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Pre-Colonial “Summer Stuff” Christopher Columbus (1492): Italian-born navigator who found fame when he landed in the Americas (October 12, 1492) Left Spain with three ships (Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria) He sailed west across the Atlantic Ocean to find a water route to Asia (was convinced the Americas were an extension of China) Returned from his expedition with gold, encouraging future exploration and the Columbian Exchange Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512) : Italian member of a Portuguese expedition who explored South America Discovery suggested that the expedition had found a “New World” Treaty of Tordesillas (1493): Treaty made by the Pope between Spain and Portugal Created an imaginary Line of Demarcation to divide the New World East of the line went to Portugal; west of the line went to Spain The line would later affect colonization in Africa and Asia “New Spain” (1400s and 1500s): Spain’s tightly controlled empire in the New World Spaniards developed the encomienda system, using Native Americans as their forced form of labor With the death of Native Americans, Spaniards began importing African slaves to supply their labor needs St. Augustine, Florida (1598): French Protestants (Huguenots) went to the New World to freely practice their religion; they formed a colony near modern-day St. Augustine, Florida Spain, which oversaw Florida, reacted violently to the Huguenots, because they were trespassers and because they were viewed as heretics by the Catholic Church Spain sent a force to the settlement and massacred the fort’s inhabitants The settlement of St. Augustine, Florida is considered to be the first permanent European settlement in what would become the USA Triangular Trade/Atlantic Trade (1600s): Exchange between Europe, Africa, and the Caribbean colonies Traded Europeans goods for African slaves; African slaves for sugar, cotton, and tobacco It was useful for all parties because it was an exchange of goods, not money Mercantilism (1500s-1700s): Leading economic philosophy of the 1600s that held that colonies existed to serve the mother country Founded on the belief that the world’s wealth was sharply limited and, therefore, one nation’s gain was another nation’s loss Each nation’s goal was to export more than it imported in a favorable balance of trade; the difference would be made up in their possession of gold and silver, which would make the nation strong both economically and militarily Mercantilists believed economic activity should be regulated by the government Dutch West India Company (1500s and 1600s): The joint-stock company that ran the colonies in Fort Orange and in New Amsterdam, which later became New York Carried on a profitable fur trade with the Native American Iroquois Established the patroon system, in which large estates where given to wealthy men who transported at least 50 families to New Netherland to tend the land; few took on the opportunity

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  • Pre-Colonial Summer Stuff

    Christopher Columbus (1492): Italian-born navigator who found fame when he landed in the Americas (October 12, 1492) Left Spain with three ships (Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria) He sailed west across the Atlantic Ocean to find a water route to Asia (was convinced the Americas were an

    extension of China) Returned from his expedition with gold, encouraging future exploration and the Columbian Exchange

    Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512): Italian member of a Portuguese expedition who explored South America Discovery suggested that the expedition had found a New World

    Treaty of Tordesillas (1493): Treaty made by the Pope between Spain and Portugal Created an imaginary Line of Demarcation to divide the New World East of the line went to Portugal; west of the line went to Spain The line would later affect colonization in Africa and Asia

    New Spain (1400s and 1500s): Spains tightly controlled empire in the New World Spaniards developed the encomienda system, using Native Americans as their forced form of labor With the death of Native Americans, Spaniards began importing African slaves to supply their labor needs

    St. Augustine, Florida (1598): French Protestants (Huguenots) went to the New World to freely practice their religion; they formed a colony

    near modern-day St. Augustine, Florida Spain, which oversaw Florida, reacted violently to the Huguenots, because they were trespassers and

    because they were viewed as heretics by the Catholic Church Spain sent a force to the settlement and massacred the forts inhabitants The settlement of St. Augustine, Florida is considered to be the first permanent European settlement in what

    would become the USA Triangular Trade/Atlantic Trade (1600s): Exchange between Europe, Africa, and the Caribbean colonies Traded Europeans goods for African slaves; African slaves for sugar, cotton, and tobacco It was useful for all parties because it was an exchange of goods, not money

    Mercantilism (1500s-1700s): Leading economic philosophy of the 1600s that held that colonies existed to serve the mother country Founded on the belief that the worlds wealth was sharply limited and, therefore, one nations gain was

    another nations loss Each nations goal was to export more than it imported in a favorable balance of trade; the difference would

    be made up in their possession of gold and silver, which would make the nation strong both economically and militarily

    Mercantilists believed economic activity should be regulated by the government Dutch West India Company (1500s and 1600s): The joint-stock company that ran the colonies in Fort Orange and in New Amsterdam, which later became

    New York Carried on a profitable fur trade with the Native American Iroquois Established the patroon system, in which large estates where given to wealthy men who transported at least

    50 families to New Netherland to tend the land; few took on the opportunity

  • Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603): Protestant successor to Queen Mary (England) Popular leader and the first woman to successful hold the throne Invested in English raids on the Spanish New World Brought on a war response from Spain in the form of the Spanish Armada Established Protestantism in England and encouraged English business Spanish Armada (1588): Fleet assembled by King Philip II of Spain to invade England The Armada was defeated by the skill of British military leaders and by rough seas during the assault Englands victory over Spanish forces established England as an emerging sea power; it was one of the great

    achievements of Queen Elizabeth I and helped bring about the decline of the Spanish empire English Puritanism (1500s and 1600s): Movement by those who wished to reform the Church of England to be more in line with their ideology Puritans were Calvinist in their religious beliefs; they believed in predestination and in the authority of

    Scripture over papal authority Though King Henry VIII had set out to separate from papal authority in favor of his own Church of England,

    many Roman Catholic traditions and practices remained Puritans rejected these Roman Catholic holdovers because of their Calvinist ideology; they sought to make the

    English Church pure Puritanism would echo throughout American culture in the ideas of self-reliance, moral fortitude, and an

    emphasis on intellectualism English Civil War (1642-1648): Conflict was based in the struggles between King Charles I (son of King James I) and the English Parliament Charles claimed to rule by divine right; Parliament said that its membership had rights that were separate

    from those granted to the king Parliaments members were mostly Puritan and had the support of the merchant class and small landowners Wealthy nobles tended to support Charles I, who opposed Puritans on questions of religion The conflict led to fighting between the Royalist military forces and forces opposing Charles I Glorious Revolution (1688): Internal British struggle that replaced the Catholic King James II with his Protestant daughter, Mary, and her

    husband, William of Orange Inspired colonial uprisings in New York and Maryland against ruling Royal governors who pressed for more

    control Led to the overthrow of the Dominion of New England, the central authority imposed by Britain on colonists William and Marys new government generally accepted these actions, permitting the growth of colonial

    institutions and culture The Enlightenment (1700s): Connects to the idea of Deism, in which the universe was created by God and then abandoned; no

    supernatural controls would be exerted and all things were explainable by reason Enlightenment philosophy stated that human reason was enough to solve mankinds problems, and, much

    less faith was needed in the central role of God as an active force in the universe Important Enlightenment writers included: (1) John Locke; (2) Isaac Newton; (3) Rene Descartes.

    John Locke and Natural Law (1632-1704): Locke was a major English political philosopher during the Enlightenment He identified Natural Laws of Humans: rights of life, liberty, and property He believed that if these natural rights were not protected, governments could be justly overthrown His ideas were influential on Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson (Declaration of Independence)

  • Puritans and the Original 13 English Colonies

    Types of Colonies in the New World (1600s): Charter colony: colonists were essentially members of a corporation and, based on an agreed-upon charter,

    electors among the colonists would control the colony. Royal colony: had a governor selected by Englands king; he would serve in the leadership role and choose

    additional, lesser officers Proprietary colony: owned by an individual with direct responsibility to the king; the proprietor selected a

    governor, who served as the authority figure for the property Sir Walter Raleigh (1587): Selected Roanoke Island as a site for the first English settlement Returned to England to secure additional supplies; on his return, he found the colony deserted; it is not known

    what became of the Roanoke settlers After the failure at Roanoke, Raleigh abandoned his attempts to colonize Virginia Held back by a lack of financial resources and the war with Spain, English interest in American colonization was

    submerged for 15 years Joint Stock Charter Colonies and the Starving Time (1600s): Charter colonies were associations that sought trade, exploration, and colonization overseas Jamestown was the first charter colony (1607) Starving Time was a period in the 1600s during which many colonists died and others considered returning

    to England Jamestown (1607): Named for King James I, the king of England, who granted charters for charter colonies in the New World The Virginia Company of London settled Jamestown, the first permanent English colony in America It was a swampy location, which led to disease and contaminated water sources Despite location and hostile relations with Native Americans, John Smiths harsh, charismatic leadership of

    the colony kept it from collapsing 1619- African slaves arrived in Jamestown, becoming the first group of slaves to reach a British settlement

    John Rolfe (1585-1622): English colonist in Jamestown Married Pocahontas, the daughter of the local Native American chief Created process for curing tobacco, ensuring economic success for Jamestown

    Indentured Servitude (1600s): Poor workers, convicted criminals, and debtors received immigration passage and fees in return for a number

    of years at labor on behalf of a planter or company Servants entered into their contracts voluntarily and kept some legal rights but they had little control over

    their conditions of work and living arrangements The system often led to harsh and brutal treatment

    House of Burgesses (1619): Representative assembly in Virginia and the first representative house in America Election to a seat was limited to voting members of the charter colony, which at first was all free men; later

    rules required that a man own at least fifty acres of land to vote Instituted private ownership of land; maintained rights of colonists First Families of Virginia (1600s): Wealthy and socially prominent families in Virginia who by 1776 had been in America 4-5 generations Included the Lees, Carters, and Fitzhughs Headright System (started in 1618): System used by the Virginia Company to attract colonists; it promised them 50 acres of land in America Also gave 50 acres for each servant a colonist brought, allowing the wealthy to obtain large tracts of land

  • English Puritanism (1500s and 1600s): Movement by those who wished to reform the Church of England to be more in line with their ideology Puritans were Calvinist in their religious beliefs; they believed in predestination and in the authority of

    Scripture over papal authority Though King Henry VIII had set out to separate from papal authority in favor of his own Church of England,

    many Roman Catholic traditions and practices remained Puritans rejected these Roman Catholic holdovers because of their Calvinist ideology; they sought to make the

    English Church pure Puritanism would echo throughout American culture in the ideas of self-reliance, moral fortitude, and an

    emphasis on intellectualism Separatists and Plymouth: Puritans who believed the Church of England was beyond saving and felt they must separate from it One group of Separatists suffering government harassment fled to Holland, then America Members of this group traveled on the Mayflower and became known as the Pilgrims, a term used for

    voyagers seeking to fulfill a religious mission Mayflower left Plymouth, England in September 1620 and landed in Provincetown Harbor, settling what later

    became Plymouth, Massachusetts Before landing the Pilgrims formed the Mayflower Compact, (provided for a government of the majority) William Bradford (1590-1657) served as the Plymouth Colonys first governor Massachusetts Bay Company (1629): Joint-stock company chartered by a group of Puritans escaping King James I Led by John Winthrop, who taught that the new colony should be a model Christian society These Puritans carefully organized their venture and, upon arriving in Massachusetts, did not undergo the

    starving time that had often plagued other first-year colonies The government of Massachusetts developed to include a governor and a representative assembly Anne Hutchinson (1638): Claimed to have had special revelations from God that superseded the Bible, contrary to Puritan doctrine The leadership of New England accused her of antinomian teachings (the belief that salvation is attained

    through faith and divine grace and not through strict adherence to rules or moral laws) She was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and with her followers she founded Portsmouth in

    1638 in what is now Rhode Island Roger Williams and Rhode Island (1644): Williams was a Puritan preacher who fled Massachusetts after his views on religious observance became too

    extreme for the colonists He bought land from Native Americans and founded Providence (1636); it was soon populated by his many

    followers Rhode Island formed as a combination of Providence, Portsmouth, and other area settlements Williams granted the colony complete religious toleration Rhode Island tended to be populated by exiles and troublemakers and was sometimes called Rogues Island

    and suffered from constant political unrest Half-Way Covenant (1690s): Decision by Puritan colony churches to allow the grandchildren of those who had the personal experience of

    conversion to participate in select church affairs Previously, only the children of those who had experienced conversion could participate Reflected the decline of piety and zeal among New Englanders Salem Witch Trials (1692): Several young girls in Salem Village claimed to be tormented by the occult activities of certain neighbors 20 people were executed; Puritan ministers finally intervened to stop the executions Writer Arthur Miller produced The Crucible, a retelling of the Salem Witch Trials and a reflective commentary

    on the witch-hunts of Joseph McCarthy (1953)

  • Connecticut (1662): Thomas Hooker led a large group of Puritans to settle in the Connecticut River Valley; they had some religious

    disagreements with the leadership of Massachusetts The major colonies in the Connecticut River Valley agreed to unite as the Connecticut colony 1639- the colony formed a set of laws known as the Fundamental Orders, that provided for representative

    government by those who were permitted to vote The Orders later served as the foundation of the charter recognized by England The Orders are an important example of the growth of political democracy First Great Awakening (1720s-1740s0: Series of emotional religious revivals occurring throughout the colonies, especially in New England Preachers proclaimed a message of personal repentance and faith to avoid hell Suggested an equality between an authority (God) and a fixed standard (the Bible) Helped to lay the foundation for a written contract which would be important to the establishment of the

    future USA George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards became the most dynamic preachers of the Great Awakening Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758): Preacher of the Great Awakening who emphasized personal religious experience, predestination, and

    dependence of man upon God and divine grace One of his well-read sermons was Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God While Edwards is known for being one of the most prominent Calvinists, the Great Awakening was partially

    responsible for spreading the idea that salvation was possible without predestination, an important Calvinist belief

    Effects of the First Great Awakening (post 1740s): Americas religious community came to be divided between those who rejected the Great Awakening and

    those who accepted it More denominations of Christianity were formed While the Awakening created conflict among those who argued the points of religion, its ideas helped build

    connections between people living in different colonies A number of colleges were founded by those who accepted the Great Awakening, including Princeton,

    Brown, and Rutgers New York and New Jersey (1664): Last Dutch governor of New York was Peter Stuyvesant After the British conquered the Dutch lands in America, English King Charles II gave the lands to his brother

    James, the Duke of York James was very opposed to representative assemblies, even though residents of the colonies continued to

    call for self-government New York eventually split into 2 colonies- New York and New Jersey

    John Peter Zenger (1697-1746): German American newspaper publisher and printer His acquittal of libel charges in NYC (1735) established a legal precedent for freedom of the press

    William Penn and Pennsylvania: Founded Pennsylvania as a refuge for his fellow Quakers and advertised his colony widely in Europe by

    offering generous terms on land Guaranteed a representative assembly and full religious freedom Settlers flocked to Pennsylvania from all over Europe

    Quakers (approx. 1680): Believed human religious institutions were mostly unnecessary They were often oppressed for several reasons: (1) they believed in direct communication with God and

    placed little importance on the Bible; (2) they were pacifists and did not believe in or fight in wars; (3) they opposed slavery and the mistreatment of Native Americans

  • New Hampshire (1677): King Charles II established it as a royal colony It remained economically dependent on Massachusetts; Britain continued to appoint a single person to rule

    both colonies until 1741 Weeks before signing the Declaration of Independence by the 2nd Continental Congress, New Hampshire

    established a temporary constitution for itself that proclaimed its independence from Britain Delaware (1631): Dutch patrons established the 1st settlement in Delaware, but was destroyed by Native American attacks The Dutch West India Company and Dutchmen, including Peter Minuit, began to trade and settle in

    Delaware during the mid-to-late 1630s Between 1664 and 1674 Delaware switched between Dutch and English ownership, ending with English

    ownership in 1674 The Proprietors and Maryland (1630s): Proprietors owned colonies, with direct responsibility to the king The proprietors were supposed to provide opportunity for Royal control and to decrease the practice of

    granting charters for charter colonies In practice, proprietary colonies turned out much like the charter colonies because settlers insisted on self-

    government 1632- under George Calvert (Lord Baltimore), Maryland became the first proprietary colony as a refuge for

    English Catholics To protect the Catholic minority, Calverts son encouraged religious toleration and established a

    representative assembly Maryland Act of Toleration (1649): Guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians in Maryland Granted after a Protestant became governor Important precedent for later characterization of the USA and its Constitution

    The Carolinas (1663): King Charles II rewarded loyal noblemen with these lands after the 20 year Puritan revolution in England In hopes of attracting settlers, the proprietors planned for a hierarchical system Experimented with silk manufacturing and with crops such as rice and indigo; this proved unworkable and

    the Carolinas grew slowly Large groups of colonists in the Carolinas came from Barbados; the form of slavery that this group used

    proved very harsh Georgia (1732): James Oglethorpe, an English philanthropist and soldier, chartered the colony Settlers included those who paid their own way to receive the best land grants Some settlers were financed by the colonys board of trustees, including bands of British prisoners After wars between the European empires began, the colony served as a buffer between South Carolina and

    Spanish-held Florida Black Slaves in the 1600s: Because slaves were only a small percentage of the population; they began at almost the same level of

    indentured servants Later in the century, African-Americans came to be seen as lifelong slaves and their status was passed on to

    their children as well Increased importation and population of African-Americans in the southern colonies began

  • Road to Revolution

    Navigation Acts (1650-1673): Certain goods shipped from a New World port were to go only to Britain (especially sugar, cotton, and

    tobacco) Served as the foundation of Englands worldwide commercial system Though for the benefit of all subjects of the British Empire, its provisions benefited some New World colonies

    at the expense of others Intended as a weapon in Englands ongoing struggle against its rival, Holland (Dutch) Led to increased tension between Britain and the colonies

    Effects of the Navigation Acts (1650-1673): Hurt the residents of the Chesapeake by driving down the price of tobacco Transferred wealth from America to Britain by increasing the prices Americans had to pay for British goods

    and lowering the prices Americans received for the goods they produced Mercantilism also helped bring on a series of wars between England and Holland in the late 1600s Boosted the prosperity of New Englanders, who engaged in large-scale shipbuilding

    Bacons Rebellion (1676): Virginias Royal governor, William Berkeley, received strict instructions to run the colony for the benefit of

    Britain Nathaniel Bacon was a leader of colonial frontiersmen in Virginia who objected to the rights granted to

    Virginias wealthy inner circle & was angered by Gov. Berkeleys inability to protect VA from Nat Am attacks Bacon commanded 2 unauthorized raids on Native American tribes, increasing is popularity with the people;

    Berkeley had him arrested Soon after, Bacon gathered his forces, opposed the Royal governor, & set fire to Jamestown to defend his

    forces position With British military, Berkeley ended the rebellion After Bacons rebellion, American colonists turned increasingly away from indentured servants & toward

    slaves Wool Act (1699): All wool that was produced in the colonies could only be exported to Britain Act restricted Ireland in its wool manufacturing (many Irish immigrants moved to the American colonies) The act was meant to protect Britains own exports of wool at the expense of both the colonies and Ireland

    Albany Plan (1754): Delegates of 7 colonies met in NY to discuss plans for collective defense Pennsylvania delegate Ben Franklin- proposed a plan for an inter-colonial government (later rejected by

    colonial legislatures as demanding too great a surrender of power) The plan was an important precedent for the concept of uniting in the face of a common enemy

    French and Indian War (1748-1763): Competition between France, Britain, and various Native American tribes over land in the Ohio region One of a series of wars fought between France and England throughout the world at the time Battles continued on European and American fronts until Britain gained control of Canada It was in these conflicts that George Washington first appeared as an able military leader

    William Pitt (1708-1778): Britains prime minister After several humiliating defeats, he led Britain to virtually destroy the French empire in North America The Treaty of Paris 1763 ended hostilities

    George Grenville (1712-1770): British Prime Minister who set out to solve the large national debt incurred in recent English wars Created a series of acts that raised taxes on American goods, leading to rebellious activities Acts included the Proclamation of 1763, Sugar Act (1763), Stamp Act (1765), and Quartering Act (1765).

  • Treaty of Paris 1763: Ended the 7 Years War From France, Britain took Canada and some of what would become the USA east of the Mississippi River France lost all of its North American holdings Spain took the Louisiana Territory Treaty marked the end of salutary neglect, a relationship in which the British Parliament had somewhat

    ignored the colonies, allowing them to develop their character without interference

    Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790): Was a colonial writer, scientist, diplomat, printer, and philosopher Published the Pennsylvania Gazette and wrote Poor Richards Almanac Served in the 2nd Continental Congress and was a drafter and signer of the Declaration of Independence

    Writs of Assistance (1750s-1770s): Court orders that authorized customs officials to conduct non-specific searches to stop colonial smuggling Allowed for the searching of homes, warehouses, and shops James Otis served as a prosecutor in a failed Massachusetts legal case; he argued that these searches were

    contrary to natural law Later the 4th amendment would protect citizens against unreasonable searches and seizures

    Proclamation of 1763: Was a result of Pontiacs Rebellion, a Native American uprising against the British for their mistreatment Forbade white settlement west of the Appalachians to reduce friction between Native Americans and the

    settlers Stated that Native Americans owned the land on which they were residing Outraged colonists believed that the successful outcome of the French and Indian War should have allowed

    settlement in the Ohio Valley Sugar Act (1764): Taxed goods imported to America to raise revenue for England after it incurred debt during the French and

    Indian War Strictly enforced (unlike the Molasses Act of 1733) Taxed goods including wine, cloth, coffee, and silk Quartering Act (1765): Act that required the colonies in which British troops were stationed to provide soldiers with bedding and

    other basic needs Colonists reacted negatively, fearing a standing army and disliking the additional costs After the emergence of the US Constitution, the 3rd Amendment protected citizens against the stationing of

    troops in their homes Stamp Act (1765): An internal tax, the sole purpose of which was to raise revenue Required Americans to use stamped paper for legal documents, newspapers, and playing cards, among

    other goods Revenue from this tax was to be used solely for the support of the British soldiers protecting the colonies

    Stamp Act Congress (October 1765): Delegates of 7 colonies met in New York to discuss plans for defense Adopted the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, which stated that freeborn Englishmen could not be taxed

    without their consent Declaratory Act (1766): Act giving Britain the power to tax and make laws for Americans in all cases Followed the repeal of the Stamp Act Colonists ignored the working of the Declaratory Act

  • Samuel Adams (1722-1803): Revolutionary resistance leader in Massachusetts Along with Paul Revere, he headed the Sons of Liberty in Massachusetts Worked with the committees of correspondence, which provided communication about resistance among

    colonies Attended both the 1st and 2nd Continental Congresses and signed the Declaration of Independence

    Townshend Acts (1767): Created by British Prime Minster Charles Townshend (Grenvilles replacement) Formed a program of taxing items imported into the colonies, such as paper, lead, glass, and tea; it replaced

    the direct taxes of the Stamp Act Led to boycotts by Boston merchants, a key contributor to the Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre (March 5, 1770): Happened when the British attempted to enforce the Townshend Acts British soldiers killed 5 Bostonians, including Crispus Attucks, an American patriot and former slave John Adams provided the legal defense for the soldiers Though the British soldiers acted mostly in self-defense, anti-Royal leaders used the event to spur action in the

    colonies Virtual Representation (1770s): British principle stating that the members of Parliament represented all of Britain and the British Empire,

    even though members were only elected by a small number of constituents This idea was meant to be a response to the colonial claim of no taxation without representation, meaning

    that Parliament was itself a representation of those being taxed Tea Act and the Boston Tea Party (1773): Concession allowed the British East India Company to ship tea directly to America and sell it as a bargain;

    cheap tea undercut the local merchants Colonists opposed these shipments; they turned back ships, left shipments to rot, and held ships in port Led to the Boston Tea Party in December of 1773, where citizens, dressed as Native Americans, destroyed tea

    on the British ships Intolerable Acts and the Coercive Acts (1774): Name given by colonists to the Quebec Act (1774) and to a series of acts by the British in response to the

    Boston Tea Party Acts closed the Port of Boston to all trade until citizens paid for the lost tea Acts increased the power of Massachusetts Royal governor at the expense of the legislature Allowed Royal officials accused of crimes in Massachusetts to be tried elsewhere

    Methods of Colonial Resistance (1770s): Americans first reacted with restraint and respective petitions, suggesting taxation without representation is

    tyranny Colonial merchants then boycotted British goods (non-importation) Colonists of the Revolution finally turned to violence Crowds took action against custom officials and against merchants who violated the boycotts Some colonists continued to follow British command and became English Loyalists

    First Continental Congress (September-October 1774): Meeting in Philadelphia of colonial representatives to denounce the Intolerable Acts and to petition the British

    Parliament A few radical members discussed breaking from England Created Continental Association and forbade the importation and use of British goods Agreed to convene a 2nd Continental Congress in May 1775

  • American Revolution Battles of Lexington and Concord (April 1775): Concord- site suspected by British General Gage of housing a stockpile of colonial weapons. Paul Revere and William Dawes detected movement of British troops toward Concord and warned militia and

    gathered Minutemen at Lexington Lexington- militia and Royal infantry fought; the colonial troops withdrew Second Continental Congress (May 1775): Colonia representative meeting in Philadelphia, presided over by John Hancock Group torn between declaring independence and remaining under British power Moderates forced the adoption of the Olive Branch Petition, a letter to King George III appealing one final time

    for a resolution to all disputes; the king refused to receive it The Congress sent George Washington to command the army around Boston American ports were opened in defiance of the Navigation Acts Congress requested the drafting of the Declaration of Independence Battle of Bunker Hill (June 17, 1775): Bunker Hill was an American post overlooking Boston; the stronghold allowed Americans to contain General

    Gage and his troops The colonists twice turned back a British assault; they held off the British until the Bunker Hill force ran out of

    ammunition and was overrun Americas strong defense led to strengthened morale

    Common Sense (January 1776): Pamphlet published by Thomas Paine that called for immediate independence from Britain Sold largely and carried favor in the colonies Weakened resistance in the Continental Congress toward independence

    Lees Resolutions (1776): Presented to 2nd Continental Congress by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia Urged Congress to declare independence; accepted July 2, 1776 Said That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States

    Declaration of Independence (adopted July 4, 1776): Document restating political ideas justifying the separation from Britain Thomas Jefferson and his committee had the duty of drafting the document for the Continental Congress John Lockes influences served as a foundation for the document The final product lacked provisions condemning the British slave trade and a denunciation of the British

    people that earlier drafts had contained Articles of Confederation (submitted July 1776; ratified 1781): Framework for an American national government; states had the most power Empowered the federal government to make war, treaties, and create new states No federal empowerment to raise taxes, raise troops, or regulate commerce Congressional revision of the articles created a weak national government General George Washingtons Leadership (1775-1781): Named Commander-in-Chief of Continental Forces in June 1775 by the 2nd Continental Congress Forced British to evacuate Boston in March 1776 Defeated British at Trenton, NJ after crossing the Delaware on December 25, 1776 Survived tough winter at Valley Forge (1777-78); he strengthened his troops during the winter and gained

    respect General Cornwallis surrendered to Washington on October 19, 1781

  • Battle of Saratoga (1777): Battle fought in northern New York The British planned to end the American Revolution by splitting the colonies along the Hudson River, but they

    failed to mobilize properly The British ended up surrendering, allowing for the first great American victory Demonstrated that the British could more easily hold the cities, but that they would have trouble subduing the

    countryside Considered a turning point, as French aid began after this battle John Paul Jones (1747-1792): Famous American naval leader Carried on maritime raids against the British throughout the Revolution, restricting their ability to receive

    supplies Surrender? I have not yet begun to fight Charles Cornwallis (1738-1805): British military and political leader Was a member of Parliament and even opposed the tax measures that led to the American Revolution Led British forces during the war The British defeat happened with Cornwalliss surrender at Yorktown in 1781 Treaty of Paris 1783: Peace settlement that ended the Revolutionary War The US was represented by Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay Britain reorganized the United States independence and outlined its borders The US received all lands east of the Mississippi River, north of Florida, and south of the Great Lakes The US agreed that Loyalists to Britain were not to be persecuted

  • The New Nation

    Articles of Confederation (submitted July 1776; ratified 1781): Framework for an American national government; states had the most power Empowered the federal government to make war, treaties, and create new states No federal empowerment to raise taxes, raise troops, or regulate commerce Congressional revision of the articles created a weak national government Western Land Cessions (1781-1781; Georgia in 1802): The original 13 states ceded their western land claims to the new federal government The states that lacked western land claims feared that states with claims could grow in size; skewing

    representation in the federal government Before signing the US Constitution, these states demanded that those with claims cede the land Ordinances in 1784 and 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance (1787) organized the ceded areas in preparation

    for statehood New states were organized and admitted to the Union This policy strengthened the ties of the western farmers to the central government Land Ordinance of 1785 Act of Congress to assist in settlement of the West; the sale of land provided federal reserve Organized distribution of land into townships, setting aside a section of each in support of public education A successful accomplishment by a federal government that before had been seen as ineffective Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Described how the land north of the Ohio River could become sectioned into states; 5 states created States would be admitted to the Union when free inhabitants reached 60,000 Slavery and involuntary servitude were not allowed in these states Set a precedent of how states could join the Union A successful accomplishment by a federal government that before had been seen as ineffective Shays Rebellion (1786-1787): During a period of economic depression, Daniel Shays led a group of farmers to stop the courts from seizing a

    farmers land and enacting debt collection Citizens of Boston raise an army and suppressed the rebels Americans felt pressure to strengthen the government and avoid future violence Constitutional Convention- NJ and Virginia Plans (1787): Virginia Plan- presented by Edmund Randolph and written by James Madison Called for bicameral legislature based on population and both the chief executive and judiciary to be chosen

    by legislatures NJ Plan- presented by William Patterson Called for unicameral legislature with equal representation Constitutional Convention- Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise) - 1787: Called for a bicameral legislative system in which the House of Representatives would be based on population

    and the Senate would have equal representation in Congress Combined pieces of the NJ and Virginia plans and other proposals at the constitutional convention Constitutional Convention- 3/5 Compromise (1787): Part of the Great Compromise Counted slaves as 3/5 of a person for representation and called for direct taxation on the states Constitution of the United States (signed September 17, 1787; ratified June 21, 1788): Drafted at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 Included a preamble and 7 articles Created a stronger federal government Bill of Rights is the first 10 amendments; they protect individual rights and freedoms

  • Elastic Clause and the 10th Amendment (ratified 1791): 10th amendment restricts the federal government to those powers delegated to it by the Constitution and

    gives all other powers to the states (or the people) Article I, Section 8 grants the federal government the power to make all laws which shall be necessary and

    proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing powers The conflict between these 2 ideas is the determination of which group, the federal government or the states

    and their people, has the right to exercise powers that have not been expressly delegated to the central government

    Federalist Party (1788): Americans who supported centralized power and constitutional ratification by the states Used The Federalist Papers to show how the Constitution was designed to prevent the abuse of power Supporters included Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay, and northeastern business groups They believed that the government was given all powers that were not expressly denied to it by the

    Constitution; they had a loose interpretation of the Constitution Anti-Federalist Party (1780s-1790s): Americans against the ratification of the Constitution because of suspicion against centralized government

    ruling at a distance and limiting freedom Included George Mason, Patrick Henry, George Clinton and Thomas Jefferson Many of the anti-federalists would later oppose the policies of Alexander Hamilton and the Federalist Party The Jeffersonian Republican Party absorbed many of the anti-federalists after the Constitution was ratified

    into law Jeffersonian-Republicans (Democratic-Republicans) 1792-1860: Political party that took in members of the anti-federalist party Included Thomas Jefferson and James Madison Favored states rights and power in the hands of commoners; supported by southern agriculture and

    frontiersmen Believed that the federal government was denied all powers that were not expressly given to it by the

    Constitution; a strict interpretation of the document George Washington (1789-1797): 1st president; unanimously elected president Served 2 terms His leadership led to a standard of a strong presidency with control of foreign policy and the power to veto

    Congresss legislation Declared Proclamation of Neutrality in April 1793, keeping the US neutral in the European wars Farewell Address (1796) - warned against entangling alliances, suggested isolationism, and warned of political

    party factions Judiciary Act of 1789: Provided for a Supreme Court with a Chief Justice and 5 associates Established the office of Attorney General Created federal district courts and circuit courts Alexander Hamilton (1754-1804): 1st Secretary of Treasury Proposed the federal assumption of state debts, the establishment of a national bank, and federal stimulation

    of industry through excise tax and tariffs Opponents, including Jefferson, saw program as aiding a small, elite group at the expense of the average

    citizen Hamilton died from wounds he received in a duel with Aaron Bur, Jeffersons vice-president

  • Jeffersonian-Republicans (Democratic-Republicans) 1792-1860: Political party that took in members of the anti-federalist party Included Thomas Jefferson and James Madison Favored states rights and power in the hands of commoners; supported by southern agriculture and

    frontiersmen Believed that the federal government was denied all powers that were not expressly given to it by the

    Constitution; a strict interpretation of the document Eli Whitney (1765-1825): Inventor and manufacturer Invented the cotton gin in 1793, revolutionizing the cotton industry and increasing the need for slaves Established the 1st factory to assemble muskets with interchangeable standardized parts Innovations led to an American system of manufacture, where those workers with less skill could use tools

    and templates to make identical parts; the manufacture and assembly of parts could be done separately Whiskey Rebellion (1794): Western whiskey farmers refused to pay taxes on which Hamiltons revenue program was based A group of farmers terrorized the tax collectors; Washington responded with a federalized militia Washington and Hamilton rode out to Pennsylvania to emphasize their commitment 1st test of federal authority- established the federal governments right to enforce laws John Jay (1745-1829): Member of the 1st and 2nd Continental Congresses Negotiated Treaty of Paris and Jays Treaty 1st Chief Justice of Supreme Court Wrote portions of The Federalist Papers Jays Treaty (1794): Attempt at settling the conflict between the USA and England over commerce, navigation, and violations of

    the Treaty of Paris 1783 Provided the eventual evacuation by the British of their posts in the Northwest, but it allowed them to

    continue their fur trade Allowed for the establishment of commissions to settle US-Canada border disputes and US-British losses

    during the Revolutionary War The generous terms to Britain upset Americans because these were promises that had been made and not

    fulfilled in the Treaty of Paris 1783 Pinckney Treaty (1795): Signed by the USA and Spain Free navigation of the Mississippi River was given to the USA US gained area north of Florida that had been in dispute (present-day Mississippi and Alabama) Gave western farmers the right of deposit in New Orleans, allowing them to use the port for their goods,

    making it easier for them to get their goods to the East John Adams (1797-1800): 2nd president; 1st vice-president Served 1 term Diplomat and signer of the Declaration of Independence Led the country through the XYZ Affair, the Alien and Sedition Acts, and the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Kept nation from war during his administration XYZ Affair (1798): US wanted an end to French harassment of American shipping French representatives demanded a bribe of $250,000 from the US just to open negotiations with French

    Minister Talleyrand US refused the bribe and suspended trade with the French Led to the creation of the American Navy

  • Alien and Sedition Acts (1798-99): Four laws passed by the Federalists to reduce foreign influences and increase their power New requirements for citizenship were established Broadened the power to silence print media critics, especially Jeffersonian Republican critics of the

    Federalists Laws tested the strength of the 1st Amendment and limited the freedom of the press Federalist Party gained a reputation as being a less democratic party, leading to its end as a political

    organization Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798-1799): Response by Jeffersonian Republicans to the Alien and Sedition Acts that included text written by Jefferson

    and Madison Suggested that states should have the power within their territory to nullify federal laws Stated that federal government had no right to exercise powers not specifically delegated to it Called into question the opposing arguments found in the Elastic Clause and the 10th amendment The resolutions represented a future argument that would be used when secession and Civil War threatened

    the nation Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815): War between Napoleons France and the other European powers, led by Britain Both sides tried to prevent neutral powers, especially the USA, from trading with their enemy American ships were seized by both sides and American sailors were impressed or forced into the British

    navy The US was angered by this violation of the freedom of the seas (outside its territorial waters, a state may

    not claim sovereignty over the seas) These violations would escalate and lead to the War of 1812 Judiciary Act of 1801: Created new judgeships to be filled by the president John Adams filled the new vacancies with party supporters (Midnight Judges) in the hours before he left

    office Led to bitter resentment by the incoming Jeffersonian Republican Party Act would play a role in the case Marbury v. Madison

  • Age of Jefferson

    Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809): 3rd President; 1st Secretary of State Served 2 terms Author of the Declaration of Independence First president to reside in Washington DC His taking of office was called the Revolution of 1800 - 1st time America changed presidential leadership His embodiment of the Jeffersonian Republican Party helped increase its strength, while weak leadership in the

    Federalist Party was a reason for its demise Responsible of the Embargo Act of 1807 Presided over the Louisiana Purchase His politics were characterized by support of states rights John Marshall (1755-1835): Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court (1801-1835) A Federalist installed by Adams His decisions defined/strengthened the powers of the judicial branch & asserted the power of judicial review over

    federal legislation His Court made determinations that cemented a static view of contracts His Courts decisions advanced capitalism Significant cases included Marbury v. Madison, Fletcher v. Peck, Dartmouth College v. Woodward, McCullough v.

    Maryland, Gibbons v. Ogden Marbury v. Madison (1803): William Marbury had been appointed justice of the peace in DC by President John Adams as a midnight judge His commission was not delivered, so he sued President Jeffersons Secretary of State, James Madison Chief Justice John Marshall held that while Marbury was entitled to the commission, the statute which allowed it

    was unconstitutional, as it granted the Supreme Court powers beyond what the Constitution permitted This decision paved the way for judicial review, which gave courts the power to declare statutes unconstitutional Louisiana Purchase (April 30, 1803): Purchased for $15 million from France Jefferson was concerned about the constitutionality of purchasing land without having this authority granted by the

    Constitution to make the purchase, he employed the presidential power of treaty-making US territory was doubled and helped remove France from the western borders of the US Farmers could now send their goods (furs, grains, tobacco) down the Mississippi River, thru New Orleans to Europe Opened land to agrarian expansion, helping fulfill one of the aspects of Jeffersons social ideology The expansion westward created more states with Jeffersonian Republican representation to the point that the

    Federalists became a marginalized party Lewis and Clark Expedition (1803-1806): Expedition through the Louisiana Purchase and the West Left from St. Louis and explored areas including the Missouri River, the Yellowstone River, and the Rockies Sacajawea, a Shoshone guide, helped them on their journey Opened up new territories to America Burr Conspiracy (1806): Aaron Burr planned to take Mexico from Spain and establish a new nation in the West Burr, a fugitive in politics after Hamiltons death, was arrested in Natchez and tried for treason Under John Marshall, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Burr was acquitted Marshall stated that treason charges required more than just proof of conspiracy to commit treason; this helped

    narrow the legal definition of treason Embargo of 1807: American declaration to keep its own ships from leaving port for any foreign destination Jefferson hoped to avoid contact with vessels of either of the warring sides of the Napoleonic Wars The result was economic depression in the US; this angered the Federalists, who were well-represented in

    Northeast commerce and were hit hard by the depression

  • Age of Madison and the War of 1812

    James Madison (1809-1817): 4th President Served 2 terms His work before becoming president led him to be considered the Father of the Constitution He participated in the writing of The Federalist Papers In Congress, he wrote the Virginia Plan He was a Republican president in a Federalist-controlled Congress Faced pressure from War Hawks like Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun to get involved in the Napoleonic Wars

    and end the damaging embargo Led the US into the War of 182 and ended the war in 1814 Non-Intercourse Act (1809): Congress opened trade to all nations except France and Britain Trade boycott appeared to have little effect on stopping French/British aggression caused by the Napoleonic

    Wars Though the Embargo Act was a protective measure, the Non-Intercourse Act re-engaged the US in trade while

    continuing its stance against alliances with either France or Britain The act was repealed in 1810 Fletcher v. Peck (1810): Marshall Court decision The 1st time state law was voided on grounds that it violated a principle of the US Constitution The Georgia legislature had issues extensive land grants in a corrupt deal A legislative session repealed that action because of the corruption The Supreme Court decided that the original contract was valid, regardless of the corruption Reaffirmed the sanctity of contracts

    Expansion of the Electorate (1810-1828): Most states had already eliminated the property qualifications for voting African Americans were still excluded from polls across the South and most of the North The political parties established national nomination conventions Tecumseh (1811): Native American chief who was encouraged by British forces to fight against pressured removal from Western

    territories William Henry Harrison destroyed the united Native American Confederacy at Tippecanoe Causes of the War of 1812: British impressments of American sailors American frontiersmen wanted more free land, as the West was held by Native Americans and the British The US suspected the British were encouraging Native American rebellion War Hawk Congressional leaders, such as Henry Clay and John Calhoun, pressed for intervention War Hawks desired annexation of Canada and Florida Despite the Embargo Act and Non-Intercourse Act, hostilities could not be eliminated The US sided with France against Britain War of 1812 Events (1812-1815): Early victories at sea by the US, then overcome by British The USAs Admiral Perry took Lake Erie with the navy Opened the way for William Henry Harrison to invade Canada and defeat the British and Native American

    forces Andrew Jackson led the American charge through the Southwest Battle of New Orleans was a decisive conflict where Jackson defeated the British; battle was actually fought

    after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent

  • Washington DC Burned (1814): A British armada sailed up the Chesapeake Bay and burned the White House Attack came in response to the American burning of Toronto The armada proceeded toward Baltimore; Americas Fort McHenry held firm through the bombardment Inspired Francis Scott Keys Star Spangled Banner After the War of 1812 (post-1814): Increased American nationalism High foreign demand for cotton, grain, and tobacco Changed from agrarian to industrialization Depression in 1819 due to influx of British goods; the Bank of the US responded by tightening credit to slow

    inflation, which caused business to slump Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817): The Treaty of Ghent, which ended hostilities after the War of 1812, set the groundwork for this agreement by

    encouraging both sides to continue to study boundary issues between the US and Canada Rush-Bagot was an agreement between Britain and the US to stop maintaining armed fleets on the Great

    Lakes Served as the 1st disarmament agreement and laid the foundation for future positive relations between

    Canada and the US

  • James Monroe and the Era of Good Feelings

    James Monroe (1817-1825): 5th president Served 2 terms Administration was marked by the domination of his political party, the Democratic-Republicans, and the

    decline of the Federalist Party National identity grew, mostly through the westward movement of the country and various public works

    projects Monroe Doctrine- the US would not allow foreign powers to lead new colonies in the western hemisphere or

    allow existing colonies to be influenced by outside powers America feared international influence because of a period of world-wide revolutionary fervor after

    Napoleons fall The era saw the beginnings of North-South tensions over slavery

    Convention of 1818: Provided for boundary between the US and Canada at the 49th parallel Allowed for joint occupation of the Oregon territory by Americans and Canadians Allowed American fishermen to fish in the waters of Newfoundland and Labrador

    McCullough v. Maryland (1819): Marshall Court decision Determined that no state can control an agency of the federal government Maryland tried to levy a tax on a local branch of the BUS to protect its own state banks Supreme Court said such state action violated Congresss implied powers to operate a national bank Use of judicial review over state law made this a division of powers case

    Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819): Marshall Court decision Severely limited the power of state govts. to control corporations, which were the emerging form of business New Hampshire legislature tried to change Dartmouth from a private to a public institution by having its

    charter revoked The Court ruled that the charter issued during colonial days still constituted a contract and could not be

    arbitrarily changed without consent of both parties Reaffirmed the sanctity of contracts

    Adams-Onis Treaty (1819): Helped define the US-Mexico border, which had created conflict under Spanish control Spain sold its remaining Florida territory to the US and drew the boundary of Mexico to the Pacific US ceded its claims to Texas, and Spain kept California and the New Mexico region US assumed $5 million in debts owed by Spain to American merchants Later, lands kept by Spain would become battlegrounds for American expansion

    Cotton in the Early 1800s: The new invention of the cotton gin separated the seeds from the fibers New stats, such as Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, produced cotton Led to a boom in the cotton market; its global effects crowned the staple as King Cotton Need for cotton encouraged westward expansion in farming

    Lowell System (1820s): A popular way of staffing New England factories Young women were hired from the surrounding countryside, brought to town, and housed in dorms in mill

    towns for a short period The owners called these factories in the garden to spread the idea that these facilities would not be like the

    dirty, corrupt mills in English towns The rotating labor supply benefited the owners, so no unions could be formed against them The system depended on technology to increase production

  • Transportation Revolution (1800-1850): Innovation included new construction of roads, addition of canals, and the expansion of the railroads Robert Fulton built the modern-day steamboat, transforming river transportation The transportation revolution cheapened the market for trade and encouraged population movement west of

    the Appalachian Mountains Missouri Compromise (1820): Henry Clays solution to deadlock over the issue of the acceptance of the proposed new state, Missouri At the time, the Senate was evenly divided between slave and free states A slave state of Missouri would tip the balance of power John Tallmadge added an antislavery amendment meant to prohibit the growth of slavery into Missouri and to

    free slaves already in Missouri when they had reached a certain age The Tallmadge Amendment caused the Senate to block the Missouri Compromise; it sparked heated debate

    about the future of slavery To settle the dispute, northern Massachusetts became a new free state (Maine) The legislative section prohibiting slavery in Missouri was replaced by a clause stating that all Louisiana

    Purchase land north of the 3630 parallel would prohibit slavery

    John Quincy Adams

    Corrupt Bargain (1824): Four candidates- Henry Clay (Speaker of the House); John Quincy Adams (Secretary of State), Andrew Jackson

    (1812 war hero), and William Crawford (Secretary of the Treasury) Jackson won the popular vote but did not win the majority of the electoral vote; as a result, the election went

    to the House of Representatives Henry Clay, in the House of Representatives vote, threw his support to John Quincy Adams In exchange for Adams winning the presidency over Jackson, Adams gave Clay the post of Secretary of State Accusations of a corrupt bargain were made by Jackson, but are considered to be largely untrue John Quincy Adams (1825-1829): 6th president Served 1 term Supporters called themselves National Republicans; Jackson supporters called themselves Democratic-

    Republicans Led an active federal government in areas like internal improvements and Native American affairs Policies proved unpopular amidst increasing sectional interest and conflicts over states rights After his presidency, he served in the House of Representatives, where he forced debates against slavery and

    against the removal of certain Native American tribes, a Jacksonian policy Tariff of Abominations (1828): Tariff bill with higher import duties for many goods bought by Southern planters John C. Calhoun, John Quincy Adams, vice president and champion of states rights, anonymously protested

    his own leaderships bill, suggesting that a federal law harmful to an individual state could be declared void within that state (The South Carolina Exposition and Protest)

    This suggestion of nullification would be utilized by other states and would escalate hostilities, leading to the Civil War

  • Age of Jackson

    Andrew Jackson (1829-1837): 7th president Served 2 terms After the War of 1812, he invaded Spanish Florida to stop Native American rebellions After the treaty for the War of 1812 had already been signed, he defeated a British force that had invaded

    New Orleans, safeguarding the Mississippi River He was a popular president due to his image as the self-made Westerner Implemented the spoils system approach to civil service Signed the Indian Removal Act, which provided for federal enforcement to remove Native Americans tribes

    west of the Mississippi Was against the BUS Jacksonian Politics (1828-1840): Called for a strong executive who liberally used the veto Relied on the party system Emphasized states rights Politics came to rely on emotional appeals, with meetings in mass conventions to nominate national

    candidates for office Spoil System (1828): Jacksons method of exchanging government officials with new civil servants Rotation in office was supposed to democratize government and lead to reform by allowing common folk

    to run the government This system had been in place long before Jackson, but his name is tied to it because he endorsed its usage In general, officials were replaced by those loyal to the new administration; they were not always the most

    qualified for the positions Over the span of several presidential terms, the system led to corruption and inefficiency; it was ended with

    the passage of the Pendleton Act Alexis de Tocqueville (early 1830s): French civil service who traveled to and wrote about the US Democracy in America- reflected his interest in the American democratic process Assessed the American attempt to have both liberty and equality Provided an outsiders objective view of the Age of Jackson

    Webster-Hayne Debate (1830): Debate in the Senate between Daniel Webster (MA) and Robert Hayne (SC) that focused on sectionalism

    and nullification Came after the Tariff of Abominations incident At issue was the source of constitutional authority- was the Union derived from an agreement between

    states or from the people who had sought a guarantee of freedom? Webster stated- Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable

    Tariff of 1832 and the Order of Nullification ( 1832): The tariff favored Northern interests at the expense of Southern ones Calhoun led a state convention calling for the Order of Nullification, which declared the tariff laws void; SC

    would resist by force any attempt to collect the tariffs Jackson, though a states rights supporter, defended the Union above all, and asked Congress to issue a new

    bill to give him authority to collect tariffs by force Jackson encouraged his allies to prepare a compromise bill so that the federal government would not lose its

    image of control and so that SC could back down from nullification Henry Clay presented his Compromise Tariff of 1833 and SC withdrew the Order, but tensions between the

    federal government and state governments grew

  • Biddles Banks ( 1832): Jackson objected to the BUS created by Alexander Hamilton- he felt that the bank had great influence in

    national affairs but did not respond to the will of working and rural class people Henry Clay wanted the Bank to be a political issue for the upcoming presidential election in 1832 against

    Jackson Nicholas Biddle, chairman of the Bank, worked with Clay to recharter the BUS 4 years earlier than it was due Jackson vetoed the measure, increasing his popularity

    Texas, Leading to the Battle of the Alamo (1800s): Mexico refused to sell Texas to the USA, which had given up its claims to Texas in the Adams-Onis Treaty Texas had been a state in the Republic of Mexico since 1822, following a revolution against Spain Mexico offered land grants for immigration to the area; many Americans responded and went to Texas,

    increasing population and revenue Southerners moved to Mexico with interest in becoming slave masters; the presence of slavery angered the

    Mexican government When the population changed, Mexicos power began to erode Stephen Austin worked to first make Texas a Mexican state and later independent of Mexico Battle of the Alamo (Feb 24-Mar 6, 1836): During Texass revolution against Mexico, Ft Alamo was attacked by the Mexican Army and 187 members of

    the Texas garrison were killed Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna- victorious Mexican military and political leader Remember the Alamo- battle cry in its fight for independence Sam Houston (1793-1863): Leader of Texas Independence Defeated Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto and claimed independence Houston requested both President Jackson and Van Buren to recognize Texas as a state, which was denied out

    of the feat that a new slave state would be formed Panic of 1837 and Specie Circular: Recession caused by Jacksons drastic movement of federal bank deposits to state and local banks (pet banks) Led to relaxed credit policies and inflation Jackson demanded a Specie Circular, stating that land must be paid for in hard money, not paper or credit Recession lasted into the 1840s Trail of Tears ( 1838-1839): Worchester v Georgia was a response to Jacksons Indian Removal Policy Cherokees in Georgia claimed to be a sovereign political entity Native Americans were supported by the Supreme Court; Jackson refused to enforce the courts decision Cherokees had largely me the governments demands to assimilate into Western-style democratic institutions

    but were still forced to give up lands to the east of the Mississippi and travel to an area in present-day Oklahoma

    The migrations effects were devastating as hunger, disease, and exhaustion killed about 4,000 Cherokees Whig Party (1840s): Group that had its roots in the old Federalist party, the old National Republican Party, and others who

    opposed Jacksons policies Encouraged commercial/industrial development, banks/corporations Gave lukewarm support to westward expansion Supported mostly by Northern business/manufacturing and large Southern planters John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster

  • 1840s:

    US-British Tension and Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842): American ship was burned by Canadian loyalists Canada and the US disputed the boundary of Maine British ships sometimes stopped American ships to suppress American slave smuggling The treaty settled the boundary of Maine and border disputes in the Great Lakes Created more cooperation between the US and Britain in curbing the slave trade Irish and German Immigration: Irish: dramatic increase in Irish immigration in the 1840s because of the potato famine in Ireland Poverty for Irish immigrants caused settlement in eastern cities and competition for jobs German: the 1850s saw an increase in German immigration due to the failed revolution in 1848 Many Germans settled in Wisconsin because they had money and other resources; helped to settle the upper-

    Midwest portion of the US 5 Points Neighborhood of NYC: melting pot of Irish/Anglo/Italian/Jewish immigrants and African-Americans Transportation in the 1840s and 1850s: Tremendous expansion of railroad lines, creating a national market for goods Railroads linked the Midwest to the Northeast Steamboats and clipper ships became more popular for travel Stephen Douglas (1813-1861): Senator from Illinois dubbed the Little Giant Was an expansionist and a supporter of the Mexican War Believed popular sovereignty was the appropriate way to handle the slavery question Popular Sovereignty (1840s): Doctrine under which the status of slavery in the territories was to be determined by the settlers themselves Doctrine was first put forward by General Lewis Cass and was promoted by Stephen Douglas It was intended as a resolution to the impending crisis of the slavery question

    Mexican War (1846-1848) (1846-1848): John C. Fremont (US) won attacks by land and sea in California Zachary Taylor defeated large forces in Mexico (later became president) Mexicans refused to negotiate; President Polk ordered forces led by Winfield Scott into Mexico City Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) ended the war giving the US land originally sought by Slidell (New Mexico,

    Arizona, California, and parts of Texas, Colorado, Utah, and Nevada) Border was set at the Rio Grande River Raised questions of slavery in the new territory War was opposed by some (Henry David Thoreau and Abe Lincoln)

    Wilmot Proviso (1846): Amendment to a Mexican War Appropriations Bill Proposed that slavery could not exist in any territory to be acquired from Mexico The amendment was defeated several times in Congress Represented the question of slaverys future, which would be decided in the Civil War Mexican Cession and Slavery (1848): Argument existed about slavery in the new-acquired Mexican Cession States-righters believed that the territory was the property of all states and that the federal government had no

    right to prohibit property ownership in territories Many anti-slavery/federal govt. supporters stated that Congress had the power to make laws for the territories Argument in favor of federal power was based on the Northwest Ordinance (1787) & Missouri Compromise (1820) Gold Rush (1848-1850s): Miners who rushed to California after the discovery of gold were called 49-ers Over 80,000 prospectors rushed to San Francisco ; Increased population led to California becoming a state (free) Connected to the idea of Manifest Destiny

  • Antebellum South

    Four Classes in the South: Yeoman- largest group; worked land independently, sometimes along with slaves, to produce their own

    foods, like corn Planters- owned large farms and groups of slaves; exercised political and economic control with cotton

    exports Poor Whites- lived in squalor, often worse than the slaves Slaves- worked land; of whites in the South did NOT own any slaves

    Slave Labor System: Large Farms: white overseers directed black drivers, who supervised groups in the fields as they performed

    gang labor Smaller Farms: a slave was assigned specific tasks, then given the remainder of the day to himself House Servants: spared physical labor, but they enjoyed less privacy and had direct responsibility to the

    master Slaves in Southern Urban Areas: Slaves served as factory workers or in construction Some purchased their freedom with their savings or disappeared into society As sectional troubles rose, fewer salves were able to buy freedom or work in urban areas

    Elements of Slavery (1700s-1800s): Slaves suffered varying degrees of repression, although most received adequate housing and diet Slaves did commit some violent uprisings Many slaves tried to run away into bordering free states Injustice created quiet revolt as slaves sabotaged their facilities, found ways to become unproductive for their

    masters, and ridiculed their masters Despite their repression, slaves created their own common culture Slave Codes (1650s-1860s): A series of laws that limited slave rights Slave owners were given authority to impose harsh physical punishment and to control their slaves in any

    fashion they sought, without court intervention Prohibited slaves from owning weapons, becoming educated, meeting with other African-Americans without

    permission, and testifying against whites in court Severely limited the rights of slaves Southern Response to Slavery (1790-1860s): Defense of slavery shifted from an early view (1790) that slavery was a necessary evil to being a positive

    good (after 1840) Used scientific arguments, biblical texts, and historical examples to justify slavery Both this defensive position and abolitionist movements increased Some Southerners (VA lawyer George Fitzhugh) defended slavery by condemning Northern wage slavery; he

    used the idea of African-American inferiority to suggest that whites were protecting slaves from a world of fierce competition in which they could not survive on their own (paternalism)

  • Reform Era of the mid-1800s:

    2nd Great Awakening and Protestant Revivalism (1830s-1840s): A wave of religious fervor spread through a series of camp meeting revivals The Burnt Over District was an area in Upstate NY that was the center of the movement Protestant Revivalism was a reaction to rationalism, emphasizing personal salvation, strong nationalism, and the

    improvement of society through social reform Revivalism included participation by women and African Americans, demonstrating the influence and growth of

    democracy Created diversity in American religious sects and dome anti-Catholic sentiment Dorothea Dix (1802-1887): Social reformer who worked to help the mentally ill Northeastern jails housed both criminals and the mentally ill in the same facilities Dix became determined to change this; her memorandum to the Massachusetts legislature (1842) led to the

    establishment of state hospitals for the insane Utopian Communities (1820-1850): Movement that copied early European efforts at utopianism Attempt by cooperative communities to improve life in the face of increasing industrialism Groups practiced social experiments that generally saw little success due to their radicalism Included attempts at sexual equality, racial equality, and socialism (Examples: Brook Farm and Oneida) Mormonism (1830): Religion founded by Joseph Smith Jr. Smith claimed to have received sacred writings; he organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Smith described a vision from God in which God declared specific tenets of Christianity to be abominations Because of these claims and unusual practices such as polygamy, Mormons were shunned Eventually, they formed communities near Great Salt Lake under Brigham Young, which became Utah Transcendentalism (1820-1850): Movement to transcend the bounds of the intellect and to strive for emotional unity with God Capable of unity without the help of the institutional church; saw church as reactionary & stifling to self-expression Horace Mann (1796-1859): The 1st secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education; suggested reforms in education Made available high-quality, no-cost, nondenominational public schooling which has lasted to the present day Father of the American public school Abolitionism (1830s-Civil War): Began with the idea of purchasing/transporting slaves to free African states, which had little success Anti-slavery societies were founded (some faced violent opposition) The movement split into two- radical followers and those who petitioned Congress Entered politics through the Liberty Party, calling for non-expansion of slavery into new western territories Liberty Party would later combine with the larger Free Soil Party

    William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879): The Liberator- newspaper that printed his views that slaves should be immediately emancipated Many other anti-slavery advocates of the 1830s and 1840s recommended a gradualist approach Because of his strict view of emancipation and the fiery language he used in his paper, opposition to his policy

    developed within abolitionist groups After the Civil War, he promoted free trade, suffrage for women, and fair treatment of Native Americans Frederick Douglass (1817?-1895): An escaped slave from Maryland and outspoken abolitionist who published his own newspaper North Star Favored the use of political methods of reform In the Civil War, he helped put together regiments of African Americans from Massachusetts and encouraged others

    to join the Union army Father of the American civil rights movement

  • Road to the Civil War- Increasing Tensions

    The North (1850): Wages were increasing and the economy was growing Railroad competition began to harm the canal business Large numbers of Irish and Germans immigrated to the US Urbanization increased as the population grew, bringing problems such as slums, impure water, rats, and raw

    sewage

    The South (1850): Plantation system- cash crops grown by slave labor Agrarian slave labor was more profitable that using slaves in factories Capital funds were tied up in land and slaves, so little was left for investing in new growth or industry Value system put emphasis on leisure and elegance Unlike the North, the South remained agrarian and its population was less dense Due to the rise of cotton, the influence of the Gulf States in the South grew Cotton became the largest export of the US Slave importation continued through the 1850s into southwestern states, despite the federal outlaw Free-Soil Party (1847-1848): Party created by those Democratic-Republicans opposed to slavery; included anti-slavery Whigs and former

    Liberty Party members Opposed extension of slavery into new territories; supported national improvement programs and small

    tariffs to raise revenue Zachary Taylor defeated Free Soil candidate Martin Van Buren for president in 1848

    Stephen Douglas (1813-1861): Senator from Illinois dubbed the Little Giant Was an expansionist and a supporter of the Mexican War Broke the Compromise of 1850 into smaller, more acceptable pieces of legislation and pushed it through

    using various allies in Congress During a Senate campaign, participated in debates against Abe Lincoln (dubbed the Lincoln-Douglas Debates) Believed popular sovereignty was the appropriate way to handle the slavery question Introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854

    Compromise of 1850 (Omnibus Bill): Proposed by Henry Clay and handled by Stephen Douglas to assure passage by both Northerners and

    Southerners Douglas broke the legislation into various pieces, which helped assure that each of its parts would pass The Compromise led to a sectional harmony for several years California was admitted as a free state New Mexico and Utah territories would be decided by popular sovereignty Slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia Tough Fugitive Slave Act passed Federal payment to Texas ($10 million) for lost New Mexico territory

    Fugitive Slave Act (1850): Part of the Compromise of 1850 This new act reinvigorated enforcement of some guidelines that had already been established in the Fugitive

    Slave Act of 1793, which had been mostly ignored by Northern states Created federal commissioners who could pursue fugitive slaves in any state; paid $10 per returned slave Blacks living in the North and claimed by slave catchers were denied portions of legal due process Some Northern stats passed personal-liberty laws that contradicted the Act Led to small riots in the North and increased the tension between the North and the South

  • Harriet Beecher Stowe- Uncle Toms Cabin (1811-1896): Worked with the Grimke sisters, Elizabeth Stanton, and other leaders to pursue activist goals Early activist in the feminist movement and author of Uncle Toms Cabin (1851), a novel about slavery Book was denounced in the South and praised in the North; it turned many toward active opposition to

    slavery and helped increase sympathy for abolition by Europeans who read it Ostend Manifesto (1854): Written by James Buchanan, John Mason, and Pierre Soule after Soule failed to purchase Cuba from Spain Suggested that the US should take Cuba from Spain by force if Spain refused to sell it Abolitionists saw Ostend as a plot to extend slavery Southerners supported the manifesto as they had feared Cuba would be a free black republic

    James Buchanan (1857-1861): President when the Dred Scott decision was announced Supported the Lecompton Constitution to satisfy the South Buchanan, still acting as president after Lincolns election, denied the legal right of states to secede but

    believed that the federal government cold not legally prevent them Before leaving office, Buchanan appointed Northerners to federal posts and helped to prepare Fort Sumter

    with reinforcements Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857): Supreme Court case involving a slave, Scott, who was taken by his master from Missouri, a slave state, to

    Illinois, a free state After Scot had been returned to Missouri, he sued for freedom for himself and his family, stating that by

    residing in a free state he had ended his slavery President Buchanan meant for the cases decision to serve as the basis for the slavery issue Pro-Southern Judge Taney ruled that Scott did NOT have the right of citizenship, which he would need to be

    able to bring forth a suit The Court further ruled that the Missouri Compromise itself was unconstitutional because Congress had no

    power to prohibit slavery in the territories, as slaves were property The Scott decision would apply to all African-Americans, who were regarded as inferior and without rights Causes of the Panic of 1857: Failure of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Co in NY Overspeculation in railroads and lands Decrease in flow of European capital for US investments because of Europes own wars Surplus of wheat hurt Northern farmers Panic spread to Europe, South America, and the Far East The Panic fueled sectional tensions as Northerners blamed it on the low tariff policies of the Southern-

    dominated Congress Creation of Lincolns Republican Party (1854): Democratic Party divided along North-South lines Whig Party disintegrated, with its members joining the Known-Nothings or the newly-created Republican

    Party The Republican Partys unifying principle was that slavery should be banned from all the nations territories

    and not permitted to spread any further to established states Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854): Legislation introduced by Stephen Douglas to organize the area west of Missouri and Iowa One goal was to facilitate the building of a transcontinental railroad that ran west from Chicago Called for two territories to be created (Kansas and Nebraska) and the issue of slavery to be decided by

    popular sovereignty Kansas status was impacted by fighting between pro and anti slavery groups who moved to the area, where

    the conflict was termed Bleeding Kansas

  • Lecompton Constitution (1857): Document submitted by pro-slavery leaders in territorial Kansas that put no restrictions on slavery Free-soilers boycotted the constitutional convention in Lecompton because the document would not leave

    Kansas a free territory Though President Buchanan supported the constitution as the basis for Kansas statehood, Congress voted

    against it The constitution was turned down and Kansa remained a territory Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858): Came out of the Illinois senatorial campaign between Stephen Douglas and Abe Lincoln Slavery was a major issue in the debates, as Douglas maintained that popular sovereignty was supported by

    the basic elements of democracy Douglas Freeport Doctrine- despite the Dred Scott case, slavery could be prevented by the refusal of the

    people living in a territory to pass laws favorable to slavery Lincoln had a moral opposition to slaverys spread and demanded constitutional protection where it existed Lincoln lost the senate election to Douglas but he gained national attention

    John Brown (1809-1859): Brown and his sons killed 5 pro-slavery settlers in Kansas in an incident known as the Pottawattamie Creek

    Massacre He was supported by some Northern abolitionists to start a nationwide revolution against slavery He led followers to seize a federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia in hopes of starting a rebellion (1859) Brown was arrested and hanged Pro-slavery supporters saw him as a demon; abolitionists saw him as a martyr for slavery Election of 1860: Republicans nominated Abe Lincoln Major plank of his campaign- containment of slavery and encouragement of transcontinental rail The Democratic vote was split between Douglas and several other strong candidates Lincoln won the election, even without being on the ballot in 10 southern states After his inauguration the South seceded

  • Civil War, 1861-1865

    Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865): 16th president; elected 2 times- served 1 full term before being assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at Fords

    Theater in Washington DC (Booth believed he was assisting the Southern cause) Produced and le a Northern Army to defend the Union against secessionists Suspended habeas corpus during the Civil War, which was upheld by Congress Issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed slaves within the Confederacy only Developed the 10% Plan for Reconstruction Gave the Gettysburg Address (November 19, 1863) Secession (began December 1860): Response to the election of Lincoln, who south to contain slavery South Carolina voted to secede on December 20, 1860 Over the next 2 months Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas seceded These states declared themselves the Confederate States of America and elected Jefferson Davis as

    president, adopted a constitution that permitted slavery rights and the sovereignty of states Civil War Conscription (1860s): Congress passed a federal conscription law in 1863 Rioting in the North took place, especially in NYC, when drafted persons were permitted to avoid service by

    hiring a substitute of paying $300 The Confederacys short supply of manpower meant an earlier draft for them (1862) Southerners could also hire substitutes or purchase an exemption Advantages of the South: Only needed to resist being conquered (defensive NOT offensive) Vast in land size Troops would fight in their familiar home territory Highly qualified senior officers: Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnston, Albert Sidney Johnston, Stonewall Jackson Inspired to protect their familiar institutions and culture Advantages of the North: Larger population Better railroad lines and more established trade routes than the South More wealth Able to use the moral issue of slavery as motivation for the troops Anaconda Plan (1861): Civil War strategy planned by Northern General Winfield Scott to crush the Southern rebellion

    o Naval blockade to shut out European supplies and exports o Campaign to take the Mississippi River and split the South in two o Targeting of the Southern cities in hopes that pro-Unionists would rise up and overthrow the secession

    Both the blockade and the taking of the Mississippi were successful Homestead Act (1862): Granted 160 acres of government land to any person who would farm it for at least 5 years The government helped to settle the West with this provision This Free Soil proposal became law when the Southern Democrats were not part of Congress because of the

    war Battle of Antietam (September 17, 1862): General George McClellan attempted to defeat Lee and shorten the war, but failed McClellan had discovered detailed plans for Lees entire operation but ignored the opportunity because of

    overcautiousness Lees army was forced to retreat to VA after a bloody battle at Antietam, Md. (single bloodiest day of the war) McClellans failure to pursue Lee led Lincoln to remove him from command

  • Emancipation Proclamation (effective January 1, 1863): Declared all slaves to be free in areas under rebel control only (exempting conquered areas of the South) Lincoln was criticized for not abolishing slavery everywhere Led to slaves in the South leaving their plantations Increased morale in the North (propaganda piece) Partly designed to keep England from joining the war on the side of the South Changed perception of the war from a conflict to preserve the Union to a war to end slavery Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3 1863): Lee invaded Pennsylvania from Virginia; pursued by Northern General Meade Lee was defeated and retreated to Virginia Bloodiest, most decisive battle of the Civil War Farthest northern advance of the Confederacy (CSA never invaded the North again) Civil War Ships: Ironclads were Civil War ships protected from cannon fire by iron plates bolted over the sloping wooden sides Confederates outfitted an old wooden warship, the Merrimack, with iron railroad rails and renamed it the

    Virginia; it achieved devastating results The Unions Monitor fought the Merrimack to a standstill (March 9, 1862) Shermans March to the Sea (1864): General William Tecumseh Sherman led Union troops through Georgia Sherman and Union Commander, Ulysses S. Grant, believed in a total war that would break the Souths

    psychological capacity to fight; Shermans army sought to eliminate civil support of Southern troops The purpose of destroying Georgia was to lower Southern morale and diminish supplies Sherman captured and burned Atlanta in September 1864 and then led his troops to Savannah, then on to

    North and South Carolina on his way to the Confederate capital of Richmond Presidential Election of 1864: Lincoln ran against General McClellan (claimed that the war was a failure and called for a peace settlement) Lincoln ran on the ticket of national unity with Andrew Johnson from Tennessee (the only southern senator

    who did not secede) Shermans taking of Atlanta helped Lincoln win the election Those who were sympathetic to the Southern cause were labeled Copperheads Conclusion of the War (Ap