prenatal development (con’t). prenatal testing and screening women 30-39 are having more...

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  • Prenatal development (cont)

  • Prenatal testing and screeningWomen 30-39 are having more babies-risk down syndrome (mental retardation & physical abnormalities)

    Amniocentesis draws fluid from amniotic sac Ultrasound or sonography uses high-frequency sound waves Fetoscopy small incision and optical viewer Chorionic villus sampling snip tissue from fetal sac Maternal Blood Analysis/Maternal Serum Alpha Fetoprotein

  • AmniocentesisFetoscopy

  • Ultrasound

  • Fetal Monitoring

    Track the babys heart rate during labor.

    Safe procedure that has saved the lives of many babies in high-risk situations.

  • Types of Delivery MethodsNormal Delivery (Spontaneous vaginal delivery SVD)ForceptVacuum InductionCesarean

  • Forceps Delivery

    Used when the mothers pushing during the second stage of labor does not cause the baby to move through the birth canal in a reasonable amount of time.

    Forceps are metal clamps placed around the babys head to pull the infant from the birth canal.Risk: can result in head injury or brain damage

  • Vacuum ExtractionA vacuum extractor is a suction tube that is attached to a plastic cup placed on the babys head.

  • Induced LaborLabor is started artificially by breaking the amnion and giving the mother a hormone that stimulates contractions.

    Used when continuing the pregnancy threatens the well-being of mother or baby

    Contractions often longer, harder, and closer together.

  • Cesarean DeliveryA cesarean delivery is a surgical birth in which the doctor makes an incision in the mothers abdomen & lifts the baby out of the uterus.

    When babies are in a breech position (turned so that the buttocks or feet would be delivered first) cesareans are often justified.

    Although the operation is safe, mothers need more time for recovery and cesarean newborns are more likely to be sleepy and unresponsive & to have breathing difficulties.

  • Stages of ChildbirthWhat signs indicate that labor is near?

    Stage 1: Time interval? What happens?

    Stage 2: Time interval? What happens?

    Stage 3: Time interval? What happens?

  • The Birth Process

  • Stage 1 : Dilation of the cervixThe longest stage of laborFirst baby 12 - 14 hours Sebsequent babies 4 - 6 hours

    Dilation of the cervix is the widening and thinning of the cervix resulting in a clear pathway from the uterus into the birth canal.

    Contractions are forceful and regular Gradually, they get closer together, occurring every 2 to 3 minutes, and become more powerful, continuing for as long as 60 seconds.

    Transition is reached when the frequency and strength of contractions are at their peak and the cervix opens completely.

  • Figure 7.10.1The Birth ProcessStage 1

  • In Stage 2 : Delivery of the BabyFirst baby 50 minutes Subsequent births 20 minutes

    Strong contractions continue mother feels a natural urge to squeeze and push with her abdominal muscles forcing the baby down and out.

    An episiotomy is a small incision at the perineum increases size of the vaginal opening permits baby to pass without damaging the mothers tissues.

    The babys head crowns when the vaginal opening stretches around the entire head.

  • Figure 7.10.2Stage 2Stage 3

  • Stage 3: Delivery of the Placenta

    The final stage lasts about 5 to 10 minutes.

    The final contractions and pushes cause the placenta to separate from the uterine wall and be delivered.

  • BIRTH COMPLICATIONSFaulty Power Problem with motherContraction not strong enoughFaulty PassagewayProblem in the uterusPlacenta PreviaPlacenta AbruptionFaulty PassengerProblem with babyBreechHead too big

  • Low-Birth-Weight BabyWeigh less than 2,500gm 2 categoryPreterm (premature)Baby born before completing the 35th week of gestationSmall for dateMay not be preterm but weigh less than 90% of all babies of the same gestational age

  • Low-Birth-Weight1 in 16 infants is born underweight More common among low-income, ethnic minority pregnant women.Small-for-date babies are associated with more serious problems InfectionsBrain damageInfant deathPoor school achievementProbably due to inadequate nutrition before birth. Perhaps mothers didnt eat well or placenta did not function normally or babies themselves have defects that prevent them from growing normally.

  • Preterm Babies

  • Factors influencing the development during prenatal periodParents ageToo YoungMum too oldDad too oldMothers Pregnancy HistoryFrequent pregnancyFrequent miscarriage/abortionMothers Physical condition Size (too fat/ thin) Mothers DietMothers EmotionTeratogenic Agent

    *Instrument delivery is used when the mothers pushing during the second stage of labor does not cause the baby to move through the birth canal in a reasonable amount of time.

    In the United States, forceps or vacuum extractors are used in about 12 percent of births. They are used less than 5 percent of the time in Europe. Their use can result in head injury or brain damage.

    Neither method should be used when the mother can be encouraged to deliver normally and there is no special reason to hurry.

    Forceps are metal clamps placed around the babys head to pull the infant from the birth canal.

    *A vacuum extractor is a suction tube that is attached to a plastic cup placed on the babys head.

    *A cesarean delivery is a surgical birth in which the doctor makes an incision in the mothers abdomen and lifts the baby out of the uterus.

    In 1994, cesareans accounted for 24 percent of American births. The rate dropped slightly to 21 percent in 1999. Still, this is the highest rate in the world.

    Cesareans have always been warranted by serious medical emergencies. However, surgical delivery is not always needed in other instances.

    When babies are in a breech position (turned so that the buttocks or feet would be delivered first) cesareans are often justified.

    Although the operation is safe, mothers need more time for recovery and cesarean newborns are more likely to be sleepy and unresponsive and to have breathing difficulties.

    **Stage 1 Dilation and effacement of the cervixis the longest stage of laborlasting, on average, 12 to 14 hours with a first baby and 4 to 6 hours with later births.

    Dilation and effacement of the cervix is the widening and thinning of the cervix resulting in a clear pathway from the uterus into the birth canal.

    Uterine contractions are forceful and regular. Gradually, they get closer together, occurring every 2 to 3 minutes, and become more powerful, continuing for as long as 60 seconds.

    Transition is reached when the frequency and strength of contractions are at their peak and the cervix opens completely.

    In Stage 2 Delivery of the Baby, which lasts approximately 50 minutes for a first baby and 20 minutes in subsequent births, the infant is born.

    Strong contractions continue, and the mother feels a natural urge to squeeze and push with her abdominal muscles, forcing the baby down and out.

    An episiotomy is a small incision that increases the size of the vaginal opening and permits the baby to pass without damaging the mothers tissues.

    The babys head crowns when the vaginal opening stretches around the entire head.

    Stage 3 Delivery of the PlacentaThe final stage lasts about 5 to 10 minutes.

    The final contractions and pushes cause the placenta to separate from the uterine wall and be delivered.

    **Probably due to inadequate nutrition before birth. Perhaps mothers didnt eat well or placenta did not function normally or babies themselves have defects that prevent them from growing normally.*