mapping

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indicates the diffusion of sodium ions into the SiO SUB 2 substrate. (c) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Record - 25 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009260102 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011016481

Surface-modified cerium oxide nanoparticles synthesized continuously in supercritical methanol: Study of dispersion stability in ethylene glycol medium Author: Veriansyah B.; Chun M.-S.; Kim J. Corporate Source: Clean Energy Center, Energy Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-791, South Korea; Complex Fluids Laboratory, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-791, South Korea Author email: [email protected]; [email protected] Source: Chemical Engineering Journal (Netherlands) v168, n3, (1346-1351) (ISSN 1385-8947) (2011) Language: English Summary Language: English ISSN: 1385-8947 CODEN: CMEJA No. of references: 31 Journal Name: Chemical Engineering Journal Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Journal DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2010.12.055 Publication Date: April 15, 2011 (110415) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Chemical Products and Processes; Oxygen Compounds; Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals Abstract: Dispersion stability of surface-modified cerium oxide (CeO SUB 2 ) nanoparticles in ethylene glycol is examined and the experimental stability results are compared with an extended DLVO model consisting of electrostatic, van der Waals, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions. Unmodified, decanoic acid-modified and oleic acid-modified CeO SUB 2 nanoparticles are synthesized continuously in supercritical methanol (scMeOH). The surface charge of the surface-modified CeO SUB 2 particles changes from positive to negative with an increment in the medium pH while the surface charge of the unmodified CeO SUB 2 particle does not change with varying pH. Long-term dispersion stability test (up to 100 days) shows that the oleic acid-modified nanoparticle with a concentration of 0.3 M retains most stable dispersion in ethylene glycol. The unmodified and decanoic acid-modified nanoparticles with a concentration of 0.03 M precipitate within 7-15 days. In contrast, initial short-term stability evolution reveals different stability behavior compared to the long-term stability. The unmodified and the decanoic acid-modified nanoparticles with a concentration of 0.03 M were less attractive than the oleic acid-modified nanoparticle with 0.3 M. The experimental short-term stability data is in good agreement with the computational results of energy profiles for the CeO SUB 2 nanoparticle suspension. Crown Copyright (c) 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Record - 26 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009260101 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011016480

Theory of flow distribution in manifolds Author: Wang J. Corporate Source: Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB, United Kingdom Author email: [email protected] Source: Chemical Engineering Journal (Netherlands) v168, n3, (1331-1345) (ISSN 1385-8947) (2011) Language: English Summary Language: English ISSN: 1385-8947 CODEN: CMEJA No. of references: 36 Journal Name: Chemical Engineering Journal Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Journal DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2011.02.050 Publication Date: April 15, 2011 (110415) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Conversion and Storage; Energy Sources; Energy Supply; Petroleum Substitutes; Solar Abstract: Flows in manifolds are of great importance in quite diverse fields of science and technology, including fuel cells, spargers, solar collectors, microchannels, porous infiltration and irrigation. Theory of flow distribution and pressure drop is vital to predict process performance and efficiency of manifold systems. In this paper, we examined research and development of theoretical models and methodology of solutions in flow in manifolds and highlight remarkable advances in the past fifty years. The main existing models and solution methods were unified further to one theoretical framework, including Bernoulli theory and momentum theory, and discrete and continuum methodologies. The generalised model was applicable to not only designs of continuum manifolds but also those of discrete manifolds with constant or varying factors. The procedure of design calculation is in reality straightforward without requirements of iteration, successive approximation and computer programme. The theoretical model provides easy-to-use design guidance to investigate the interactions among structures, operating conditions and manufacturing tolerance under a wide variety of combination of flow conditions and geometries through three general characteristic parameters (E, M and zeta) and to minimize the impact on manifold operability. (c) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Record - 27 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved.

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0009260100

EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011016479

The simulations of tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) Author: Evans W.K.; Rattanakornkan K.; Suksangpanomrung A.; Charojrochkul S. Corporate Source: Department of Chemical Engineering, Srinakarinwirot University, 107 Rungsit-Nakorn-Nayok Road, Ongkharuk, Nakorn-Nayok 26120, Thailand; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Academic Division, Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy, Nakorn-Nayok 26001, Thailand; National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Rd., Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand Author email: [email protected] Source: Chemical Engineering Journal (Netherlands) v168, n3, (1301-1310) (ISSN 1385-8947) (2011) Language: English Summary Language: English ISSN: 1385-8947 CODEN: CMEJA No. of references: 20 Journal Name: Chemical Engineering Journal Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Journal DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2011.02.034 Publication Date: April 15, 2011 (110415) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Conversion and Storage; Energy Supply; Petroleum Substitutes Abstract: Simulations of a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) have been carried out by considering the geometry of the single cell comprises an air channel, fuel channel, anode, cathode and electrolyte layers. The numerical results were validated with experimental data. The current density, gas flow behavior, temperature and species concentration are analyzed. The presented simulation data shows a close correlation to the experimental data with only a minimal deviation of 7.27% on average in the current-potential plot. The results from the simulation show that an increase of inlet temperature resulted in a decrease of current density, power and thermal efficiency. The mass flow rate of fuel affects directly to the current density and power density. However, the thermal efficiency is decreased as the mass flow rate is increased. The maximum thermal efficiency of 49.16% could be achieved for the case of fuel and air inlet temperature of 873 K and the fuel mass flow rate of 3.202 x 10 SUP -7 kg s SUP -1 . The increase or decrease of cell length results in the area of electrochemical reaction. From our modeling, a longer cell yields larger thermal efficiency but lower current density. The results of this work can be used for studying the cell behavior of a tubular SOFC and to help develop efficient fuel cell designs. (c) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Record - 28 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009260099 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011016478

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Transesterification kinetics of Camelina sativa oil on metal oxide catalysts under conventional and microwave heating conditions Author: Patil P.; Gude V.G.; Pinappu S.; Deng S. Corporate Source: Chemical Engineering Department, New Mexico State University, MSC 3805, 1040 S. Horseshoe St., PO Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003, United States Author email: [email protected] Source: Chemical Engineering Journal (Netherlands) v168, n3, (1296-1300) (ISSN 1385-8947) (2011) Language: English Summary Language: English ISSN: 1385-8947 CODEN: CMEJA No. of references: 24 Journal Name: Chemical Engineering Journal Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Journal DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2011.02.030 Publication Date: April 15, 2011 (110415) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Non-Fossil Fuels; Other Fuels; Petroleum Substitutes Abstract: The reaction kinetics of transesterification of Camelina sativa oil using metal oxide catalysts under the conventional heating and the microwave-heating conditions were investigated. The transesterification reaction rates and the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) conversion rates were determined using heterogeneous metal oxide catalysts, i.e., BaO, CaO, MgO and SrO and two different heating methods. It was observed during the kinetic studies in this work that the BaO and SrO catalysts generated higher FAME yields than the CaO and MgO catalysts. A comparison between the conventional heating and the microwave-assisted transesterification processes showed that the reaction rate constants obtained in the microwave-assisted transesterification process are of two orders of magnitude higher than those obtained with the conventional heating method. Therefore, it can be well concluded that the heating method and solid catalysts play vital roles in improving the reaction kinetics and optimizing the reactors for biomass conversion to biodiesel. (c) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Record - 29 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009260098 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011016477

CFD simulation of natural gas sweetening in a gas-liquid hollow-fiber membrane contactor Author: Rezakazemi M.; Niazi Z.; Mirfendereski M.; Shirazian S.; Mohammadi T.; Pak A. Corporate Source: Research Centre for Membrane Separation Processes, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran, Iran Author email: [email protected] Source: Chemical Engineering Journal (Netherlands) v168, n3, (1217-1226) (ISSN 1385-8947) (2011) Language: English

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Summary Language: English ISSN: 1385-8947 CODEN: CMEJA No. of references: 27 Journal Name: Chemical Engineering Journal Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Journal DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2011.02.019 Publication Date: April 15, 2011 (110415) Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Natural Gas; Natural Gas Treating Abstract: Chemical absorption of CO SUB 2 and H SUB 2 S from natural gas was studied theoretically and experimentally using a hollow-fiber membrane contactor (HFMC) in this work. A 2D mathematical model was proposed to study simultaneous transport of CO SUB 2 and H SUB 2 S through a HFMC using methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) as chemical absorbent. The model considers axial and radial diffusion in the HFMC. It also considers convection in tube and shell sides with chemical reaction. CFD techniques were applied to solve the model equations involving continuity and momentum equations. Modeling predictions were validated with the experimental data and it was found that there is a good agreement between them for different values of gas and liquid velocities. The simulation results showed that the removal of H SUB 2 S with aqueous solution of MDEA was very high and indicated almost total removal of H SUB 2 S. Experimental and simulation results indicated that the membrane module was very efficient in the removal of trace H SUB 2 S at high gas/liquid flow ratio. The removal of H SUB 2 S was almost complete with recovery of higher than 96%. The proposed model is able to predict the performance of CO SUB 2 and H SUB 2 S absorption in HFMCs. (c) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Record - 30 DIALOG(R) File 954:Ei EnCompassLit(TM) (c) 2011 Elsevier Eng. Info. Inc. All rights reserved. 0009260097 EnCompassLit Document No.: L2011016476

Aqueous phase adsorption of toluene in a packed and fluidized bed of hydrophobic aerogels Author: Wang D.; McLaughlin E.; Pfeffer R.; Lin Y.S. Corporate Source: School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287, United States Author email: [email protected] Source: Chemical Engineering Journal (Netherlands) v168, n3, (1201-1208) (ISSN 1385-8947) (2011) Language: English Summary Language: English ISSN: 1385-8947 CODEN: CMEJA No. of references: 43 Journal Name: Chemical Engineering Journal Record Type: Abstract; New Document Type: Article; Journal DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2011.02.014 Publication Date: April 15, 2011 (110415)

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Ei EnCompassLit Bulletin Headings: Control; Health and Environment; Water Pollution Abstract: Surface-treated hydrophobic silica aerogel granules (Cabot Nanogel(R)) are contacted by a downward flow of a dilute toluene-water solution in either a packed bed or an inverse fluidized bed mode. The toluene adsorption efficiency and capacity of the Nanogel granules in both the packed or inverse fluidized bed are studied. The results show that the major factors which affect the toluene adsorption efficiency and capacity are the weight of the Nanogel granules (bed height) and fluid superficial velocity. In the fluidized bed adsorber the breakthrough time is considerably shorter than in the packed bed adsorber due to solids mixing in the fluidized bed; the outlet toluene concentrations at short times are also much higher and the toluene adsorption efficiencies are relatively low. The Nanogel granules adsorb about 4% of their weight in toluene. Simple models were used to predict the packed bed and inverse fluidized bed experimental results based on batch equilibrium and batch kinetic measurements of the Nanogel granules and the toluene solution. Good agreement between the models and experimental results were obtained. (c) 2011