process theories of motivation

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Process theories of motivationCONTENTSWhat is motivation?Contemporary theories of motivation -Cognitive Evaluation Theory -Goal Setting Theory -Self Efficacy Theory -Reinforcement Theory -Equity Theory -Expectancy Theory

What is motivation?Motivation is the process that account for an individuals intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.Motivation is the result of the interaction between an individual and a situation.Motivation process is universal, all people are motivated to pursue goals they value.The level of motivation varies both between individuals and within individuals at different times.

Contemporary theories of motivation Each contemporary theory has a reasonable degree of valid supporting documentation. We call them contemporary theories not because they were all developed recently but because they represent current state of thinking in explaining employee motivation. Cognitive Evaluation Theory Goal Setting Theory Self Efficacy Theory Reinforcement Theory Equity Theory Expectancy Theory

Cognitive Evaluation TheoryA theory that states that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation.When looking at task, we evaluate it in terms of how well it meets our needs to feel competent and in control. If we think we will be able to complete the task, we will be intrinsically motivated to complete the task, requiring no further external motivation.People may see external rewards as achieving some degree of control over them or may see the reward as informational, such as where they reinforce feelings of competence and self-determination. When people see the reward as mostly for control they will be motivated by gaining the reward but not by enacting the requested behavior.

A recent outgrowth of cognitive evaluation theory is self concordance, which considers the degree to which peoples reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values. For example: If individuals pursue goals because of an intrinsic interest, they are more likely to attain goals and are happy even if they dont attain them. In contrast, people who pursue goals for extrinsic reasons are less likely to attain their goals and are less happy even when they do achieve them. Goal Setting TheoryA theory that says that specific and difficult goals with feedback, lead to higher performance.According to Edwin Locke, intentions to work toward a goal are a major source of work motivation.Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be extended.More difficult the goal, higher the level of performance because:Challenging goals help to get our attention and tend to help us focus.Difficult goals energize us because we have to work harder to attain them.When goals are difficult, people persist in trying to attain them.Difficult goals lead us to discover strategies that help us to perform the job or task more efficiently.People do better when they get feedback on how well they are progressing toward their goals because feedback helps to identify discrepancies between what they have done and what they want to do; that is , feedback acts to guide behavior. Factors that have been found to influence the goals-performance relationship are: Goal commitment-Goal setting theory presupposes that an individual is committed to the goal. Individual believes that he/she can achieve the goal or wants to achieve it.Task characteristics-Goals seem to have a more substantial effect on performance rather than complex and independent rather than interdependent.National culture-Goal setting theory is culture bound. It assumes that employees will be reasonably independent, that managers and employee will seek challenging goals and that performance is considered important by both.

Self Efficacy TheorySelf efficacy(also known as social cognitive theory or social learning theory) refers to an individuals belief that he/she is capable of performing a task.Higher your self efficacy, the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed in a task and respond to negative feedback with increased effort and motivation.Self efficacy can be increased by four ways:Enactive mastery-gaining relevant experience with the task or job.Vicarious modeling-becoming more confident because you see someone else doing the task.

Verbal persuasion-becoming more confident because convinces you that you have the skills necessary to be successful.Arousal-leads to an energized state, which drives a person to complete a task. But, when arousal is not relevant, then arousal hurts performance.Goal setting theory and self efficacy theory dont compete with one another; rather they complement each other.

Reinforcement TheoryA theory that says that behavior is a function of its consequences.Ignores internal state of a person.Focuses only on what happens to a person as a result of an action taken.Ignores elements like: feelings, attitudes, expectations etc.Understand relationship between behaviors and consequences.arrange contingences that reinforce desirable behaviors and discourage undesirable behaviors.STIMULUS ====== RESPONSE ===== CONSEQUENCE

Types of ReinforcementEMPLOYEE BEHAVIOR



Improved Performance


Praise improvement

Repeat quality work

Improved Performance


Do not give any reprimand

Repeat quality work

Performance not improved


Withhold praise/raise

Do not repeat poor work

Performance not improved


Discipline action, such as written warning

Do not repeat poor work

Equity TheoryA theory that says that behavior is a function of its consequences.Motivation is influenced significantly by others rewards as well as by ones own rewards.Most research has focused on pay, but employees seem to look for equity in the distribution of other rewards.Historically, equity theory focused on distributive justice. But increasingly equity is thought of from the standpoint of organizational justice.Managers should consider openly sharing information on how allocation decisions are made, following consistent and unbiased procedures.

Ratio ComparisonsPerceptionO/IA < O/IBInequity under rewardedO/IA = O/IBEquityO/IA > O/IBInequity over rewardedModel of organizational justiceDISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICEPROCEDURAL JUSTICEINTERACTIONAL JUSTICEPerceived fairness of amount the amount and allocation of rewardsPerceived fairness of process used to determine the distributionPerceived degree to which an individual is treated with dignity, concern and respectOrganizational JusticeOverall perception of what is fair in the workplace Expectancy TheoryThe strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that the outcome to the individual.

The theory focuses on three relationships:1. Effort-performance.2. Performance-reward.3. Rewards-personal goals.

Assumptions: Both internal (needs) and external (environment) affect behavior; Behavior is individuals decision; People have different needs, desires & goals; People make behavior decisions based on their perception of outcome

Motivation = Expectancy * Instrumentality * Valance

I can achieve this targetI will get a rewardWinning this reward is important for me