preterm birth, infant mortality and birth defects national center on birth defects and developmental...
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Preterm Birth, Infant Mortality and Birth DefectsNational Center on Birth Defects and Developmental DisabilitiesCenters for Disease Control and PreventionNational Center on Birth Defects and Developmental DisabilitiesDivision of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities
1Preterm Birth and Birth DefectsOverlapping outcomesTop 2 leading causes of infant mortalityBirth defects are associated with increased risk of preterm birth (infants w/ BD = 2.7 times more likely to be born preterm; 11.5 times more likely to be born very preterm)Babies born preterm have a 2-3 fold higher likelihood of having a birth defectShared risk factorsFamily historyAssisted reproductive technology (ART)Maternal medical conditions, such as diabetes, obesityMaternal infectious diseases, such as varicellaBehavioral factors, such as alcohol and cigarette smoking
2 Preterm Births and Infant Mortality among Infants with and without Birth DefectsNational Birth Defects Prevention Study multi-state, population-based case-control studyPreterm birth and small-for-gestational age among infants with birth defectsSome examples of research focused on preterm birth among controls (infants without birth defects)
Maternal infections during pregnancy Maternal medication use, such as SSRI Periconceptional intake of folic acid and food folate Maternal dietary nutrient intake 3Opportunities for Reducing Infant Mortality due to Birth Defects: Treatment and PreventionAppropriate and timely treatmentAddressing disparities in care and survivalPrevention through preconception health
Ensuring sufficient folic acid intake before and during early pregnancyScreening and brief intervention to decrease alcohol-exposed pregnanciesEliminating smoking during pregnancyReducing pre-pregnancy obesityKeeping diabetes well-controlled before and during pregnancyPlanning for safe medication use in pregnancy
4Inclusion of Birth Defects in Plans to Reduce Infant MortalityPartner with birth defects surveillance program and other key state programs Partner with parent support groups and advocacy groups working on preventing birth defects and improving the lives of those with birth defectsEngage in preconception health to impact risk of birth defects and preterm birth