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  • Periodismo transmedia: miradas mltiples

    pi Periodismo trasmedia_final.indd 3 9/6/13 11:29 AM

  • Periodismo transmedia: miradas mltiples

    Denis RenCarolina Campalans

    Sandra RuizVicente Gosciola

    Editores acadmicos

    pi Periodismo trasmedia_final.indd 5 9/6/13 11:29 AM

  • Director de la coleccin: Llus Pastor

    Denis Ren, Carolina Campalans, Sandra Ruiz, Vicente Gosciola, Elizabeth Gonalves, Marli dos Santos, Joao Canavilhas, Carlos Arcila, Mabel Caldern, Thom Gencarelli, Paul Levinson, Elias Said, Max Rmer Pieretti, Jorge Valencia-Cobos, Luciana Ren, Jess Flores, Jorge Hidalgo, Danghelly Ziga, Gabriela Coronel Salas, del texto

    de esta edicin, 2014 Editorial UOC (Oberta UOC Publishing, SL) Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 872, 3a planta 08018 Barcelona http://www.editorialuoc.com

    Universidad del Rosario Carrera 7 No. 12B-41, of. 501 Tel: 2970200 Ext. 7724 Barranquilla (Colombia) http://editorial.urosario.edu.co

    Correccin de estilo: Rodrigo Daz Losada Diagramacin: Precolombi EU-David Reyes Diseo de la cubierta: Natalia Serrano Impresin: ISBN Editorial UOC: 978-84-9064-237-5 ISBN Editorial Universidad del Rosario: 978-958-738-388-1 Depsito legal: B 18143-2014

    Ninguna parte de esta publicacin, incluyendo el diseo general y el de la cubierta, puede ser copiada, reproducida, almacenada o transmitida de ningn modo ni a travs de ningn medio, ya sea electrnico, qumico, mecnico, ptico, de grabacin, de fotocopia o por otros mtodos sin la previa autorizacin por escrito de los titulares del copyright.

  • vii

    Contenido

    Introduccin ................................................................................................................ ixDenis Ren, Carolina Campalans, Sandra Ruiz, Vicente Gosciola

    Definiciones

    Transmedia Journalism and the New Media Ecology: Possible Languages ............................................................................................. 3

    Denis Ren

    O jornalismo como narrativa transmdia: reflexes possveis ............................. 21Elizabeth Gonalves Moraes y Marli dos Santos

    Gneros de narrativa transmedia y periodismo ..................................................... 35Carolina Campalans y Vicente Gosciola

    Jornalismo Transmdia: um desafio ao velho ecossistema meditico ................ 53Joao Canavilhas

    Investigacin transmeditica y periodismo ............................................................ 69Carlos Arcila y Mabel Caldern

    Transmedia Storytelling and the Possible Futures for Popular Cultural Entertainment .................................................................................... 75

    Thom Gencarelli

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  • viii

    Periodismo transmedia: miradas mltiples

    Aplicaciones

    Transmedia Transnational Video Journalism ........................................................ 91Paul Levinson

    El periodismo transmedia desde los medios digitales iberoamericanos ............ 99Elias Said-Hung, Max Rmer Pieretti y Jorge Valencia-Cobos

    Periodismo de datos en el mundo transmedia ....................................................... 115Luciana Ren y Jess Flores

    Transmedialidad e hipertelevisin: convergencia tecnolgica y empresarial en la era del capitalismo hip ..................................................... 125

    Jorge Alberto Hidalgo Toledo

    Cmo se twitteara hoy la llegada del hombre a la luna? La transformacin narrativa transmeditica en la informacin periodstica presentada a travs de Twitter .................................................... 151

    Danghelly Giovanna Ziga Reyes

    La narrativa transmedia para la representacin de la realidad ............................. 167Sandra Ruiz

    Radiografa de la blogosfera ecuatoriana: una mirada glocal .............................. 181Gabriela Coronel Salas

    Los autores .................................................................................................................... 213

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  • ix

    Introduccin

    Los medios y las audiencias han cambiado rpidamente desde la llegada de la web 2.0. Lo cual ha implicado cambios en la sociedad, con un nuevo modelo de lenguaje que tiene como caractersticas fundamentales el contenido multiplataforma y una navegabilidad profundamente interactiva, adems de la circulacin por redes so-ciales y a travs de dispositivos mviles. Ese nuevo lenguaje, denominado narrativa transmedia, est en diversos campos de la comunicacin, entre ellos el periodismo.

    Aunque los cambios de lenguaje llegaron al periodismo, pocos estudios han sido desarrollados sobre el tema. Al mismo tiempo, con la participacin de la sociedad en la circulacin y, de alguna manera, en la alimentacin meditica de informaciones, algunas corrientes periodsticas pasaron a manifestar un cierto rechazo con relacin a los contenidos, aunque aprovechen en diversos momentos tales informaciones.

    La estrecha relacin del periodismo con la informacin y lo novedoso hizo que estos cambios de lenguaje se fueran posicionando naturalmente en su prcti-ca. Sin embargo, para algunas corrientes periodsticas ha sido difcil aceptar estas nuevas dinmicas de participacin de la sociedad en la circulacin y alimentacin meditica de informaciones y contenidos, a pesar de no tener ms remedio que aprovecharlos en algunas ocasiones.

    Igualmente, los medios como organizaciones pasaron a sentirse preocupados por esos cambios, pues se trata de su supervivencia en el marco de una creciente circulacin de informaciones por espacios participativos como YouTube, que ofrece cada da un considerable nmero de videos producidos, editados y/o publicados por los ciudadanos. Lo mismo ocurre con la expresiva difusin de noticias por la blogosfera, incluso el microblog Twitter, donde los ciudadanos hacen valer el poder de la comunicacin para ejercer su ciudadana. En ese mismo escenario se presentan formatos y modelos tanto de investigacin periodstica de datos como de la transfor-macin de la construccin narrativa de contenidos audiovisuales documentales y la difusin de contenidos periodsticos culturales a partir del transmedia storytelling.

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  • xPeriodismo transmedia: miradas mltiples

    Todos esos cambios han hecho necesaria una nueva estructura metodolgica y conceptual que atienda las necesidades del campo acadmico, con nuevos gneros, formatos y adems una discusin entre el concepto del transmedia y otros relacio-nados, pero distintos, como la estrategia de comunicacin cross-media. Discusiones que siguen y son justificadas por la novedad que implica el periodismo transmedia, no solamente en los medios y en la sociedad, sino tambin en la Academia.

    Este libro presenta una secuencia de captulos construidos para ofrecer al lector miradas centradas en campos distintos: la teora y la aplicabilidad. Con ese objetivo, rene textos de importantes investigadores en el campo, pertenecientes a nueve pases de Amrica y Europa, actuantes en diversos campos del estudio de medios. Los autores presentan sus textos en uno de los tres idiomas propuestos por la publicacin (espaol, portugus e ingls). De esa manera, la difusin de las discusiones podr alcanzar a un mayor nmero de estudiosos.

    El primer captulo: Transmedia Journalism and the New Media Ecology: Possible Languages, presentado por el brasileo radicado en Colombia, Denis Ren, ofrece definiciones pioneras sobre el tema a partir de los resultados de su in-vestigacin posdoctoral. Para esto el autor realiz, adems de estudios tericos, un experimento llevado a cabo durante un ao en lnea. El texto, redactado en ingls, presenta algunos parmetros para la comprensin del tema.

    A partir del mismo concepto, las brasileas Elizabeth Gonalves y Marli dos Santos ofrecen discusiones sobre el periodismo transmedia como un cambio de len-guajes, en el captulo O jornalismo como narrativa transmdia: reflexes possveis. Con una mirada terica, pero con preocupaciones prcticas, el texto proporciona la creacin de un concepto crtico ms expresivo.

    Continuando con la discusin terica, la chilena radicada en Colombia Caro-lina Campalans y el brasileo Vicente Gosciola presentan en el captulo Gneros de narrativa transmedia y periodismo, datos conceptuales sobre gneros del pe-riodismo transmedia. Para ello, ofrecen discusiones nuevas en la construccin de procedimientos y de comprensin del periodismo transmedia de manera slida.

    Luego, el portugus Joo Canavilhas expone desde miradas tericas, el tema de la construccin del conocimiento en el campo del periodismo transmedia. Este importante terico del periodismo digital publica en el captulo Jornalismo Trans-mdia: um desafio ao velho ecossistema meditico uno de sus primeros textos con miradas hacia el periodismo transmedia, de manera valerosa, ofreciendo discusiones crticas sobre su adopcin, siguiendo la discusin del captulo anterior.

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  • xi

    Introduccin

    En la secuencia, los venezolanos Mabel Caldern y Carlos Arcila, el ltimo radicado en Colombia, ofrecen un captulo que contribuye de manera sustancial a los estudios tericos en el campo del periodismo transmedia. Bajo el ttulo Inves-tigacin transmeditica y periodismo, el texto ofrece mtodos y discusiones sobre cules deben ser los objetos de este tipo de investigacin.

    Finalizando la primera parte del libro de miradas tericas, el estadounidense Thom Gencarelli presenta el captulo Transmedia Storytelling and the Possible Futures for Popular Cultural Entertainment, en el cual ofrece una mezcla de con-ceptos provenientes de la ecologa de los medios, para reproducir una discusin sobre cmo puede ser la difusin de contenidos de cultura popular a partir de las narrativas transmedia, especialmente a travs de contenidos periodsticos.

    La segunda parte del libro aborda, a travs de textos tericos, la utilizacin del periodismo transmedia en diversos mtodos y plataformas. Para ello, el estadouni-dense Paul Levinson presenta en el texto Transmedia Transnational Video Jour-nalism, discusiones acerca del escenario del audiovisual en espacios como YouTube y su participacin en la difusin de noticias a travs de lo que el autor denomina new new media (nuevos nuevos medios) en su ltimo libro.

    En la secuencia, el venezolano radicado en Colombia, Elas Said, el espaol Max Rmer Pieretti y el colombiano Jorge Valencia-Cobos ofrecen en el texto El periodismo transmedia desde los medios digitales iberoamericanos un anlisis general con datos cuantitativos sobre la utilizacin del periodismo en medios ibe-roamericanos.

    La brasilea radicada en Colombia, Luciana Ren, y el peruano radicado en Espaa, Jess Flores son los autores del captulo titulado Periodismo de datos en el mundo transmedia. En este presentan conceptos del periodismo de datos sin el lenguaje transmedia y hacen su adaptacin, teniendo en cuenta conceptos de conectivismo y tecnologa, como el algoritmo.

    La televisin es el tema del siguiente texto, de autora del mexicano Jorge Hi-dalgo: Transmedialidad e hipertelevisin: convergencia tecnolgica y empresarial en la era del capitalismo hip, en el cual se presentan discusiones relacionadas con la comunicacin organizacional y del periodismo empresarial a partir del lenguaje transmedia.

    A continuacin se trae a colacin el tema de Twitter. Para ello, se pone a consideracin del lector el texto de la colombiana Danghelly Ziga: Cmo se twitteara hoy la llegada del hombre a la luna? La transformacin narrativa trans-meditica en la informacin periodstica presentada a travs de Twitter, donde se

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  • xii

    Periodismo transmedia: miradas mltiples

    evidencian las grandes transformaciones que se han venido dando en las dinmicas informativas, hasta llegar al uso actual del Twitter como herramienta del trabajo periodstico.

    Sobre la utilizacin del transmedia en la construccin de contenidos informa-tivos, la colombiana Sandra Ruiz presenta el texto La narrativa transmedia para la representacin de la realidad, el cual contiene una discusin sobre las transforma-ciones narrativas de los documentales que transitan entre el cross-media y el trans-media. La autora destaca cmo el documental, al ser un gnero de representacin de la realidad, es adoptado por periodistas para reconstruir informacin a travs del lenguaje audiovisual.

    Finalizando el libro, el texto Radiografa de la blogosfera ecuatoriana: una mirada glocal, de la ecuatoriana Gabriela Coronel Salas, aporta reflexiones sobre periodismo transmedia en el campo de la blogosfera ecuatoriana. Para ello, presenta datos cuantitativos y cualitativos de la circulacin de noticias en el mbito global, pero tambin local, construyendo una caracterstica vivida por el periodismo con-temporneo: la comunicacin glocal.

    Con los trabajos que se acaba de mencionar, Periodismo transmedia: miradas mltiples presenta contenidos que aportan a la construccin del conocimiento y al desarrollo prctico del periodismo transmedia, atendiendo a una necesidad social donde el usuario no solo descubre informaciones, sino que tambin participa del proceso de reconstruccin de la informacin en espacios multiplataforma, aunque de manera limitada en comparacin con la labor periodstica. Un campo profesio-nal que sufre cambios con esa nueva narrativa, pero que contina desarrollando un papel fundamental para la sociedad, ahora aun ms importante, con el regreso a la esencia del periodismo: la mirada ms all de la noticia por parte del periodista. Buena lectura.

    Denis RenCarolina Campalans

    Sandra Ruiz Vicente Gosciola

    Editores acadmicos

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  • Definiciones

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  • 3Transmedia Journalism and the New Media Ecology: Possible Languages*

    Denis Ren

    IntroductionThe media world is constantly changing for a variety of reasons including the emer-gence of hyper spaces, which have changed the way content is produced, the reasons for which it is produced and the audience for whom it is produced. It is therefore out of market necessity that new studies have examined this new phenomenon.

    So, the digitally expanded expands to the editorial offices. However, a ques-tion remains: What are the production processes of journalistic content for the digitally expanded? And, linked to it, comes another important question: Are edi-torial offices prepared to trial or take on these new production processes? What I notice is a defensive distance, although the scenario has been changing in editorial offices since the advent of new media. There are some professionals with a more realistic outlook, and this group has been increasing in size, but the ideal would be growth and development closer in and around editorial offices, as has been the case, restricting academia.

    Now, we have the TV on the internet, through websites drawn from social media network concepts, like Youtube and Vimeo. It is the moment of new new media (Levinson 2012) where the citizen has his space on the media world. At the same time, we have smartphones with computers inside them. Finally, we can receive television through mobile devices. We now have everything combined in one piece of tiny, portable and constantly connected equipment: the cell phone.

    * The first version of this article was presented in the Thirteenth Annual Convention of the Media Ecology Association (New York, June 2012). The current version presents new information and conclusions about this research.

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  • 4Periodismo transmedia: miradas mltiples

    This research, classified as an applied study, introduces a format for produc-tion of transmedia journalism by cell phones and its circulation by blogosphere and social media. With this aim, it was adopted as methodologic procedures the quantitative investigation, but with a qualitative interpretation of the results. With the results achieved, it is possible to plan and produce news reports for the new media ecology, where the citizen is produssumidor, according to Decio Pignatari (1968 apud Ren; Flores, 2012) or prosumer (Toffler, 1985) and the information content is interactive.

    DefinitionsFor the development of the research it was important establishing definitions about fundamental concepts and in this research I define hypertext as a non-linear reading environment which offers its users the possibility of creating their own architecture of mind. Aarshet (2005: 85) defines the hypertext as a tool for the mind, which takes the desired form to their cognitive options. The same occurs in hypermedia, a hypertext environment which combines diverse media (photos, videos, audios, animations, infographic, etc.), alongside the text, allowing the user/recipient of the information to choose his or her own narrative path. Both hypertext and hy-permedia are interactive processes because they provide the user with a choice of paths to get the information in the way which best suits them. These are liquid, fluid, participative and independent environments (Bauman, 2001).

    Another characteristic of hyper environments is hypermedia. About this, as with inter-related texts, there are many links to other kinds of content. There are a lot of important discussions started by George Landow (2009: 25), in the book Hipertexto 2.0/hypertext 2.0 (in its new Spanish edition Hipertexto 3.0/Hypertext 3.0), which propose that simply, the expression hypermedia describes the idea of hypertextual text when it concludes the visual and sound information, as well as animation and other forms of information. But the author, in the same book, decides not to make a distinction between hypertext and hypermedia because he believes they are part of a single group, which provides the user with an advanced activity in the reading-participation processes.

    Considered as the popular structure of communication, the hypermedia rea-ches its apex where different forms of media converge, which was a further possi-bility of interacting and defining the labyrinthine ways of reading.

    The citizen prosumer increasingly seeks out platforms with a possibility of rea-ding multi-language content, whether it be television, cinema, literature or internet.

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  • 5Transmedia Journalism and the New Media Ecology: Possible Languages

    Hence, television communication has seen a growth in its intertextual contents as a way of expanding the available languages in the magic box and compensates for the lack of navigability on the platform. The receiver/user navigates through the cognitive process, not through the fragments presented by the media. At the same time, Landow (2009) defines that inside the spaces where multimediality is in, the readers are active, or they are reader-writers. The same definition is presen-ted by Denis Ren (2011).

    Hypermedia environments adopt, intensively, the concept of intertextuality defended by Bakhtin and Kristeva, in uncountable works. According to Bakhtin (1986), intertextuality is the dialogue between countless texts. Writing about intertextuality, George Landow (2009, p. 467), points that it is reciprocal and referential in a text or metatext conceived as a work. However, the author points out that it was used for the first time by Tzvetan Todorov, in 1969. Therefore, it is correct to consider that Bakhtin and Landow talk about the same thing, but of course in historically, sociologically and technologically different times.

    Among the specific languages used in the discussion of social networks and the blogsphere, post-hypertextuality and transmediation stand out. When consi-dering these terms, it is important to highlight the Transmedia technology emer-gence, initially proposed by Stuart Saunders Smith, in 1975, originally for the term trans-media music, which exhibited a miscellany of distinguished melodies in a unique work. Although it is not the objective of this study (to justify or criticize the creation of a new term), I believe we must consider the new names given to digital media a thought.

    I notice that journalists need to prepare themselves for the new scenario of informative communication, including the present-day. It is necessary, apart from the knowledge presented by the author, to know how to produce contents which possess a transmedia structure, in order to enable the contemporary society to surf through modern intertextual information. It is not logical to repeat the same form from other media for multimedia, especially with a transmedia narrative. Even though its meaning seems obscure, transmedia is a contemporary and social language constructed by several contents through different media with indepen-dent meanings, but collectively offering a new meaning. Participation is also very important for social media and mobile devices (Ren, 2011).

    If we get the answers, we can be start to produce contents. Failing to find the answers, however, would be some cause for concern, as in a short period of time we will no longer know how to produce contents for this media. What it is known for

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  • 6Periodismo transmedia: miradas mltiples

    certain, is that society day-by-day is immersed in the new new media (Levinson, 2012) and the processes must change in line with changes in society.

    Uncountable studies need development, starting with a review of communi-cation theories, valid for the old media, but questionable when it relates to the di-gital ones. Moreover, it is necessary to change languages, because now the contents have changed, through different media and for are for a different public, which has been achieving the co-author and participant status. The media-beings, as noted by Dan Gillmor (2005), produce their own news, they are no longer sources for journalists, now they are sources for the society from its virtual spaces, whether for blogsphere, social networks or Twitter. Citizens that make the information circu-late by its own strength, words and languages. It does not appeal to journalists give to it a thought, but it is a new way of making the factual, and the journalist got the chance of making reports, deepen the theme, using more techniques and time to make what they can do best: tell stories.

    Transmedia JournalismInvestigations each have their own stated aims. Some of them present views about a theme, while others present analysis of something that happened or something that is still happening, such as in humanities. However, frequently, researches in these fields present proposals resulting from theoretical-practical studies, in other words, resulting from an experiment, as in other knowledge field, such as Biological and Health Science, for example, or Mathematics.

    Transmedia Journalism is a form of journalistic language that includes, at the same time, different media, with several languages and narratives from several media and for several users. So audiovisual, mobile communication and interac-tivity resources are adopted in the dissemination of the content, including from the blogosphere and social networks, which increases significantly the circulation of the content. In addition, mobile is an essential tool to guarantee mobility and immediacy of the process of storytelling construction, although it is necessary to produce a transmediatic script.

    The difference between Transmedia Journalism and other forms of journalist narratives is that the transmedia storytelling can take advantage of the present com-municational possibilities in post-modern society, where mobility and liquidity structure, in other words, interactivity, assume important roles in the communica-tion field, such as engaging and attracting the receiver to the participatory interpre-

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  • 7Transmedia Journalism and the New Media Ecology: Possible Languages

    tation of the message. This is one of the points necessary to observe a transmedia structure: the expansion of the storytelling from the interactivity.

    When beginning a discussion about Transmedia Journalism, it is necessary to define the basic concepts and characteristics of digital space, which is the en-vironment proposed by this study. Although these definitions are wide and they are not effectively directed to transmidiation, many of them are key to transmedia storytelling. Apart from that, we need to change the way of looking at journalistic paradigms in relation to technology, especially from mobile devices. According to McLuhan, media is the message, and now mobile media has changed, not only the journalistic message, but also society. This happens because of the technological evolution of the area, as well as the development or the used language.

    Journalists started seeking news on the streets again, as they did in the early days of the profession. Now, it is simpler to do their jobs out there because it is possible to publish the information from the place they are. However, changes also need to reach the language field: The cell phone is not merely a new medium for digital content.

    Today, it is necessary to develop a new form of language to build on what jour-nalists already know how to do. This happened with the invention of the printing press, when Gutenberg developed a technology of mass production of texts on papers. Later, it happened with the arrival of photograph, the radio, the television, the internet and now we coexist with the challenge of creating a language adapted to mobile devices.

    One of the challenges we face is understanding where Digital Journalism stands today. Without a doubt this question is most intriguing in the case of jour-nalism on mobile devices, not only because of technological issues, but also, and more specifically because of the convergent characteristics of the devices. On a smartphone, for example, we find all the other medias combined. Worse (or bet-ter): they relate to each other countless times, through path linkages and directions. In addition, this device surfs the internet with considerable quality, nowadays, it has been adopted as micro portable computer, using just one click, or touch, with touch screen. This is the development of McLuhan (2005) concept, for which the technological media were an extension of our body. Yes, now we have the techno-logical devices, literally, in our hands, fingers. We touch everything we want, and we do not need to create an icon to compensate the lack of access to real things. Although the touch screen system has been conceptually designed by Jason Ford

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  • 8Periodismo transmedia: miradas mltiples

    (Elo TouchSystems), McLuhan did not think about it when he had the idea. Nor do we think that we had to change the communicational language for this.

    I assume that Journalism is a speech even though the journalist is a story teller. Journalism itself involves its own narrative, informative intertextuality, distinct temporality and of course, content hierarchy. According to Roman Jakobson (2003, p. 18) the main instrument of informative communication is language.

    The language of journalistic news is the essence of this genre, as well as its contents. But in the transmedia environment, it has become necessary to look for a language to suit this journalistic model. A form that allows navigability through intertextual environments. A construction which proposes interactivity through its content and evaluation of the text. A form of production which might be de-veloped for cell phones and/or types of mobile devices, such as tablets connected to the internet.

    Language can also be defined as task compositions which have as an objective [] end distances, creating a spatial continuity, find and establishing a common language through waves ( Jakobson 2003, p. 22). On the other hand, an algorithm is a sequence of defined tasks with a particular purpose. In other words, a produc-tion process of news is formed by algorithms, although they are not computerized.

    The algorithm is a language tool for interactive environments, according to Lev Manovich (2005, p. 288). Manovich, who uses videogames as example, says that Even if video games do not follow logic-based data, they seem to obey another logical algorithm. He also declares that narratives, including video games, correspond with the algorithm (Manovich 2007, p. 292). The flowchart model algorithm works as script for the message, allowing the author to make a study about structure interactivity. Among the options in the flowchart is the round that offers a visualization of the whole content (Ren, 2011) and the connection between fragments.

    Denis Ren (2011) defends the necessity of producing script, then, later, pro-ducing the content. So, it is possible to optimize the production, time and achieve a better narrative construction, including Transmedia. But, actually, according to Jenkins, (2009, p. 44), the transmedia construction occurs inside citizens brains, naturally, through an intellectual evolution in society.

    Actually, our brain is transmedia. Our dreams are transmedia. Projects are transmedia. Even this paper is transmedia, if we picture its elaboration process. Testing out a proposal before justifying it, for me, is a very important factor in this investigation model, because only applying the theory in practice we cannot be sure

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  • 9Transmedia Journalism and the New Media Ecology: Possible Languages

    about the proposed ideas. Moreover, thoroughly theoretical studies are criticized, frequently, by the professional community, in the field of journalism, and they are justified only when the object already exists, whether through mediatic analysis or something related to it.

    Producing transmedia content for social media and the blogosphere requi-res more from authors. It is not produced like before. There is a distinct necessity for projecting and planning the distinct paths and contents to be produced. It is necessary to produce multimedia scripts, defined by George Landow (2009) as hypermediatic messages.

    In order to develop transmediatic news, I defined an algorithm model for the digital journalist from concepts of a round flowchart (Ren 2011) and ideas about the algorithm proposed by Manovich (2005; 2007). The model must be done carefully, in a complete and quick way, at the moment that what the journalist is going to talk about is defined.

    A blog was created to further develop this study, where the transmedia jour-nalistic content produced during a year was published. The blog has served as a warehouse environment and for news circulation, besides enabling the experiment. So, the blog was defined, randomly and conveniently, as the platform, from a simple layout, with no interface studies (studying the ideal interface for transmediatics communicational processes is not the objective of this study), with light colors and Arial as its source, and some visual information (only where necessary).

    The next step to develop this research was the production of journalistic contents from a definition of text parameters: informative and/or interpretative. Moreover, the use of text, photographs and videos were defined as content for the construction of transmedia storytelling. Therefore, it was necessary to find the best mobile device to produce it, in other words, the most complete and simple, operationally speaking, for this journalist task.

    After some consideration the iPhone, 3GS model, was adopted as the official device, the most advanced device available at the time of the investigation. When the iPhone 4 came out, the experiment was being concluded, however some produc-tions were developed using this device, although this did not offer new possibilities for this purpose. Contents were also developed using phones with Symbian as its operational system, as well as phones on the Android platform, which make their limitations clear for this type of activity.

    The models with the Symbian operational system are limited in the production of audiovisual content because they do not have apps to edit videos. Two models

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  • 10

    Periodismo transmedia: miradas mltiples

    were used for this experimental activity: N97 and Navigator. Its system does not permit the users to send photos or videos during their text publication the Blogger platform, limiting the work to the text, which turns the environment into a simple narrative. Moreover, the text layout was a bit unusual and the difficulties of writing a text from its keyboard are a limiting factor. However, they are low cost devices and can take photos and video of excellent quality, even better than the iPhone. The alternative for journalists who want to work with these devices is adopting a portable computer with 3G connection as a support.

    It is essential that the production of text can be developed from a simple opera-tional method, because journalists can waste their time to find how to write quickly. Their job must absorb time during the contents creation and in the manipulation of audiovisual and photographic contents.

    The model which adopts Android as its operational system (Galaxy S) also presented limitations, specifically about its impossibility of editing videos from the actual device. Moreover, the video quality is inferior in comparison to the others devices. However, from this operational system is possible to publish contents with quality and simplicity better than the Symbian, although it is still inferior to the iPhone. Its interface is closer to the cognitive necessity of a good interface for this type of job. About its commercial parameters, its price is equivalent to an iPhone, but it possesses less available apps and it does not offer video editing apps and the Adobe Photoshop Express, essentials to produce photographs. At least, publishing from this device is not so good, although it is better than Symbian platform devices.

    From the choice of the device for the experiment (iPhone 3GS) and the search for apps with simple operation, a process of news production was initialized and some obstacles came up. The first difficulty was typing. The iPhone keyboard (small dimension) presented as an obstacle in the beginning, which was overcome later in the process. Moreover, following the touch screen technological concept, the device has become a body extension (McLuhan 2005), with the text flowing naturally. But it was not always simple. The first texts were used to find ways to use the device and its apps during an interview with an ex-student of Journalism about the labor market.

    The publication of photos was the next obstacle because the access panel did not let it happen (Blogger created a version of access panel for iPhone in the se-cond semester of 2011). However, I found an app that offered not only photo and video publication services from its interface, but also video and photo publication

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    Transmedia Journalism and the New Media Ecology: Possible Languages

    directly in the text, live. In addition, the app does the job of putting the news on the internet through social networks automatically. So, it is necessary to sign the social network of interesting (Facebook, Google+, Twitter, Badoo, etc) and publish the text. The app cost is below to $ 1,99 (USD).

    The content production from the mobile was quite simple. Producing texts from the device, editing video from the Reel Director app and taking photos from Adobe Photoshop Express are tasks clearly possible for all journalists. The editing app, for example, presents the same cognitive concepts of professional editing software, as timeline and an ordination form of simple fragment from a slide method and organization by order of exhibition. Besides, the possibility of doing all the process in place the news occurred is something considerably advantageous. Throughout the research, I noticed it and that is what makes the difference in in-formative terms.

    Digital journalists do not have time and they cannot waste time doing their jobs on their desks, while other news is occurring and the information discovered starts circulating in social networks from other sources. Their jobs have to be pro-duced on the streets, the place where the news happens. Although news is produced in a longer process of absorption by the journalist, it must also be done from mobile environments to guarantee a greater and better immersion of the journalist in the process and in the reported environment.

    But the purpose of this research is not to build a tutorial in how to use the Reel Director app. The idea is to present the languages that we should adopt for the job, and for this reason I wont discuss the device anymore, which is, by the way, quite cognitive and is simple to use.

    For the language, the script of news digitally expanded is essential. News should not start to produce itself without elaboration, and in transmedia news this is most important, in other words, the construction of content must be developed from a transmedia script, which is programmed so that all the linked fragments relate cognitively to each other and, at the same time, does not assume the role of cross-media content, in other words, the same content in distinct platforms. The content must be complementary, not repetitive. So, a model of specific flowchart for transmedia news was adopted. Although it is not necessary to offer the five indicated fragments in the model (we can offer more, by the way), it is important to provide as much different text as possible.

    The script development is, undoubtedly, essential for good production of a transmedia storytelling, especially for news journalism.

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    Periodismo transmedia: miradas mltiples

    In the flowchart presented, in this special case, five content fragments are provided, different from the ways adopted but related in the contents theme. A base text is presented to the users for a first reading, but they can start their own informative process from any fragment. In each of them, there is a possibility to go back to the previous reading. Preferentially, the base text is written, with an abs-tract and a contextualization of theme for the reader, which must have condition to read the whole text.

    In fragment 01 a video is presented, which completes what was shown on the base text, but not on the same theme. It is important to consider that they are different contents, but interrelated, so, there will be a transmedia process.

    The fragment 02 presents photographs related to the theme, but they cannot provide contents already presented in the text, nor in the video. The users can look at the photos and obtain isolated information from other fragments and they can go back and take a look in the other fragments without obstacles or cognitive re-petition.

    Infographics and caricature about the theme is provided in the fragment 03, in other words, support information or something related to a thought about the theme from the caricature. Moreover, that is a playful moment for the user, who can pass through new complementary information or laugh because of the drawing.

    The fragment 04 provides a sound complement to the news, but it can also present another video, photos or a text that contextualize the theme relating to it something that occurred in another time or a script about the subjects discussed in the theme.

    It is important to consider that we dont need to do the five fragments. We can do less if there is good content for everything, or we can do more fragments when these 5 are not enough. Picture a political or religious attack. We could have as fragments a base text, where event is reported. We could have a fragment 01, with photos of people running away from the scene, or firemen arriving to help injured people could be used (I do not believe that it is in the public interest to use images of injured people and it serves no journalistic purpose). In fragment 2, we present photographs around the attacked place. In fragment 3, an audio interview with officers about the possible charges. Finally, in the fourth fragment, we present a retrospective text with the risks of attacks in the country. The reader can navigate through all fragments without cognitive obstacles.

    In the experiment, one of the most important experiences was the circula-tion of information, a production characteristic of transmedia news. From user

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    Transmedia Journalism and the New Media Ecology: Possible Languages

    networks it is possible to have a greater effective range of the information making more people read the content and, besides it, they can comment on the theme. The use of social networks and the rhizomatic structure of information seem to be essential to this form of journalistic language. However, the journalists, when they produce news or define a theme, should consider the interest of their network, inviting it to read.

    Among the social network environments used, the most effective was Face-book, but Twitter also presented interesting results. Google+ have not shown a good result, probably, because it did not have a large number of users at the time of the research. As far as participation in social networks goes, the only problem was some comments about text. Those only appeared on Facebook, which limited the participation and repercussion of them, becoming only available for those who are part of my contact network, while in the blog it would be possible to debate, because everyone that access it can read the whole discussion.

    Besides social networks as circulation of content, it was noticed that mobility is, effectively, an important point in contents production. Agility when developing journalistic content from a cell phone, for example, is valuable in the publication of information. During the experiment, a highlighted situation was a flight between Madrid and Santiago de Compostela (Spain). On that occasion, November 2010, Spain was caught by strong winds, which caused the closing of the Barajas airport in Madrid and the airport of Santiago de Compostela, in Galicia. After the airports were reopened, I recorded a video, a took some pictures of the aircraft, including a strong turbulence, as well as the gray Spanish sky for the whole journey between the airports. Both productions, video and photo processing, were produced by a cell phone during the flight and sent on my arrival at the airport of Santiago de Compostela via a wireless internet connection. Also in Santiago de Compostela, two other texts were produced: one down the street and the other during a confe-rence, both from a cell phone and published in the blog when a wireless internet was found in a cafeteria in the historical center of the city. The device proved to be easy to operate and, moreover, being small is quite discreet in the production of content.

    The same occurred during another flight, this time between the Brazilian cities of Belo Horizonte and Ribeiro Preto (Brazil). The bad weather was not enough to prevent the operation of both airports, Ribeiro Preto and Belo Horizonte, which had faced problems weather problems a few months earlier (events were also recorded for the experiment, but on land, at the airport). This publication was

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    possible because of the mobility of production and publication of contents, inside the aircraft and before the departure.

    Another publication that was possible because of this mobility was done on Thursday, 2011/03/03, two days before carnival in Brazil. The published text re-gistered an intense movement of travelers going to Ouro Preto (Brazil), and the surrounding areas. This Brazilian city, from Minas Gerais state, is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and it has a carnival known worldwide. Images and videos and photos were taken to cover the event, as well as their processing, that was totally made from the iPhone 3GS. The text was entirely written in Belo Horizonte bus station, Minas Gerais, where the photos and videos were taken and edited before being finally posted on the blog. Almost two minutes after the post, the news had comments on Facebook and Twitter made by people in my social network.

    On participation, it is important to note that the experiment has only directly contributions made from the blog readers. On the other hand, as the news was pu-blished simultaneously with links to the text on Facebook, Twitter and Google+, the first two registered significant numbers of contributions. During this research, 43 publications were made on the blog, and 61 contributions were made on Twitter and 94 on Facebook.

    Among the contributions made for the blog, a highlight was a publication about the creation of cycle-lane on Sundays. The comment, made by an unknown contributor, who is not part of my social network, sent an email asking more in-formation about the theme because he would like to know if the city will continue the project. Besides that, the blog has served to start a strong discussion in the city, by the media, about the necessity of maintaining the project and its value for the citizens. Feedback was sent to the user, who, in reply, said that the content provi-des an interesting language of text, photo and video. It is important to notice that everything was produced while I was driving and the text was published right after.

    This is evidence that the environment is viable for journalism and that circula-tion is wide on the social networks because that is the way he probably discovered the publication, through another network, which he participates in. In addition, some comments revealed personal links of friendship and interest in the theme, as Castells (1999) justifies the construction of social networks. An example of that is the new Histria e modernidade se misturam em Ouro Preto/ History and modernity mingle in Ouro Preto, based on which I produced an interpretative report about the mixture between history and punk culture in the city. In the text, the brazilian

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    Transmedia Journalism and the New Media Ecology: Possible Languages

    journalist Jefferson Barcellos, who studies punk culture in Brazil, commented with personal language.

    The circulation was possible because of the network system present nowadays, on the internet. Networks are created according to the will of the users involved, who develop their digital contents using new technologies, which now enable their direct participation in the production process.

    Still on the dissemination of the news through social networks, the news Ou-ro Preto: cidade das igrejas/Ouro Preto: city of the churches was retweeted by @dminasturismo Twitter for its 1.277 followers. The curious about it is that I did not know this tourism agency and they did not follow me on Twitter. Because of their retweet, other persons started following me on Twitter and started commenting on others publications.

    Besides the circulation of content from social networks and the advantages of mobility, the ease of operating the cell phone became highlighted in the research. I noticed that simple, direct and intuitive handling is essential for this work. Thus, tools are made available to any journalist who wants to produce alternative con-tents about local events quickly. What McLuhan (2005) proposes and suggests and Steve Jobs realized, and most importantly, overcame, is the idea of media as extension of our body, proved by the simple use of the iPhone 3GS. With a touch screen system and an almost-invisible semi-cognitive interface, as Carlos Scolari (2004) proposes, the journalistic work was a natural, liquid experience (Bauman 2001) in a solid world.

    Although the relationship between journalism and cell phones seems a simple and limited simplistic impression of interface transparency, what occurs is that the task systems proposed by iPhone 3GS interface have cognitive links to the same tasks in traditional environments. The keyboard, for example, even though digital, follows the same shape of a physical, material keyboard. The same occurs in image processing and video recording and editing. What happens in apps is exactly the same as happens in professional softwares, respecting the procedures, according to Scolaris proposal. Beside the interface, the agility offered by the typing process is also good, from a habit gained with the job, although it has a keyboard and screen too small for my hands.

    Doing the publishing work, it was necessary to rely on the 3G internet on the phone, because waiting for places with wireless system would not be professional. The dependence on the internet was present in publications made in Bogot (Co-lombia), Madrid and Santiago de Compostela (two cities of Spain) because of the

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    Periodismo transmedia: miradas mltiples

    reason that I did not have system with local phone companies. But in publications made in Brazil, the 3G technology was not a problem, since the available connec-tion, nowadays, in Brazil, is compatible with the needs of this type of operation, even in cities where 3G coverage is not offered, as Ouro Preto and Mariana, two cities of Minas Gerais (Brazil) where I had done lots of publications.

    Carrying the results of the period of the experiment, provided by the publi-cation and circulation of 43 news of journalistic contents, most of them strongly supported by the concept of fact, I nticed the viability of producing news with uncountable medicatic supports (text, photo and video) from a single cell phone and for the publication in a space in the blogosphere. I also noticed that is viable and from a simple operation, this production, which turns it into an interesting possibility, because mobility is something necessary for journalists nowadays, espe-cially for those who work in digital media. Finally, I realized that social networks are able to spread information published by journalists quickly, creating, therefore, a mediatic audience of interesting levels of achievement and expression. All com-bined with the capacity of digital expansion of the contents, making it an essential aspect of the liquid society.

    But, beyond the production and circulation systems, the research still had a challenge: How journalistic videos sent to the blog should be produced and edi-ted? It is necessary, in both fields, technological and esthetical, to define an ideal pattern, and the audiovisual is the most powerful communicational text because it is closer to reality. (Ren, 2011). So, recorded and edited formats in the iPhone 3GS were tested.

    The production of content from cellphones needs an audiovisual esthetics review. There is a conjoint of possibilities of processing the image in movement, and, for this, new software designated to the activity. Through these apps is pos-sible to produce all the content from the device, as through available resources, as through the advantages of producing with motilities.

    A necessary question is about the size of the video. The ideal is to record an audiovisual content of no more than 30 seconds (note) and 4 minutes (great story), we do not know where it will be displayed, and the available connection. If the idea is for it to be viewed on cell phones is important to follow this format. In fact, the audiovisual product now faces different faces a different reality from the one it faced before cell phones. However changes are aesthetic in cinema history, since its inception, and it has always changed with the arrival of new equipment, offering new ways and places for viewing.

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    Transmedia Journalism and the New Media Ecology: Possible Languages

    From these parameters, I believe it is possible for a journalist to produce trans-media content for digital spaces, including for mobile devices. It is important to remember that the existing applications for the iPhone are also available for iPad, and version 2 comes with cameras that can be adapted for the production of au-diovisual content and/or photos for the texts. The only bad thing is that it cannot be used as a 100% portable device, it does not go unnoticed in public because of its size. Making a transmedia story is a real exercise for the mind, and entails language design work, not only the construction of informative content. It is an art. Its a constant challenge, but one that can be overcome.

    ConclusionsThe study of journalism is necessary because although there are well-established techniques and theories, the subject is constantly changing, it is a product of social development, and related to this, there are technological exchanges and language. Research into Trasmedia Journalism is even more important, because although the field of transmediation has been contemplated for some time by scholars, the field of journalism has been seemingly unconcerned, despite the need to define how to produce content for an increasingly trans industry, that is increasingly supported by a language and multimedia. With these changes, journalism must begin to speak the language of postmodernism, or face losing its institutional strength.

    At the same time, understanding how to create a transmedia story is a step forward in the study because it is a story of the richest genres of Journalism, which results in a study at an advanced level of journalistic practice. Through learning about transmedia language production methods of journalistic we produce closer to simple journalism supported by this language, which justifies the choice of this genre.

    The global village, proposed by McLuhan & Powers (1991), has changed. Now we live in a glocal village, where the global life with the local, all the time. A village where the heads may be indigenous peoples themselves. A village where the word has passed from their sources of information. A large village formed by millions and millions of small villages that share interests and knowledge. A web of groups, interrelated and interconnected by channels of social networks and at-tentive to the information of their members. A new era of communication, where dinosaurs that not accept the change will die, and only the dinosaurs who update their language, ways and means will survive in a society where the word, as well as knowledge, culture, art, technology and power is now shared P2P.

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    I understand that it is necessary to develop this practice, which is still in its infancy. The production of reports by transmedia networks is something innova-tive, but still in its infancy. It is necessary to learn and practice the proposed lan-guage in the media for which it has an evolutionary process in accordance with the possibility of these media and to their technological infrastructure and public. In addition, certainly, the process will evolve in accordance with the new narratives and technologies, and the changing requirements of society as it goes through the process of socio-communicational evolution.

    This is not a conclusive work. The idea is to understand what is happening with the information society, especially about the modern social language. The changes that journalism will go through based on an increasingly participatory, expanded and circulative inter-user narrative, are as certain as the changes that the world media is already undergoing. For this reason, my proposal is for other scholars to continue studying the theme, the communication phenomena which we, journalists and/or citizens will surely go through.

    BibliographyAarshet, A. (1997). Cybertext: perspectives on ergodic literature. The Johns Hopkins

    Baltimore: University Press. Bakhtin, M. (1997). Esttica da criao verbal. So Paulo: Martins Fontes. Bauman, Z. (2001). Modernidade lquida. So Paulo: Jorge Zahar Editores.Gillmor, D. (2005). Ns os media. Lisboa: Presena.Jakobson, R. (2003). Lingustica e comunicao. So Paulo: Cultrix.Jenkins, H. (2009). Cultura da convergncia. So Paulo: Alephe.Landow, G.(2009). Hipertexto 3.0. Madrid: Paids Ibrica.Levinson, P. (2012). New new media. Boston: Pearson Higher Education. Manovich, L. (2007). El cine, el arte del index. in LA FERLA, J. (ed.). El medio es

    el diseo del audiovisual. Manizales: Editoral Universidad de Caldas. pp. 481-494.

    Manovich, L. (2005). El lenguaje de los nuevos mdios de comunicacin: la imagen en la era digital. Buenos Aires: Paids comunicacin.

    McLuhan, M. (2005). Os meios de comunicao como extenses do homem (understan-ding media)., So Paulo: Cultrix.

    McLuhan, M.; Powers, B.R. (1991). La Aldea Global. Guanajuato: Gedisa Mexicana.Ren, D.; Flores, J.(2012). Periodismo transmedia. Madrid: Fragua.

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    Transmedia Journalism and the New Media Ecology: Possible Languages

    Ren, D. (2011). Cinema interativo e linguagens audiovisuais interativas: como produzir. Tenerife: Editorial ULL.

    Scolari, C. (2008). Hipermediaciones: elementos para una teora de la comunicacin digital interactiva. Barcelona: Gedisa.

    Scolari, C. (2004). Hacer clic: hacia una sociosemitica de las interacciones digitales. Barcelona: Gedisa.

    Toffler, A. (1980). The third wave. Nova Iorque/Toronto: Bantam Books.

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    O jornalismo como narrativa transmdia: reflexes possveis

    Elizabeth Gonalves MoraesMarli dos Santos

    IntroduoA manifestao narrativa, caracterstica bsica da linguagem humana, sempre um recorte da globalidade do pensamento. Dessa forma, uma narrativa traz sempre consigo outras narrativas potenciais, outras formas de organizao dos fatos no tempo. Portanto, a temporalidade um dos elementos fundamentais da estrutura narrativa, responsvel pela hierarquizao do contedo e dos atores envolvidos.

    A evoluo tecnolgica, sobretudo no contexto comunicacional, tem tornado mais visveis as caractersticas intrnsecas da linguagem humana. Maior facilidade de interagir, maior disponibilidade de equipamentos de produo, de veiculao e de recepo de mensagens resulta na tomada de conscincia de que o processo comunicativo dialgico e polifnico, ou seja, a comunicao de fato no existe sem o outro interlocutor atuante do processo.

    Por isso, na era da convergncia miditica, discutir a linguagem de cada mdia separadamente no mais suficiente para se entender como a mensagem adquire novos contornos, dependendo do meio que a veicula. As mudanas nos meios de comunicao e nas formas como nos relacionamos com eles fazem emergir o fenmeno denominado transmdia, ou seja, as narrativas continuam fazer parte do cotidiano miditico, porm ao transitarem de um meio a outro, de uma platafor-ma a outra, tem o seu contedo expandido pela ao interativa do receptor como produtor de contedos. Entende-se interatividade como uma atuao na criao, conforme conceito proposto por Vilches (2003, p. 234), como a passagem da mediao para a criao. Os usurios deixam de ser objetos de manipulao para converter-se em sujeitos que manipulam. O manipular, que constantemente tem

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    agregado um sentido pejorativo, assume aqui um sentido de transformar, de agir sobre a realidade em que atua.

    Nesse sentido, a narrativa transmdia no entretenimento, na comunicao mercadolgica, no jornalismo ou na educao tem sido considerada uma possibi-lidade criativa de envolvimento do outro: os atores do processo comunicacional deixam de ser emissores e receptores e so considerados interlocutores e produtores de uma narrativa complexa.

    Assim, as narrativas que povoam o cotidiano do indivduo nas diferentes esfe-ras so uma sucesso de estados e transformaes, aes reais, ficcionais, imaginadas, responsveis por construrem a realidade do sujeito em sociedade. A vida uma grande narrativa, constituda de inmeras outras narrativas, paralelas, complemen-tares, em constante dilogo...

    A narrativa traduz o conhecimento objetivo e subjetivo do mundo (o conheci-mento sobre a natureza fsica, as relaes humanas, as identidades, as crenas, valores e mitos, etc.) em relatos. A partir dos enunciados narrativos somos capazes de colocar as coisas em relao umas com as outras em uma ordem e perspectiva, em um desenrolar lgico e cronolgico. assim que compreende-mos a maioria das coisas do mundo. (Motta, 2005, online)

    Temporalidade e narratividade no jornalismo A temporalidade essencial s narrativas, e ao jornalismo, que tem na atualidade um dos conceitos fundantes, segundo Otto Groth.1 Como narrativa, o jornalis-mo tem no tempo presente, no agora, uma de suas marcas. Nesse sentido, o da narrativa jornalstica, importante citar Moraes (2011), que aponta o tempo como fundamental estrutura narrativa, porque organiza o pensar e o contar histrias reais ou ficcionais.

    ... a narratividade caracterstica intrnseca da linguagem humana, o que justi-fica o fato de contar histrias estar na essncia do homem, desde o era uma vez das fbulas que povoam o imaginrio infantil at as grandes narrativas literrias que contribuem para a formao do indivduo, passando por narrativas

    1 Otto Groth (2011) apresenta em seus estudos sobre o jornalismo realizado no incio do sculo xx quatro caractersticas que so fundantes para o jornalismo, alm de serem interdependentes, so elas: atualidade, periodicidade, universalidade (temas) e difuso.

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    O jornalismo como narrativa transmdia: reflexes possveis

    miditicas, que so os textos mais consumidos no nosso cotidiano. (Gonalves, 2012, p.15)

    No jornalismo, a narrativa est atrelada ao fato social, o qual cristalizado segundo valores-notcia - o valor de atualidade est implcito. A face urgente do fato se transforma em notcia, os diversos ngulos possveis, em reportagem (Lobo, 2012). Os valores-notcia so resultado de uma lenta estruturao cultural e de fatos sociais reais, segundo Marialva Barbosa (2012). So considerados atributos do fato: proeminncia, curiosidade, conhecimento, surpresa, consequncia, entre outros.

    Assim as atribuies do jornalismo so as de reportar os acontecimentos, mas tambm de ativamente dar existncia a factos novos, segundo Lobo (2012) que cita Boorsten:

    Tudo isto se resolve recorrendo auto-efectivao da profecia: ou seja, o acon-tecimento ganha realidade pela circunstncia de ser relatado e tanto quanto as consequncias futuras surjam j desse mesmo relato que no momento confor-ma a realidade original de acordo com os significados que lhe so ditados pela notcia neste caso notcia-como-acontecimento. (Lobo, 2012, pp. 514-515)

    Se o jornalismo est atrelado ao fato e faz parte do acontecimento, porque o relato resultado de um processo complexo de seleo e critrios jornalsticos, o que torna o fato um acontecimento a mediao jornalstica (Medina, 1988), feita por meio da narrativa. Sendo assim, a notcia e a reportagem, por exemplo, esto ligadas ao fato social e ao seu relato. A realidade social s pode ser apreendida por meio da linguagem.

    A notcia e a reportagem como narrativas Autores brasileiros que estudam os gneros jornalsticos classificam a notcia e a reportagem de maneira diversa, segundo alguns critrios. Um deles o formato do texto, utilizado por Chaparro (1998). Aps comparar diversos tipos de matrias jornalsticas, em um estudo comparativo entre peridicos do Brasil e Portugal, o pesquisador prope ancorar a proposta de gneros nas cincias da linguagem, justi-ficando que a cultura jornalstica no d conta de explicitar a natureza dos gneros. Chaparro analisa que os gneros no podem ser divididos em opinio e informao,

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    porque as duas caractersticas convivem. No h opinio sem informao, nem informao sem opinio. Nada mais coerente, uma vez que a linguagem no neutra, nem inocente (Brando, 1994, apud Chaparro, 1998, p.105). E conclui:

    O mundo de verdade que d significao ao texto um mundo de ajustamentos dinmicos, em contextos reais, com mltiplos sujeitos (todos interessados) e muitas verdades verdades de quem escreve, de quem l, de quem informa, de quem comenta, de quem fala, de quem ouve...

    O pesquisador define a notcia e a reportagem como espcies narrativas do gnero relato.

    Notcia: o resumo informativo para a descrio jornalstica de um fato relevante que se esgota em si mesmo, e para cuja compreenso bastam as informaes que o prprio fato contm Reportagem: relato jornalstico que expande a notcia, para desvendamen-tos ou explicaes que tornam mais ampla atribuio de significados a acon-tecimentos ocorridos ou em processo de ocorrncia. Nesse sentido, desvenda contextos, situaes, falas, fatos, atos, saberes e servios que alteram, definem, explicam ou questionam a atualidade. (Chaparro, 1998, p. 125)

    Importante ainda destacar o que Possendoro (2002) reflete sobre a narrativa no jornalismo, baseado em estudo sobre os abres ou aberturas de textos jornalsticos. Ele tambm recorre aos componentes narrativos presentes na literatura (fbula, histria e texto), para fazer uma analogia entre a narrao e o texto jornalstico, sendo que a fbula composta pela realidade objetiva e as percepes do reprter; a histria quando o reprter escolhe o ngulo do fato social que ser contado e como ser contato (seleo e ordenao das informaes, ou seja, a narrao); e o texto, que ocorre simultaneamente histria, a materializao da histria pensada.

    Possendoro (2002) define que abertura ou abre de uma reportagem como a macroposio principal do texto jornalstico, porque estrategicamente ela quem vai atrair a ateno do leitor para a narrativa contada pelo reprter. Para o autor, os abres so resultado da criatividade do autor, sendo classificadas, aps estudos de textos publicados em revistas semanais, em quatro tipos (em geral so um mix): na notcia; no contexto; em personagens; em pensatas (mais opinativa, conceitual).

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    O jornalismo como narrativa transmdia: reflexes possveis

    Narrativa transmdia no Jornalismo Recentes estudos tm abordado as possibilidades de narrativa transmdia no jor-nalismo:

    A diferena do jornalismo transmdia sobre as outras formas de narrativa jorna-lstica que com a narrativa transmdia possvel aproveitar as possibilidades comunicacionais presentes na sociedade ps-moderna, onde a mobilidade e a liquidez de estruturas, ou seja, a interatividade, assumem papis importantes no campo da comunicao, como o de envolver e atrair o receptor para a inter-pretao participativa da mensagem. (Ren; Flores Vivar, 2012, p. 82)

    Trata-se de um novo desafio para o jornalista na construo de outro tipo de linguagem, como ocorreu em outras pocas com o surgimento dos meios de co-municao eletrnicos e suas possibilidades relacionadas oralidade e imagem. No foi simples, por exemplo, construir um jornalismo para o rdio ou para a tele-viso, da mesma forma que no tem sido simples atender a essa nova chamada dos dispositivos mveis de comunicao, das plataformas digitais, porm, espera-se do jornalista o que de melhor ele sabe fazer: no apenas relatar, informar, mas formar seus leitores para participar dessa sociedade sui-generis que se apresenta.

    Nesse sentido pesquisadores da rea propem alguns requisitos bsicos para a composio da narrativa transmdia no jornalismo:

    fundamental que o contedo tenha sua difuso nas redes sociais. Alm disso, interessante que o contedo seja produzido por dispositivos mveis, como telefones celulares e tablets. Finalmente, interessante que tenha a possibilida-de do ator prossumidor, conhecido nos modelos tradicionais de comunicao como receptor, interatuando com o contedo, quer dizer, fundamentalmente construdo a partir de conceitos de interatividade. (Ren; Ruiz, 2012, p. 55)

    Jenkins (2009, p. 138), ao analisar produtos da rea do entretenimento, como filmes e jogos, afirma que os textos desenvolvidos em cada plataforma de mdia, apesar de diferentes, e talvez justamente por isso, contribuem para o aprofunda-mento do tema proposto, de maneira que cada histria paralela colabore para uma espcie de universo em expanso. A compreenso obtida por meio de diver-sas mdias sustenta a profundidade de experincia que motiva mais o consumo. A redundncia acaba com o interesse dos fs.

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    Periodismo transmedia: miradas mltiples

    O autor tambm alerta que essa engenhosa construo narrativa, denominada por ele de narrativa sinrgica, est centrada em uma estratgia de horizontalizao de contedos, uma lgica industrial que viabilizada pelos grandes conglomerados de mdia, os quais renem vrias palataformas miditicas, das mais tradicionais s digitais, e obviamente tm como objetivo o resultado econmico. Alguns exemplos de narrativas transmdia citados por Jenkins, como o filme Matrix, mostram que a indstria cultural explora esse potencial na nsia de obter lucros cada vez mais altos.

    As anlises de Jenkins esto pautadas principalmente em produtos culturais do gnero entretenimento. Isso leva alguns autores (Araujo; Veloso, 2012) a ques-tionarem a possibilidade de construo de uma narrativa transmdia no jornalismo, uma vez que, de acordo com os argumentos, as matrias jornalsticas no apresen-tam caractersticas prprias da narrativa, como a progresso temporal e relatos in-tegrais, isso prprio da literatura, do entretenimento. Para esses pesquisadores, o jornalismo, especialmente a notcia, fragmentado, o que inviabiliza uma narrativa transmdia. De acordo com Arajo e Veloso (2012, p. 8),

    O texto da notcia, portanto, apesar de possuir narratividade e algumas das caractersticas da narrativa, no pode ser considerado um texto estritamente narrativo, por no se utilizar da progresso temporal no relato dos fatos e por raramente apresentar enredos integrais. Est claro, pois, que, mesmo em ca-sos nos quais uma notcia reverbera de uma mdia para outra seja atravs de complementos textuais propriamente ditos, ou do convite ao pblico para o debate , no poderemos ter uma narrativa transmdia se no tivermos, antes, uma narrativa propriamente dita.

    Alm da ausncia dessas caractersticas, segundo os crticos, consideradas essenciais para a narrativa transmdia, somente a reportagem literria teria um po-tencial narrativo transmiditico, porque usa estrutura anloga a da literatura, como o ponto de vista do autor e a cena presentificada da ao (narrao detalhada da cena enquanto ela acontece, citando Edvaldo Pereira Lima).2

    importante, ento, ressaltar o equvoco conceitual de estudos que levam a crer que a prtica da narrativa transmdia seria cotidiana no jornalismo atual. Ao

    2 Edvaldo Pereira Lima autor do livro Pginas ampliadas - O livro reportagem como extenso do jor-nalismo (1993), apresenta as tcnicas e caractersticas do texto literrio no livro-reportagem.

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    O jornalismo como narrativa transmdia: reflexes possveis

    contrrio, experincias jornalsticas que se enquadrem nesse conceito no so de conhecimento do autor deste artigo. No entanto, como a prtica da narrati-va em jornalismo j se constitui em uma tradio de longa data, normalmente discutida sob o conceito de jornalismo literrio. (Arajo; Veloso, 2012, p. 11)

    Diante disso, que caractersticas do jornalismo o constituem como narrativa, por sua vez, potencialmente uma narrativa transmdia? Um caminho possvel para sepensar nesse potencial ancorar nossas reflexes no campo da linguagem (como produo social, resultante da interao entre falantes/ouvintes) e dos gneros jor-nalsticos (como formatos de texto para o jornalista e horizontes de expectativas para receptores, de acordo com Chaparro).

    Gneros e narrativasPara a definio de notcia e reportagem como espcies narrativas, recorremos a Chaparro (1998). O autor menciona van Dick, que coloca a questo dos gneros no mbito das superestruturas do discurso, ou seja, no mbito da forma. Assim, van Dick divide o discurso jornalstico em dois tipos de superestruturas: Esque-mas de narrao (relato) e Esquemas de argumentao (comentrio), e prope as propriedades das espcies narrativas no jornalismo: Resumo, Exposio, Com-plicao, Desenlace e Concluso moral (Moraleja) (Chaparro, 1998, p. 120, grifo do autor). O lead seria um resumo.

    Assim, h uma organizao narrativa diferenciada no jornalismo em que a progresso temporal se apresenta, muitas vezes, na cristalizao do urgente do fato social no incio da matria. No cabe aqui a discusso sobre a evoluo da lin-guagem jornalstica, que complexa, mas possvel destacar que a narratividade presente no jornalismo tem relao com o modo de contar histrias no cotidiano normal comear a contar um fato ao vizinho ou aos amigos a partir do pice, ou seja, se houve uma descoberta sobre uma doena, por exemplo, em primeiro lugar se fala qual foi a descoberta. uma estratgia para atrair o interlocutor. O detalhamento vem depois.

    Outra questo levantada sobre o jornalismo dirio a ausncia do ponto de vista. Como Chaparro menciona, opinio e informao se mesclam em qualquer formato de texto, inclusive na notcia. Essa assertiva decorrente da convico terica do autor de que a linguagem no neutra, isenta e sim construda social-mente por meio de vrios textos (intertextualidade).

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    Nesse aspecto, importante mencionar que a lngua como sistema, fruto dos estudos de Saussure, ganha aprimoramento quando a subjetividade comea a ocu-par espaos nos estudos e os pesquisadores percebem que no se pode lidar com a linguagem apenas na perspectiva do sistema lingustico, pois h muito de particular no uso desse sistema pelos interlocutores.

    mile Benveniste (1966),3 linguista francs, impulsionou os fundamentos da teoria da enunciao, nos estudos da subjetividade da linguagem. Para o autor, h marcas nos elementos lingusticos da participao do autor no texto, entre elas, as marcas de pessoa, de lugar e de tempo: [...] fcil ver que o domnio da subjetivi-dade aumenta ainda ao anexar-se-lhe a expresso da temporalidade (Benveniste, 1989, p.53).

    Quanto aos tempos verbais a proposta do autor distingue histria e discurso: enquanto o primeiro se caracteriza como o relato de eventos, sem o envolvimento do locutor, o segundo ao contrrio, pressupe a relao que estabelece entre os in-terlocutores e a influncia de um sobre o outro no momento da enunciao. Assim, em portugus, equivaleria a dizer que o pretrito imperfeito, o mais-que-perfeito e o futuro do pretrito do indicativo seriam tempos da histria; o presente e o pre-trito perfeito composto e o futuro do presente seriam os tempos do discurso. inegvel o valor da teoria de Benveniste e dos tericos que o seguiram no sentido de buscar a subjetividade do texto, no apenas por essas marcas, mas tambm de outros elementos que indicam atitude, modalidade, avaliao, distanciamento, adeso. Porm a prtica da linguagem e a evoluo dos estudos mostram que o uso da lngua no to domesticado a ponto de podermos aceitar, por exemplo, que um texto escrito em determinado tempo verbal seja isento da participao do seu autor. O autor est presente em seu texto desde a escolha do que dizer e de como dizer.

    Embora o termo linguagem nos remeta diretamente s possibilidades signifi-cativas da palavra, do cdigo lingustico, por intermdio do qual o homem processa sua estrutura comunicativa, das mais simples manifestaes orais aos mais com-plexos gneros de textos escritos, assumimos que a linguagem toda manifestao significativa, codificada, do homem. Por meio da linguagem a ideologia ganha corpo e o universo, uma vez codificado, passa a existir. Assim, a linguagem tomada como uma potencialidade humana de criar e de exteriorizar pensamentos, senti-

    3 A obra consultada foi a traduo para o portugus de 1989, da editora Pontes, conforme referncias.

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    O jornalismo como narrativa transmdia: reflexes possveis

    mentos e emoes, por meio de cdigos (das mais diferentes semiticas), total ou parcialmente comuns aos interlocutores, conforme ressalta Bakhtin (1986, p.51):

    preciso insistir sobre o fato de que no somente a atividade mental expressa exteriormente com a ajuda do signo (assim como nos expressamos para os outros por palavras, mmica ou qualquer outro meio) mas, ainda, que para o prprio indivduo, ela s existe sob a forma de signos. Fora deste material semitico, a atividade interior, enquanto tal, no existe. Nesse sentido, toda atividade mental exprimvel, isto , constitui uma expresso potencial.

    Por isso, tanto se caracteriza como linguagem o processo de interao verbal, oral ou escrita, quanto s manifestaes artsticas e miditicas, elaboradas com os diferentes cdigos, sejam eles, por exemplo, visuais ou tteis ou ainda hbridos. O elemento que subsidia esta concepo de linguagem que adotamos a relao entre os interlocutores, de tal forma que a linguagem no pode ser vista como um ato individual, mas social, ou seja, a significao e o prprio signo s existem na relao enunciativa e contextual.

    Por fim, sobre a ausncia de um relato integral no jornalismo por causa da frag-mentao inevitvel, importante destacar que Jenkins (2009, p. 141), ao analisar o filme Matrix lanado nos Estados Unidos em 1999, define como caracterstica da narrativa transmdia a existncia de camadas de referncia que estimulam a pesquisa, a curiosidade, a busca, a ao e a cocriao de contedos de comunida-des de conhecimento.4 da natureza da narrativa que ela contenha fragmentos de outras produes (intertextualidade), referncias de diversas naturezas, uma erudio por assim dizer, que nos estimula a buscar informaes para aprofundar o conhecimento. Se o jornalismo dirio hoje pode ser criticado pela falta de con-textualizao, de interpretaes, de referncias, que levem a uma compreenso e aprofundamento maior sobre a realidade, isso no quer dizer que seja em razo de sua natureza prpria. At porque a fragmentao uma realidade da sociedade contempornea. O jornalismo se reinventa (re)criando outras possibilidades de aprofundamento, como a serializao ou a novelizao. De acordo com Fidalgo,

    4 Comunidades de conhecimento, segundo Jenkins (2009), so caracterizadas por grupos que possuem objetivos distintos, e que criam significados, fazem desvendamentos, aprofundam conhecimentos sobre algum aspecto ou vrios aspectos da narrativa transmdia.

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    Periodismo transmedia: miradas mltiples

    A curiosidade informativa fomenta a expectativa de notcias a partir de not-cias, ao jeito das telenovelas em que se ficam a aguardar os episdios seguintes. Uma notcia de monta leva a desenvolvimentos posteriores, a outras notcias, nomeadamente sobre as reaes primeira. Por outro lado, o interesse de uma notcia tanto maior quanto melhor for o enredo em que a situa ou que mes-mo a motiva. O valor de uma notcia depende das expectativas criadas ao seu redor. A novelizao agua a curiosidade informativa. (Fidalgo, 1996, online)

    O jornalismo planeja a fragmentao de uma temtica em diversas reportagens e/ou gneros jornalsticos, que podem constituir relatos mais integrais, no senti-do do potencial narrativo reclamado por alguns, o que favorece ainda mais uma transmidiao de contedo.

    H outros aspectos que podem ser aprofundados, e tambm criticados, como a relao do jornalismo com o entretenimento, tambm denominado infotenimento, que informa dando nfase ao entretenimento e humanizao, destacando perso-nagens e suas histrias de vida. Pelo dilogo que estabelece com o entretenimento e porque essencialmente conta histrias como as de protagonistas do cotidiano- pode dar margem a uma narrativa transmdia.

    O jornalismo de infotenimento o espao destinado s matrias que visam infor-mar e entreter, como, por exemplo, os assuntos sobre estilo de vida, as fofocas e as notcias de interesse humano os quais atraem, sim, ao pblico. Esse termo sintetiza, de maneira clara e objetiva, a inteno editorial do papel de entreter no jornalismo, pois segue seus princpios bsicos que atende s necessidades de informao do receptor de hoje. Enfim, manifesta aquele contedo que informa com diverso. (Dejavite, 2006, p. 03)

    So outras prticas que ocorrem em razo da cultura da convergncia,5 das tecnologias digitais, da interatividade e do letramento miditico,6 que devem ser levados em considerao ao se pensar em uma narrativa transmdia no jornalismo.

    5 A cultura de convergncia o lugar onde as velhas e as novas mdias colidem, onde mdia corporativa e mdia alternativa se cruzam, onde o poder do produtor de mdia e o poder do consumidor interagem de maneiras imprevisveis. ( Jenkins, 2009, p. 29)

    6 Letramento miditico est relacionado participao do cidado na produo de contedo miditico. O termo tambm conhecido como alfabetizao miditica, porm, no Brasil, alguns pesquisadores

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    O jornalismo como narrativa transmdia: reflexes possveis

    Consideraes finaisAs questes levantadas neste artigo nos levam a considerar efetivamente que tanto a notcia, quanto a reportagem tm potencial para narrativa transmdia. Ou que no mnimo os argumentos utilizados pelos que questionam essa caracterstica - a da narratividade do jornalismo mais ligeiro, feito em veculos dirios (o chamado hardnews) - so passveis de um exame mais aprofundado.

    H um poo sem fundo de segredos... ( Jenkins, 2009) na narrativa transmi-ditica no cenrio da cultura de convergncia espera de exploradores. Mas pre-ciso ter em mente que nesse cenrio a hipertextualidade como processo que ganha impulso ao se tratar da virtualidade dos processos digitais no um dado novo na construo de textos e nos processos comunicacionais:

    Como gerador de palavras potenciais, interpretaes, usos e experincias os textos so sempre virtuais. Sem dvida, ao criar as redes de hipertexto pelas quais se pode navegar livremente, a unio entre a ps-modernidade e a tecno-logia eletrnica tem elevado mxima potncia a virtualidade prpria do texto. [...] Como virtualizao de algo que j era virtual, o hipertexto um autntico hiper-texto, um reflexo autorreferencial da natureza virtual da textualidade. (Ryan, 2004, p. 67)

    Essa virtualidade do texto na contemporaneidade, recebe um tratamento es-pecial, embora os estudiosos reconheam suas origens:

    Entre as caractersticas ps-modernas da ps-hipertextualidade est a narrativa transmdia, conhecida tambm como transmiditica, transmedia storytelling, ou somente transmdia. Entretanto, suas origens esto enraizadas na intertex-tualidade e tm como proposta a reconstruo cognitiva a partir de mltiplas plataformas. (Ren; Flores, 2012, p. 64)

    importante ressaltar tambm que com as tecnologias digitais, a inter-relao entre os sujeitos ganha uma nova dimenso, embora tambm no seja algo novo ou

    optam pelo termo letramento, por estar mais relacionado leitura, e portanto com significado mais amplo, que alfabetizao (Soares, M. Letramento e alfabetizao: as muitas facetas. Revista Brasileira de Educao, So Paulo, v.25, 2003. p.5-17; Kleiman, A. Os significados do letramento. Campinas: Mercado de Letras, 1995).

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    Periodismo transmedia: miradas mltiples

    oriundo da tecnologia, como marca Maria de Lourdes Motter (2001) ao comentar o poema tecendo a manh de Joo Cabral de Melo Neto:

    E o que no tecido na vida do homem? O que no depende do entrecruza-mento de uma infinidade de manifestaes, de fios? O que no fruto de inte-rrelaes? O social, a linguagem, o conhecimento, o pensamento, a memria, a objetividade, a subjetividade, a conscincia, a ideologia, a comunicao e a prpria histria do homem e todas as histrias que ela contm no so obras individuais, nem simultneas, antes constituem o resultado da cooperao, da ao coletiva no processo histrico de produo dos meios de subsistncia, de cultura e do prprio homem como ser social. (Motter, 2001, p. 17)

    , portanto, da ao coletiva que o discurso jornalstico resulta: uma com-plexa rede informativa, permeada de acordos e conflitos entre falantes/ouvintes e ouvintes/falantes, imersos em um contexto histrico-social (Chaparro, 2007). Constri-se com a credibilidade de suas fontes, das vozes no relato do reprter, o qual interpreta e alinhava as diversas referncias. Por excelncia hipertextual e intertextual.

    Assim, a potencialidade inegvel do jornalismo como narrativa transmdia pode ser usada a favor de seu compromisso com a informao e a formao dos cidados, e no apenas como estratgia para atrair consumidores, conforme a in-dstria do entretenimento e os grandes conglomerados de mdia desejam. Caldas reflete sobre o ritmo alucinante da produo miditica no jornalismo:

    No mundo miditico, digital, instantneo, a informao cada vez mais estiliza-da, pasteurizada e os fatos recortados da realidade sem nexo, sem contexto, sem passado, sem histria, sem memria, numa destruio clara da temporalidade, como se o mundo fosse um eterno videoclipe. Dessa forma, mais confundem do que esclarecem e mais deformam do que formam. A indstria cultural ou da conscincia precisa ser desvelada na sala de aula, onde necessrio enten-der que a mdia condiciona no pelo que informa, mas como informa. (Caldas, 2002, on line)

    No exerccio da interatividade e da tica, da busca de envolver o outro como elemento fundamental do processo comunicacional, as experincias de narrativa transmdia podem significar inovao em termos de linguagem de um novo jorna-

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    O jornalismo como narrativa transmdia: reflexes possveis

    lismo, elaborado inclusive fora das salas de redao, mas com a responsabilidade e a credibilidade caractersticas do campo e do profissional do jornalismo.

    RefernciasAraujo, Y. B; Veloso M. S. F. (2013). O no-lugar da narrativa transmdia em jorna-

    lismo. Apresentado no XXXV congresso Intercom, setembro de 2012, Fortaleza, Cear. Disponvel em http://www.intercom.org.br/papers/nacionais/2012/resumos/R7-1767-1.pdfhttp://www.intercom.org.br/papers/nacionais/2012/resumos/R7-1767-1.pdf. Acesso em 10 de de-zembro de 2013.

    Bakhtin, M. Marxismo e Filosofia da Linguagem. 3 ed. So Paulo: Hucitec, 1986.Barbosa, M. (2012). O acontecimento e a quesyo da ruptura. Disponvel em: http://

    www.semiosfera.eco.ufrj.br/anteriores/semiosfera02/organizacao/txtsoc1.htm. Acesso em 23 de junho de 2012.

    Barthes, R. (2007). Variaciones sobre la escritura. Buenos Aires, Argentina, Paids.Benveniste, E. (1989). Problemas de lingstica geral II. Campinas: Pontes.Brait, B. (org.). (2001) Bakhtin, dialogismo e construo do sentido. Campinas, SP. Ed.

    Unicamp. Caldas, G. (2013). 1 seminrio Nacional: O professor e a leitura do jornal. Disponvel

    em: http://alb.com.br/arquivo-morto/anais-jornal/jornal1/comunica-coes/seminario.htm. Acesso em 14/01/2013.

    Chaparro, M. C. (2000). Sotaques daqum e dalm mar: percursos e gneros do jorna-lismo portugus e brasileiro. Santarm, Portugal: Sortejo.

    Chaparro, M. C. (2007). Pragmtica do Jornalismo. 3. Ed. So Paulo: Summus Edi-torial.

    Charaudeau, P., Maingueneau, D. (2004). Dicionrio de Anlise do Discurso. So Pau-lo: Contexto.

    Dej