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    TheJunkers

    J 88Aby a in C. Wind ow

    Junkers III 88,1. of 81KG / "Nil/del/burg" runliP their engines on 0 RIIss;{J1/ airstrip.

    (Photo: R. \ ard Collection)

    WB on December 21, 1936 the first prototypejunkers Ju 88 Lifted off the runway on its maidenflight, the watching officiaJs of the Junkers FllIgzeugand Motorenwerke could not know that they werewatching the birth of an aircraft which was to becomeunique in the history of air warfare. They knew thatthey bad produced a sleek, fast medium bomberwhich showed great promise---on paper. They hadno way of foreseeing that by the time production of theJu 88 series ceased in the pring of 1945 their "mediumbomber" would have proved itself to be the nearesttbing to a literally all-purpose aeroplane ever built.Flying and fighting Oil aJJ fronts to which Germanforces were committed during the Second World War,the Ju 88 was to appear as a day fighter, night fighter,dive bomber, level bomber, torpedo bomber, mine-layer, reconnaissance aircraft, communications air-craft, close-support aircraft and flying bomb; andwould fulfil many other specialised tasks, at homeand in the field, whenever an aircraft of flexibleperformance was required. It was to be the mostmodifiable aircraft tbe world had known, and wouldprove it elf the best by far of the rather indifferentselection of bombers which tbe Luftwaffe wouldopemteduring the War.

    The requirement for a fast medium bomber toequip the Luftwaffe's new KOlllpfgeschwader waannounced to representative of the German aircraftindustry by General-luftteugmetster rhard ileh atan R.L.M. meeting held in the spring of 1935. hrecdesigns were submitted in response by the firms ofMesserschmitt, ocke-Wulf and Junkers. Messer-schmitt' Bf 162 was eliminated when it was announcedon a policy level that the company hould in futureconcentrate solely upon fighter production. The

    ocke-Wulf Fw 57 project wa abandoned followingthe loss of the first prototype; serious inconsistenciesbetween the calculated and the actual weights hadcome to light. The Ju 88 thus won the competition bydefault of its rivals, but this implies no lack of positivemerit.

    The machine had been designed by W. H. Evers andthe American Al Gassner, who was working in uropeduring 1935-36. The period between the commence-ment of design work on January 15, J 936 and the mai-den flight on December 21 of he same year wasensationally short by exi ting standard. he firstprototype, the Ju 88 I, featured a J w-silhouettc

    streamlined canopy and was powered by DB 600engines rated at 900 h.p. It was destroyed after

    Left: The third prototype. JII88VJ. powered by 1111110 2J1A engines. Right: The JII88 V5 "publicity protot -pe",(Photos: cumann/Air Pictoric I)

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    only a part of the Right test programme had beencompleted. The Ju 88V2, which appeared in April1937, achieved a speed of 289 m.p.h. and a range ofover .1,200 miles.

    It was in the Ju 88V3 and V4 that the featurescharacteristic of later operational machines firstappeared. The V3 was powered by two twelve-cylinderliquid-cooled Junkers Jumo 211A engines, Rated at950 h.p. and 1,000 h.p. at ta ke-off and at 17,000 feetrespectively, the 211A had direct fuel injection (a

    field in which German industry led the world), twostage supercharging and the segmented radiators andcircular cowlings which gave the Ju 88 the appearanceof bei ng a fad ia l-engi ned ai rcra It.

    With the V4,crew accommodation was raised tofour and the characteristic nose of the Ju 88A seriesappeared for the flrst time. The tapered noses of theVI, V2 and V3 were replaced in this fourth prototypeby a blunt, fully glazed unit with many braces. Thisnose was not "blown" but built up of twenty optically-flat glass panels arranged in 3. bulged "beetle's eye".Another important innovation was the ventral gondolaoffset under the starboard forward fuselage, to accom-modate a prone gunner manning a rear-firing 7-9 rnrn.MG IS machine gun .. This addition had been fore-shadowed by the small cupola which was fitted underthe nose of the V3. The length of the V4 was, at 47 ft.I in., 1 n. 8 in. greater than the preceding machines;the loaded weight was increased to 22,040 lb.

    The Ju 88V5 was subjected to a rigorous "cleaning-up" programme, reverting to a tapered, unglazed noseunit. It was thought expedient that the Reich's newschnellbomber should be unveiled to the world in asuitably prestigious light, aod the fifth prototype,powered by Jumo 2IlBi engines. of 1,200 h.p., wasadapted ror record attempts. These efforts were hand-somely rewarded when the V5 set up a record averagespeed of 3215 rn ..p.h. over a dosed circuit of 1,000km .. (6213 miles) while carrying a 2,000 kg (4,409 lb.)load. This record was established by Heintz andSiebert in March J939; and in July or the same year

    Nose emblem 0/11 Junkers J" 88A-I of IIKG 30 "At/IeI'G eschwader", NOI~ centre-hinged" quarser-ltgtn",

    (Photo: Imperial War Museum)

    Prot/lie/ion prototype for the A serte s ,,os the J" 88 V6, DASC Y.(photo: G. Heumann/Air Pictorial')

    The elghthof {ell pre-production J" 88 Aa machlnes, Atrcraf) ofIlris batch wue used by Kamp/geschwotier 25 in th early weeks01w.w.u.

    the V 5 achieved an average speed of 311 m.p. h. over2,000 krn, (1,242'7 miles) with the same payload.

    PRODUCTION BEGINS

    Quantity production of the Ju 8SA was plannedlate in 1937 and plants began tooling up early in 19.38.These tools and jigs were mainly produced at Junkers'

    Schoenebeck plant; wings, fuselage, and tail units wereconstructed

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    retracted backward into the nacelles, the wheelturning through a 90 arc to lie flat on the arneplane a the wing.

    The initial batcb of ten pre-producti n Ju 88 -machine were completed for er i e trial by Erpro-bllllgskollllllalldo 88 in the spring of 1939. In accor-dance with the current German preference for aircraftwith dive-bombing capabilities, slatted dive-brakewere hinged under tbe front spar outboard of thnacelle. The produ tion Ju 88 -I of which omesi ty examples had been delivered by the lose of 1939,also carried these brakes and was strictly limitedin the scope of high-speed rnaneeuvres permitted; thefu elage was already highly stressed and the operationof the brakes during maximum PO\ er flight inv lveda di tinct danger of tructural failure.

    The A-I \ a powered by Jurno 211B-I andmounted a defensive armament of (initially) three79 mrn, machine guns; one in a fixed mounting 00the larboard side of the canopy front, one lightlyoff et to port in the rear of the canopy and one in theventral gondola. perienoe in (he Battle of Britain

    proved that this wa an inadequate d fensive batteryand some machines were fined with a second gunin the rear of the canopy. ormnl warload was3,968 lb.-5,510 lb., the bulk of which wa carried onfour external pylon . The pylon were installed, inpair, under ca h wing between the fu el ge and thena lie. he four crew members were po itioned cl etogether in the no e; the pilot in a raised seat to port,the bombardier/air gunner to the pilot'S right, andbelow him in the body of the fuselage; the engineer/air gunner occupied a prone position in the ventralgondola, facing to the rear. The \ ire] operator/airgunner at behind the pilot facing to the rear. Infour-gun aircraft tbe ventral gunner doubled as aecond upper rear gunner.

    DEVELOPMENT OF THE JU 88A SERIES

    urther development of the Ju 88 eries can betraced through the follov ing variant :

    ill 88A-2 Bomber. Engines: 2 X Jumo 2 1 L B-] ofJ ,200 h.p. each. Armament: 4 X 79 mm. MG J 5.Bomb Load: 3,968 lb. Spall: 59 f 1 . 10~ in. Length:47 ft J in. Loaded Weight: 25,353 lb. eillng: 22,300fl. Max. 'Peed: 286 m.p.h. Range: 1,55 miles.

    Thi ariant wa imilar to the -I but carrieda i ted take-off equipment.

    ill 88A-3 Trainer. Engines: 2 X Jumo 211 B-1 of1,200 h.p. each. Armament: 4 X 79 mm. MG 15.Bomb Load: one. pail: 59 ft. 101 in. Length : 47 ft.I in. Loaded Weight: 22,200 lb. eiling : 22,300 ft.Max. peed: 286 m.p.h. Range: 1,553 mile.

    he -3 was a COLlVerion training variant of theA-I with dual controls and duplicated instrumenta-tion.

    JII 8 A-4 Bomber. Englnes: 2.e panels,

    LliflOi"o1fe glltmus in positto 01 early-styl double rear gllllmounting, Til later models armour-glass "lenses" Wl'r"fitted 011either side 01IIII' ror:kpil rear. (Photos: R. Ward ollection)

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    III 88A-4/R assupplted to , I "~r"lIIish Air Force.

    essential. The wing span was increased by six feet,the undercarriage strengthened and considerablearmour protection installed around the crew positions.The exact armament pattern varied, but usuallyconsisted of one MG 131 and one MG 81 firingforward, one single or twin MG 81 firing aft from theventral gondota, and two MG 81 or one MG 13 Ifiring aft from the rear of the canopy. All gun mount-ings were armoured. The bomb loadcould be raisedby A.T.O .. measures to 6,614 lb., the underwingcarriers accommodat.ing various combinations ofS S O lb., 1,100 lb. and 2,200 lb. bombs. Tbe A4{Tropwas a tropicalised variant with suitable additions tothe internal equipment but no. structural changes.

    JII 88 A-4/ R Bomber. Engilles: 2 x J umo 2 r lJ of1,410 h.p, each. Armament: 5x7'9 mm. G 81.Bomb Load: 6,.614 lb. Span: 65 ft. lOt in. Length:47 ft . It ill. Loaded Weight: 31;000 lb. Ceiling:27,880 ft . Max. Speed: 273 rn.p.h. Range.: 1,553 miles.

    Twenty examples of the A4/R variant were suppliedto the innish Air coree for operations against Sovietforces.

    Ju 88A-5Bomber.

    Engines:2 x Jumo

    211BI(or

    211D) of 1,200 h.p, each. Armament: 2 x 13 mm .. MG131; 3x7'9 mm. MG J5. Bomb Load: 4.410 lb.Span: 65 ft . 1O ~ in. Length: 47 ft. It in. Loaded Weigh,:27,557 lb. Ceiling: 27,880 ft. Max. Speed: 280 m.p.h.Rallge: 1,398 miles.

    Illogically, the A-5 variant preceded the A4 intoproduction by a few months late in 1940. It wasbasica.lly an A-I with the increased span a.nd bomb loadcapacity, but lacked many of the other refinementswhich were built into the A4. Balloon cable cutterscould be fitted to the wing leading edges.

    J/I 88A-6 Balloon destroyer. Engines: 2 x Jumo211G of 1,200 h.p.each. Armament: 4x79 mm. MG15..Bomb Load: one. Spall: 65 fr. 10~ in. Lengtt:47 ft It in. Loaded Weigh,: app .. 27.,900 lb. Ceilillg.:

    Left: l-uftwaiTe aircrew await Ihe order 10 "mount" IMlr lu 88A-4. Right: This coptured III 88A..(j U reconnaissance aircraft displayssearch radar antennae all lite wing IMuillg ed8e. The ventral gondola has been o}milled and long-rang file! tanks are fillet/lInder th

    willg roots.

    Undercarriage (lamage sustatned by a Ju88A an a Mediterraneanairfield. Note access ladder.

    ill 88A-4's of S/KG 3 . Blir: Geschwader' ill 11,/11formation:{Iris Willg operated all ,he Russian From I}"oughow ,hecompaillll. ~

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    Emblem ofII/KG 3.

    J UN KERS Ju 88A .... of Staff night, II/KG 3"Bliu: Ge.chwader". North Runi"n Front,

    Summer 1941.

    @ JAMtS GOULDING

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    III /KG30, Adler Ge."hw.

    KGSI, Edelweis G... c:hw.

    LGI.

    I St (Fl{121.

    AII/KGS4

    KGS4 Totenkopf Geschw.

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    a Ju 88A-4 of 5/KG I "Htndenburg": The gondota, carrying twin MG 81 machine-funs. is hanging open,(Photo: I rn pcria I War Museu rn)

    23,620 ft. dax, Speed: 261 m.p.h. Range: 1,553 mile.Ba icaUy irnilar t the -5, the -6 carried a bal-

    loon cable fender/cutter frarnev ork. This equipment,which extended as an angular frame from wing-lipto wing-Up along the leading edge and round thenose, wa very unwieldy and made necessary theaddition of a 130 lb. trimming weight in the laileel ion. The -6 av only limited service. ( or a

    ph tcgraph of the fender gear as in talled on the -6,see Profile 15 (The Heinkel He 11 J H.)

    JIt 88A-6/ U Long-range reconnaissance aircraft.Engines, z x lumo 211 H of 1,200 h.p. each. Armament:3x79 m m . MG 81. Bomb Load: one. pan: 65 It

    JO t in. Length, 47 It. It in. Loaded Wt!iglTt: 24 250 IbCeiling: 23,620 ft. Max. peed: 295 m.p.h, Range:1,864 miles.

    The -6/ carried a three-man crew only. Theventral gondola was omitted and earch radar equip-ment carried.

    JII 8 A-7 Trainer. Engine : 2)( Jurno 211B-1 of1,200 h.p. each. Armament : 3/4x79 mrn. M 15.Bomb Load: one. pall: 65 ft . 101 in. Length, 47 ft.I! in. Loaded Weight: Unknown. eiling : 23,620 ft.Max. Speed: 295 m.p.h. Range: 1,550 miles.

    dual control training variant modified from earlypr du tion -4 airframe.

    Ju 8 -8 Balloon de Iroyer. This ver ion differedfrom the -6 in being constructed around an A-4

    airframe.JII 88A-9 Bomber. An alternative designation for

    tropicali ed A-I airframes.11188A-IO Bomber. An alternative designation for

    tropicali ed -5 airframe.ill A-II B rnber. n alternativ de ignati n for

    tropicali ed -4 airframe .JII A-12 rainer, Engines: 2xJumo 211G of

    1,200 h. p. each. Armament: one. Bomb Load: one.Spall: 65 ft. lOt in. Lengtl: 47 ft. 11 in. 1ax. Speed:298 rn.p.h. eiling : 23,620 ft.

    dual ontrol trainer ariant of the -4 \ ithventral gondola removed and increased c ckpitwidth.

    Ju88A-/ J Close support aircraft. Engines: 2 X Jurno211H of 1,200 h.p, each. Armament: 1.0/16x79 mm.

    G 17; 4 79 mm. l , Bomb Load; 1,100 I .Span: 65 ft. to! in. Length : 47 tt. It in. LoadedWeight: _ ,6 0 lb. eiling : 2 ,620 It. Max, Speed:261 rn.p.h. Range: nknown.

    The A-13 was a heavily armoured ground attackvariant. Bomb load usually consisted of a Schuett-kaesten container of 72 small anti-personnel bombsunder each wing. Many examples of thi variant were

    TIt~ JII B8A-f3 carried a battery of up /0 16 fG /7 /IIacltlne-guns far dose support missions. Coma/tiers 0/72 anti-personnel bombs.. .ere carried under the whIgs. (Photo: Imperial War Museum)

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    Snow-camosftaged hi 88A dnring a pre-j1iglr, ..... arm-up" illRussia. (Photo: R_v ard ollecrion)

    fitted with automatic pull-out devices as the type wasnot equipped with dive brakes.

    JII 88A-J4 Maritime attack bomber. Engines:2xJumo 2111 of 1,410 h.p. each. Armament: 2x79mm. MG 15- 2x 13 mm. M 131. Bomb Load: 5,510lb. Spall: 65 ft. J O t in. Length: 47 ft. 1 1 -in. LoadedWeight: 26,700 lb. .eiling : 23620 ft. Max. Speed:273 m.p.h. Range: 1,550 mile .

    The anti-shipping variant of the basic -4 concep-tion, the A-14 was fitted with electric balloon-cablecutters in the leading edge .

    Ju 88A-IS Bomber. Eugines : 2xJumo 211G of1,200 b.p. each. Armament: 2>-.79 mm. MG IS;2x 13 mm. MG 131. Bomb Load: 6,614 lb. 'Pan:

    65 ft. lOt in. Length : 47 ft. It in. Loaded Weight;28,247 lb. eiling : 23 620 ft. Max. Speed: 280 m.p.h.Range: 1,550 miles.

    A ill 88A of 7/KG )0 during. ,110/ IIl1il'S service in the Balkans.

    The -IS variant was ba ically an A-4 airframewith a large bulged bomb bay. The 6,614 lb. bomb loadwas carried internally.

    JlI 88A-J6 Trainer. There was no essential differ-ence between the -12 and this improved ver ion.

    )11 B8A-17 Torpedo bomber. Engines: 2 x Jumo2[IJ of 1,410 h.p. each. Armament: 3/5 x 79 mm. G

    J. Bomb Load: Max. 6,614 lb. sually, 2 x 2,200 lb.torpedoes. Spall: 65 n. 101 in. Lengti: 47ft. 1tin.Loaded Weight: 25 350 lb. Ceiling .' 28,215 ft. Max.

    peed: 295 rn.p.h. Range: 1 860 miles. .A torpedo carrying-conversion of the A-4 airframe.The two outboard bomb pylons were discarded' thetwo inboard pylon replaced by torpedo shackles, anda small instrument pod [aired to the lower starboardside of tbe no e giving acces to tbe torpedo steeringgyro for in-flight adju tment,

    THE JU 8aA IN SERVICE

    Pre-production Ju 8 -Os and the initial batch ofA-Is served briefly with J/KG 25 in the summer of1939. The unit had been formed by imply re-namingErprobungskommando 88 in Augu t of that year. In

    epternber I/KG 25 be arne the first Gruppe of KG 30"Adler Geschwader", the or t and most famous ofall operational Ju 88 units. KG 30 wa occupied in tbeearly months of the war on anti-shipping strikes in the

    orth ea and round the ea t coast of Scotland, andparticipated in the major raid in March 1940 OD thenaval base of capa low. The unit was active duringthe inva ion of orway and operated from Denmarkduring (he Battle of Britain. Other Ju 88-equipped

    units involved in that epic campaign included KG 51,KG 54 KG 76, KGr 806 and L I. In the recon-naissance role the Ju 88erved with AII!klfirungs-gruppell (F) 120, 121 and 123 on the esta bl i hment ofLuftflotte III.

    It would be impo ible in a work of thi size togive a complete breakdown of the Ju 88 unparalleledwar ervioe but a brief summary of the main unitwhich operated thi aircraft follow. The symbols inbrackets refer to unit codes; see paragraph 00 Luft-waffe Units and Marking below.

    KG 1 "Hindenburg" (V4): The He 11IHs oCIll/KG1 were replaced by Ju 88A-5s in the late summer of1940. omplete re-equipment orr G 1, II/KG 1 andthe Ge chwader Staff with the Ju 88 was not achieved

    (Photo: R. \ ard Collection)

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    Non-standard /1 1 88A-4, wlth 20 mill. cannon mounted ill thenose "gloss-house' ' .

    until October 1942. TIle unit was disbanded during

    the summer of 19448 frer opera rions in Russia, Italyand the Middle East.

    KG 2 "Holzhammer" (U5); This unit operated asingle Stoffel of Ju 88s on the Western ront for ashort period.

    KG 3 "Blitz" (5K): By June 1941 the GeschwoderStaff, T/KG 3 and II/KG3 bad received the III 8SA5.The third Gruppe received the aircraft during opera-tions in Russia, where the Geschwader operatedthroughout tbe war.

    KG 4 "Generat Wever" (51),: The Geschweder Staff

    and Ill/KG 4 were equipped with the Ju 88 in thesummer of 1940, but relinquished the aircraft forreplacement by the He lJ IH before June 1941. It isunlikely that the unit ever used the Ju 88A Oil activeservice.

    KG 6 (3E) : Equipped w i tb the J u 88 for operations

    I

    Trial mOlllllillK of all JdG FF COIIIIOII'ill Ihe forward pari of nJ 88A-4 gondola, (Photo: G. Heumann/Air Pictorial)

    in the West upon its formation in May 1942. Sawlimited service on all fronts, and relinquished the Ju 88early in 1944.

    KG 26 "Lowen Geschwader" (iH): III/KG 26operated the Ju 88 briefly in July 1942. The A14

    variant was issued to the Geschwader in April/May1944 for anti-shipping operations. The unit operatedin orway, the Baltic, and the Mediterranean theatre.

    KG 30" Adler Gesehwader" (4D): As stated above,this unit was the first true Kalllpfgeschwader to receivethe Ju 88A in [939, and went on (0 operate the AO,A}, A-4, A5 andJater types in Scandinavia, theBalkans, Russia and Southern uropethroughout thewhole duration of the European war. In the finalstages of the hcstilitics KG 30 was equipped with afew examples of Miste! flying bombs, consisting of

    converted Ill. 88A-4s containing a 7,726 lb. hollowcharge warhead guided and controlled by a singleengined fighter mounted OJ] a framework above it.

    KG 40 (FB): Upon its formation in July 1940 theStaff element of this Geschwader was issued with theJu 8BA1. II/KG 40 exchanged its He 177M for Ju88s in September 1943 for operations .in Italy.

    KG 51 "Edehveis' (9K): The second Gesclnvader (0receive the Ju 88(A5), KG 5 1 participated in theBartle of Britain and in the first two years' operationson the Russian Front. The Ju 88 was withdrawn from

    this unit over a period of months beginning in April1943.KG 54 "Totenkopf" (B3) : Fully equipped with the

    Ju 88 by August 1940, the three Crllppell of the"Dearh's Head Wiog" took part in the Battle ofBritain. Operations in Russia in late 1941wer,e

    Leillge,dm'odt'f ! operQled I he JlI 8t)A4/Trop during the Western Desert campaigns. This crash-landed machine served wuh Ihe1 st Staffel 0/ LG 1. (Photo : Imperial Waf Museum)

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    Ju 118A REAR ARMAMENT

    1. Armour-glass gunmountings LLK 81 VE..

    2 &3. Leltandrighl7-9mm_MG81 J.. m chine guns.

    4 & S. Lah and rightstrap fear mount-ings.

    6_ Flexiblo metal-linkammunition bells.

    7 & O. Arnmunhron belts lo ra g e l oc ke rs .

    9 & 1O. Left and rightspent c.nridge.case chutes.

    " & 12. Sleeveand boxfo r collection 01spent cartridge-cues.

    A JII B8A taxies Qui 10take off ...ilh (lit externalbomb toad. (PhOlO: R.

    Ward Collection)

    Russian N(HY personae! examine a JIl 88A-4 of KG 30 brouglndown by 110\'01 gunfire all the shores of lire Barents Sea.

    (Photo: Imperial War Museum)

    followed by service in the Mediterranean in thespring of 1942 and a lim.ited participation in the night

    attack on the nited K ingdom during January 1944.KG 60 (PI) __ little-known unit which despite itsGeschwader de ignation probably had an effectivetrength of only one ruppe. Thought to have operated

    the Ju 88 in Scandinavia and the Mediterraneanbetween October 1942 and the early spring of 1943.

    KG 76 (Fl): lew the Ju 88 as part of Luftflot: IIin the Battle of Britain. Saw ervice in Russia and

    icily returning to ranee a part of the Lllftwaffebuild-up shortly after DDay.

    KG 77 (3Z): quipped with the Ju AS inovember/Decernber 1940. Operated for a year io

    Ru sia until May/June 1942 when the unit was trans.ferred to Sicily. Disbanded in Italy after the isdefeat of mid-I 943.

    Lehrge chwader J ( 1): 0110\ ing the re-organisa-tion of this training Geschwader in the first winter ofthe war, LG I operated three Grnppen of Ju 88 s.The unit saw service on all rna] r fronts and remainedall effective unit until 1945. It is best kUOWD for its

    II

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    COllver/I'd JII 88A-4's carried a 7.716-lb. hollow charge warhead as th lower component of (III' Gerat Beethoven] 1is/e/2 omposlteweapon, The machine, iIlIlSIrOll!,IIII!re ..... as guided onto target ltv (Ire B{ l09F monnted all the framework above lire centre-section.

    ote the prOlruding deloll%rs ill tire nose-probe.

    operations in the. rth friea.n campaign with thelu 8 -4 rop.

    ( he oa tal trike units Ku. I. r.106 and Ku. I.r.S06 were re-de ignated KGr 106 and K r S06 in

    the pring of 1941. oded M2 and S4 respectively,these units operated Ju 88A-4s Bod A-Ss on mine-laying operations until the follov ing urnrner whenthey were disbanded. K r 28, previou Iy K r 126,

    perated -17s on t rpedo strikes.KCr 06 (M7),' Took part in the Battle of Britain

    with the Ju 88 -I, and later saw service in Russiaand the Middle a t with the Ju 88A-4.

    LUFTWAFFE UNITS AND MARKINGSThe basic Luftwaffe tactical unit wa the Geschwader.The b mber Geschwader {Kampfgeschwader or K )consisted of three, foul', or five Gruppen, each of whichwas in turn made up or three Stoffel". These sub-unit were numbered independently; thus I/KG 76 (thefir t Gruppe of KOlllpfgeschwoder 76 con i ted of 11K76 (Ih fir t taffel f Kampfee cit wader 76), 2/K 76and 3/KG 76. Similarly, 7/K 76, IK 76 and 9fK76 made up the strength of III/KG 76.

    The operational strengths of these formationsvaried greatly but all average Stoffel mustered betweenten and 16 aircraft thus giving a Geschwader anestabli hment of some liD-ISO machines.

    Kampfgeschwader, Sluka Geschwader, achtjagdge-schwader, Zerstorergeschwader, Transportgeschwader,

    Aufkliirllllg gruppell (Re nnai sance quadr ns) andmiscellaneous units u ed a four-symbol code on thefuselage ide of aircraft for identification purposes. Anumerical/letter code appeared on theleft-hand side ofthe national marking, identifying the Geschwader .. e.g.,40- K 30. From 1943 onwards this combinati neither appear d in very small chara ters or waomitted altogether. ometimes it wa reproduced insmall characters on the vertical tail surfaces ofbombers, and often temporary camouflage finishewere applied in such a way a [0 obscure it.

    S~"ff Aircraft IdentificationTnese [etters look tho ploco ollhe fourth, or Staffe[. symbol.

    Geschwadar Siall Al Gruppe BII Gr. -c

    III Gr. 0[VGr. -EVG r. F

    On- the right of the nari nal marking two lettersappeared. The first, painted r outlined in the taffelcolour, or in green on staff aircraft, identified theindividual aircraft. The second letter identified theStaffel within the Geschwader. Towards the end ofthe war, it increasingly became the practice for theindividual marking only to be applied to the fuselage;and this wa frcn repeated under the \ ingtip .

    STAFFEL InENTlFICATION

    St.. ffel Colour I Gruppe [I Gruppe 1[[ Gruppe [VGr,upp V Gruppo

    White 1st Stft.-H 41h Stn.-M 7lhStfl.=R 101hStll. U 13thStft.-XRed 2ndStfl.-K 5thStll.~N BlhSttl. S l1!hSlfl.-V 14th Stfl.-YYellow 3rd sei.-, 6thStfi. P 9thStl1.-T 12thStll.=W 15th Srll.-Z

    Thus. machine B 3 X (Whito P) M was rnaehlne "P" of 4{KG 54.