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  • PUBLISHER

    Faculty of Education and Humanities, International Burch University

    Address: Francuske revolucije bb, 71210 Ilidža, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Phone : +387(0) 33 944 400

    Fax : +387(0) 33 944 500

    EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

    Vildana Dubravac, PhD, International Burch University, BIH

    EDITORIAL BOARD

    Senad Bećirović, PhD, International Burch University, BIH

    Amna Brdarević-Čeljo, PhD, International Burch University, BIH

    İbrahim Murat Öner, PhD, International Burch University, BIH

    Irena Zavrl, PhD, University of Applied Sciences, Burgenland, Austria

    Ruta Eidukevičlene, PhD, Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania

    Teodora Popescu, PhD, University “1 Decembrie 1918”Alba Iulia, Romania

    Mirna Begagić, PhD, University of Zenica, BIH

    EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS

    Ana Tankosić, MA

    Eldin Milak, MA

    E-MAIL

    [email protected]

    © International Burch University, 2018

  • JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND HUMANITIES Faculty of Education and Humanities, International Burch University

    Volume 1, Issue 1, Summer 2018

  • CONTENTS

    3 Shakespeare – The Concept of ‘Najasa’ (the Bawd) Shahab Yar Khan

    12 Classroom as a Microcosm: Teaching Culturally Diverse Students Senad Bećirović & Damir Bešlija

    21 Jane Eyre as a Byronic Hero(ine) Adisa Ahmetspahić & Rumejsa Ribo

    30 The Impact of English on Bosnian: Anglicisms in Bosnian Press Berina Šijerkić & Eldin Milak

    43 Modern Technology in a Language Classroom: An Exploratory Study Senaid Fejzić & Aida Tarabar

  • Journal of Education and Humanities Volume 1 (1), pp. 3-11, Summer 2018. ISSN 2566-4638 © International Burch University http://dx.doi.org/10.14706/jeh2018111

    Shakespeare – The Concept of ‘Najasa’ (The Bawd)

    Shahab Yar Khan, PhD

    University of Sarajevo

    Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    [email protected]

    Abstract: Shakespeare’s universality places him beyond all ages. He is the only author, not born in our age but whose works guarantee

    on regular basis financial prospects. Shakespeare's success story as

    a writer is unprecedented in human history. Apart from the prophets

    of the Holy Scriptures and the philosophers of antiquity, no one else

    but Shakespeare can claim an impact on human mind and heart of a

    mega scale that goes beyond any age, any religion, any language

    and any geography. Uncertainty of the political systems, ruthless

    growth of violence, sexual anxiety, dismemberment of filial bond and

    the essential spirit of improvisation in times chaotic, the very

    hallmark of our culture as well as of his drama, force us to see him

    in a post-colonial contemporary context to find a direction, a resolve

    and an asylum from the ‘neo-colonial’ disaster of the 21st century.

    Shakespeare’s treatment of the word imagery, giving word a graphic

    texture, does not allow his modern audience to approach his works

    dealing with the concept of ‘conflict’ in the Greek classical sense of

    the word. Conflict is not the soul of Shakespearean tragedy.

    Shakespearean tragedy transforms it into the ‘illumnationist’

    principle of ‘diversity’. Shakespeare’s art is the ‘quintessence’ of

    mankind. Whenever justice is violated, his drama speaks for those

    who stand bewildered, lost and wronged. KingLear, arguably, is the

    greatest specimen of poetic art on earth. The play is gradual defining

    of a new sensibility where life is regarded as culmination of a

    process of transformation. A play where, ‘Najasa’ (a term to

    describe the fallen women; from Arabic Najas: the impure,

    unwholesome, filthy) the faithless-faceless-shameless ‘whore, the

    bawd’, introduces in the name of progressive disciplines its filth and

    corruption as normal walk of life. These fashionable the ‘gilded

    butterflies’, the worldly wise ‘court rogues’, if remain the role

    models, human civilizations stand no chance to grow intellectually

    and spiritually. These people represent a mindset, the mind of the

    outdated patriarchal system of cheap compromises, disloyalty, lack

    of dignity, competition for power play and possession of wealth.

    Shakespeare suggests a solution; matriarchal system.

    Keywords: Shakespeare’s universality, word imagery’s graphic texture, drama of diversity and resolve, King Lear, patriarchal system, Najasa the faithless-faceless-shameless, ‘we can do it better, death of human civilization.

    Article History Submitted: February 16, 2018 Accepted: April 28, 2018

    http://dx.doi.org/10.14706/jeh2018111

  • Journal of Education and Humanities Volume 1, Issue 1, Summer 2018

    4

    At the threshold of history, every culture of man has heard him knocking. So often he has been granted not only the entry to these cultures but their complete citizenship, it is sometimes difficult to claim that Shakespeare was an English writer. It is a modest thing to say that ‘he is of all ages’, he is beyond all ages. He goes beyond all that can be determined by any age, any religion, any language or any geography. In terms of appreciation, for example, Shakespeare had philosophically more responsive audience in Germany than in 18th century England. When he was about to be banned by the mid-17th century Puritans, Indians were about to incorporate his work within the galaxy of their infinite world of literature. He remained the national poet of the USA until the birth of its own literary tradition. By the end of the 19th century almost all the communist revolutionary movements were promoting his heroes as king slayers. And in the 20th century every single artistic movement includes talks about particular features of his art that brings it closer to the standard features of a particular movement. He is the only author, not born in our age, whose works guarantee on regular basis financial prospects for actors, directors, producers and even the owners of the publishing houses. Shakespeare’s success story as a writer is unprecedented in human history. Apart from the prophets of the Holy Scriptures and the philosophers of antiquity, no one else but Shakespeare can claim an impact on human mind and heart of a mega scale that goes beyond any age, any religion, any language and any geography. Shakespeare, therefore, does not only matter to us, he belongs to us. Uncertainty of the political systems, ruthless growth of violence, sexual anxiety, dismemberment of filial bond and the essential spirit of improvisation in times chaotic, the very hallmark of our culture as well as of his drama, force us to see him in a post-colonial contemporary context to find a direction, a resolve and an asylum from the ‘neo-colonial’ disaster of the 21st century. The radical capacity of his works, specially the works like King Lear, allows Shakespeare to breathe the air that we inhale wherever we are and whenever we are. All the world’s a stage of William Shakespeare who has played over the centuries on it many parts and has had his many exits and entrances. Shakespeare, even in 21st century, all alone can be counted on to bring an audience to the theater. Theaters, throughout the world, sometimes devote all their seasons to his works. He is an author who has seen an eclipse. ‘By early 17th century Shakespeare had been eulogized in sonnets, alluded to in poetry,

    praised in prose, referred to in plays, and anthologized in books of quotations. A totaling of the figures cited in the Shakespeare Allusion Book (Oxford, 1932) indicates that there were 481 allusions to Shakespeare before 1649 and another 664 to 1700- and these 1145 concern the plays and poems only, there were many other references to the man only…. For instance, by 1600 there were already almost three dozen references to the ‘honey tongued’ Shakespeare by his contemporaries. Another quality was pointed out by the historian William Camden, who in 1605 listed Shakespeare among the ‘most pregnant wits of these our times, whom succeeding ages may justly admire’. William Cartwright in 1647, gave ‘nature’ as the source of Shakespeare’s genius and from Milton’s line

  • Shakespeare – The Concept of ‘Najasa’ (The Bawd) Shahab Yar Khan

    5

    ‘sweetest Shakespeare, Fancy’s child’ began a series of comments on Shakespeare’s ‘fancy’. And with Ben Jonson’s refusal to give ‘Nature’ all the credit- ‘Thy art my gentle Shakespeare, must enjoy a part’- begin innumerable references to Shakespeare’s art. Shakespeare has been credited with great and small knowledge of well over a hundred subjects and his vocabulary has been given as an evidence of his remarkable mind. ‘Most warrantable English’, was a tribute from Edmund Bolton in 1610. In 1697, Dryden noted the ‘purity of his language combined with the fury of his fancy which often transported him, beyond the bounds of judgment, either coining new words and phrases, or racking words...... In 1861 Max Muller compared his words with 300, the total used by ‘ignorant labourers; about 4000 by educated Englishmen; and about 10000 by eloquent speakers.’ Even Milton used no more than 8000 words in his poetry, and The Old Testament needed only 5642 words to tell its story. Other researchers found that Shakespeare used up to 25000 words; in 1943 Alfred Hart after a careful count arrived at a grand total of 17677. And what is more remarkable Shakespeare was able to use over 7200 of them only once and never again.

    (Marder Louis, The story of Shakespeare's Reputation, John murray Ltd. 1963).

    He ‘fathered’ the language that ‘childed’ us. The words used by Shakespeare have their own psychological as well as physiological domain. His treatment of the word imagery, giving word a graphic texture, does not allow his modern audience to approach his works dealing with the concept of ‘conflict’ in the Greek classical sense of the word. Conflict is not the soul of Shakespearean tragedy. Shakespearean tragedy transforms it into the ‘illumnationist’ principle of ‘diversity’. Shakespeare deals in the art of diversity, he is thus of all the nations and beyond them, of all the ages and beyond them. Shakespeare’s art is the ‘quintessence’ of mankind. Whenever justice is violated and whenever truths turn false, his drama speaks for those who stand bewildered, lost and wronged. His drama defines the meaning of emotional, social and religious mischief and offers help to the victims of these conspiracies to ‘beguile the time’. The philosophical purposefulness of Shakespearean drama as social movement encourages us to liberate ourselves from the ‘story’, the soap opera. ‘Story telling’ is not the purpose of great literature, anyway. Story is a tool, a medium through which a great author recommends the art of exploring life as a set of possibilities. Exploring the nature of these possibilities, I have written in ‘O Šekspirovim Tragedijama’ (Dobra Knjiga, 2013) that, ‘Shakespearean drama is not about monarchs but the kings. Shakespeare believes that king is the name of a character, the spiritual state and the intellectual capacity of an ultra-human being. It does not come from the lineage it comes through the process of suffering. Suffering is the key word to understand three fundamental concepts of all Shakespearean drama. First of all love for one’s beloved and one’s own self cannot qualify in substance without ‘suffering’. Secondly, responsibility towards those one loves and towards one’s own self cannot evolve without suffering into its ultimate substance, ‘the leader’. And finally, alignment with the Will of all the wills that makes man a shadow of the King of all the kings remains unaligned substance without suffering. Fortinbras (Hamlet) the bearer of all the three features is an Edgar (King Lear) in making; and Edgar is a Polexenes (The

  • Journal of Education and Humanities Volume 1, Issue 1, Summer 2018

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    Winter’s Tale) yet to ‘happen’. All these images finally culminate into Prospero (The Tempest). All these are images of what we may call the ‘monk king’ or a ‘Dervish’ in office. When the king lives the ideal what Socrates preached and the prophets reflected upon, then only truth resurfaces, the truth of ‘the dignity of poverty’. Poverty is dignified only when it is adopted by the role model; it remains a curse if it is inflicted as social injustice. Shakespearean drama teaches us how to succeed in times when evil of injustice is inflicted. It shows us the way to defeat the evil, attain power and then live the life of the monk-king, of a Dervish. Shakespearean drama encourages us to get rid of the only sin that has destroyed the worlds’ civilizations throughout, the sin of self-glorification. I hope that Shakespeare’s influence increases in its real sense beyond RSCs and ‘New York National Theatres’; beyond Hollywood and universities academics. I pray that Shakespearean drama speaks to people in this hour of desperation in its own voice and helps us to regain what we lost long ago, dignity and humanity (amen).’ In this regard King Lear is a good case study. King Lear perhaps the greatest example of poetic art on earth, beyond all the scales of time and bounds of geography, a living organism, breaths its evolution with every step taken forward or backward by the mankind. Carefully designed linguistic decorum, purposefully makes this play like many other of his works, a gradual defining of a new sensibility where life is regarded as culmination of a process of transformation. In the following speech Lear, transformed from a king to a shelter less beggar, addresses poor naked wretches wherever they are. He transcends the bounds of time and space. This speech will qualify as a contemporary work of art as long as there are poor and naked wretches, the living examples of ancient unjust systems of distribution of wealth, in our ‘modern-humanitarian’ societies. As long as there are those twenty percent who exploit eighty percent resources of this world to keep hunger and poverty alive, Lear's words will remain a relevant criticism of all our new ‘world orders’:

    Poor naked wretches, whereso'er you are, That bide the pelting of this pitiless storm, How shall your houseless heads and unfed sides, Your loop'd and window'd raggedness, defend you From seasons such as these? O, I have ta'en Too little care of this! Take physic, pomp; Expose thyself to feel what wretches feel, That thou mayst shake the superflux to them, And show the heavens more just. (III.4.28-35)

    This speech determines the psychological complexion of the later part of the play. The play rises above the family feuds, feudal rivalries and wars of egos of the earlier Acts. Right before this speech, King Lear was a simpler play to perform and easier to comprehend. It dealt with the theme of the honest suffering at the hands of the Machiavellian. It was a renaissance play about the power politics, a

  • Shakespeare – The Concept of ‘Najasa’ (The Bawd) Shahab Yar Khan

    7

    brutal human invention where out of two combatants one ought to stand as victimizer or else falling itself as a victim. In this game of power there are no martyrs but only victims and survivors. It was a traditional play about collapse of the values that nurture integrity and honour. It was a social tragedy where death of human character lead to death of human society. A play where, to use one of Shakespeare's favorite expressions for ‘Najasa’ (a term to describe the fallen women; from Arabic Najas: the impure, unwholesome, rotten) the faithless-faceless-shameless, ‘the whore, the bawd’, introduces in the name of progressive disciplines its filth and corruption as normal walk of life. And thus leaves the noble, the enlightened, the honorable stand in awe, reluctant to participate in the filth of the ‘normal’ of Najasa, yet envious of the whore's success and sorrowful of its own destruction. In King Lear, Shakespeare connects all these strains of emotional, moral, social, institutional chaos with one fundamental thread – the Political instability. Collapse of our political set ups worldwide offers us many examples today that would easily fit within the mold of political chaos of Albion of King Lear. Bosnia Herzegovina, however, matches perfectly the DNA as true descendant of it. Bosnian political organization is an exact copy of what we witness in political disorganization of King Lear: 1. A country disputed over by three ‘inheritors’ of the land; 2. A country with two political entities within to mark a state within state; 3. A country where traditional set of human values crumbles in front of growing social injustice and emotional disbalance.

    Bosnia and Herzegovina before the Dayton Agreement

    (https://www.rferl.org/a/lasting-ethnic-divisions-in-bosnia/27363192.html)

    Since the Dayton Agreement in 1995, Bosnia Herzegovina is literally, not just ethnically but officially stands vaguely divided. Many maps form the war period show clear markings. Red is assigned to the Serbian, green to the Muslim and blue to the Croatian controlled territory. Most of the green falls in the middle of the maps, as if the connecting link between the other two parts of the country.

  • Journal of Education and Humanities Volume 1, Issue 1, Summer 2018

    8

    Lear’s map of Albion if seen upside down, is almost a mirror image of B&H

    (http://internetshakespeare.uvic.ca/Library/SLT/reference/maps/tripartite.html)

    King Lear’s map is similar. Parts of France and area all around Dover was Cornwall’s dukedom. At the other end of the map appeared the boundaries of Albany (Scotland) and Cordelia’s kingdom was supposed to be in the middle. The connecting link between the other two kingdoms, her name is derived from the French root ‘cord’, the connecting string. Around her there are the forces of establishment who do not want her to succeed. The two sisters represent the element of Najasa, the whore against whom entire Shakespearean drama is not just the most vocal protest ever recorded in history but the also a means to learn the method to survive against her evil and ultimately to defeat her. In Shakespearean English the words ‘whore’ and ‘hour’ had identical pronunciation and thus it gave poets opportunity to play pun on the word. ‘From hour to hour we ripe and ripe and from hour to hour we rot and rot’, is a popular line from As You Like it. It becomes even more valuable if pronounced, ‘from whore to whore we ripe and ripe and from whore to whore we rot and rot’. It then becomes an intended joke on the royalty where a ‘whore’ causes people to rot. In the light of Shakespearean use of the word, I have come up with the definition of the term ‘whore’. Whore is a person who is faithless-faceless-shameless. Since this person loses all the faith in goodness within human character and starts living in a moral vacuum, its own nature evolves to secure its own narrow interests only at the cost of the life of emotional and social balance. Since, love, honor, dignity and grace all are dispatched to pieces, its shamelessness can make it do anything against literally any one, any time. This whore exists all around us. It can be of any age, gender and social stature. The range of the whore covers all walks of life from religious scholars to hardcore criminals, from politicians to beggars, from literate to illiterate, drug addicts and traffickers, ordinary men, women, girls and boys, a whore can be anywhere and in any garb. We must be watchful of the whore and the moment we see the faithless-faceless-shameless, it is our social-moral obligation to distance ourselves from it, isolate it and declare it as an enemy of human civilization. This

  • Shakespeare – The Concept of ‘Najasa’ (The Bawd) Shahab Yar Khan

    9

    compound phrase, faithless-faceless-shameless, is the mirror to see our own face as well, we can now easily evaluate our own truth and at least to our own self we may confirm if we are among the whore or not. In Shakespearean drama there are role-model women who appear as the future forecast of a matriarchal system but at the same time those stereotypes of women who do not abide by their belonging, fall for cheap compromises, stop playing their role in society as its spiritual and intellectual mentor, and lead themselves to physical and spiritual corruption, appear side by side in equally large number as a warning to mankind. These are those characterless Najasas against whose manner of life Cordelias and Rosalinds must protest and offer their alternative model of life as hope of rescue for humanity. Beside these Najasas, it is the ruling elite in Shakespearean drama that is portrayed as ‘whore’. Shakespearean drama forces us to think (wherever we are), how to define our 21st century political elite. Shakespeare’s political message is based on emotional commitments, broadmindedness and most of all, economic justice. ‘Take physic pomp’ advised Lear to the rulers, urging them all to ‘give thy superflux’. I often think, would it be a big ask, too unnatural a desire, if the ruling elite of the poor nations include in the constitutions one minor condition that the representatives of the people will grow in their assets as much as the people, they represent, grow. So to say if the annual growth of a nation’s GDP is 3 percent, so shall be the growth allowed in the personal assets of the parliamentarians. They all shall vote to include an oath that if the nation does not grow economically, they will not grow either. Only then accountability is a possibility in democratic process. Shakespearean drama urges us to see that accountability should be an institution within the constitutional frame works and within every walk of social-civic life. People by their own cannot implement accountability as people and their ruler are mere reflections of each other, ‘handy dandy, which is the justice which is the thief’? Without social and political accountability entire meaning of life becomes a relevant concept, Najas at its worst. It is in fact any one in any office or in any capacity, if certain amount of power can be exercised, takes after the image of the ruling elite as a role model of success. The fear element cast through images of power spreads in every walk of life. We see the most grotesque and crooked forms of it in our educational institutions where teachers have learned to behave as bureaucrats, police personnel who can start pretending to be medieval lords all of a sudden, minor municipal corporation offices with clerks having air of being kings and queens in their tiny cabins. Shakespeare calls them all mockingly ‘gilded butterflies’, ‘court rogues’. As long as these people are the role models, civilizations stand no chance to grow intellectually and spiritually. These people represent a mindset, the mind of the outdated systems of power play and possession of wealth. If they do not change themselves, the history has taken its course already. They will be wiped out along with all that they stand for. Shakespeare’s Lear and Cordelia stand against all in these systems that is obsolete; from dating methods (in this world of mafias and traffickers this system introduced around the first world war cannot offer security to the females any more, Lear’s idea of ‘amorous sojourn’ of two suitors within his residence

  • Journal of Education and Humanities Volume 1, Issue 1, Summer 2018

    10

    offers far more revolutionary freedom, sensible liberty and deserves lot more serious consideration from readers than any other modern cheap dating system of the world can) to marriage and upbringing of children, from banking to education and from political manipulations to religious shrewdness all is doomed to collapse. Shakespeare foresaw that the ancient patriarchal systems was exhausted and soon had to be replaced by a revived-modified matriarchal system. King Lear is not the death of a society but of the system that the society endorsed, rather inflicted upon its citizens. Today, the havoc caused by the patriarchal system has reached the level where the entire globe and every single soul living on it are on the verge of extinction. Four centuries after Shakespeare’s forecast we are waiting for those women to appear whose role models are not men; whose dream is not ‘we can do it’ but ‘we can do it better’. For this kind of woman to be born a different set of values independent of patriarchal system is needed to be introduced, a set of values where the nonsense of the ‘normal, traditional and routine’ adopted by Najasas is dispatched for good. If it happens somehow, somewhere on this earth, the mankind may still have a chance to avoid what is the most obvious, the death of human civilizations.

  • Shakespeare – The Concept of ‘Najasa’ (The Bawd) Shahab Yar Khan

    11

    REFERENCES

    Bloom, H. (1999). Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human. New York: Riverhead. Bloom, H. (2004). The poem Unlimited. New York: Riverhead. Danby, J.F. (1988). Shakespeare's Doctrine of Nature. Faber and Faber. Yar Khan, S. (2013). O Shakespearovima Tragedijama. Sarajevo: Dobra Knjiga. Chittick, W.(2005). Imaginal Worlds. Lahore: Suheyl Academy. Marder, L. (1963). The story of Shakespeare's Reputation. John murray Ltd. The Map of King Lear’s Kingdom: (http://internetshakespeare.uvic.ca/Library/SLT/reference/maps/tripartite.html) The Map of Bosnia Herzegovina (https://www.rferl.org/a/lasting-ethnic-divisions-in-bosnia/27363192.html

  • Journal of Education and Humanities Volume 1 (1), pp. 12-20, Summer 2018. ISSN 2566-4638 © International Burch University http://dx.doi.org/10.14706/jeh2018112

    Classroom as a Microcosm: Teaching Culturally Diverse Students

    Senad Bećirović, PhD Damir Bešlija

    International Burch University

    Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    [email protected] [email protected]

    Abstract: The twenty-first century is the century of encounter of the different races, nations, cultures, religions and customs. In the

    twenty-first century, man is more and more exposed to various

    influences that leave a trace on the entire sphere of his social life,

    including education. Given that education systems play one of the

    key roles in the formation of both physically and morally healthy

    communities, it is of an enormous importance to analyze the

    phenomenon of a classroom composed of culturally diverse students.

    Each individual is nowadays exposed to various influences that leave

    a trace on the educational sphere of his social life. Taken into

    consideration how educational institutions have become more and

    more diverse in terms of cultures, views and perspectives it is of a

    great importance to analyze the phenomenon of a multicultural

    education. Moreover, it is of an utmost significance to study the

    benefits of a diverse classroom in the manner that will provide

    students with sufficient knowledge about the importance of

    multiculturalism, but at the same time ease teacher’s time spent at

    work. This paper examines the instances and benefits of diversity

    through the use of different strategies and analyses the

    multiculturalism of the 21st century merged in everyday classroom

    life.

    Keywords: race, nation, culture, religion, multicultural education, strategies.

    Article History Submitted: June 18, 2018 Accepted: July 10, 2018

    http://dx.doi.org/10.14706/jeh2018112

  • Classroom as a Microcosm: Teaching Culturally Diverse Students Senad Bećirović & Damir Bešlija

    13

    INTRODUCTION Diversity refers to the existence of a variety of cultural or ethnic groups within a single society. It is one of the most perceptible features of the time we live in and we encounter it in everyday life. Teachers should be conscious of a fact that each student in their classroom has an immense potential to be useful member of society and helpful to others—teachers, colleagues, and the community as a whole. Furthermore, diversity should be regarded as an encouragement of development and success, rather than an issue for students and educators. A diverse classroom acts as a perfect environment for learning the multiple perspectives and diverse cultural patterns, and it prepares the students who spend their time in play with classmates from different backgrounds for the world outside the school. This paper examines diversity as one of the most perceptible features of our time, and presents a reader with the strategies for teachers and benefits that they, their students and society might attain through multicultural education. MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION Over the course of history, culture has been explained in many different ways. It has been defined as “the whole set of signs by which the members of a given society recognize…one another, while distinguishing them from people not belonging to that society” (UNESCO, 1992). Many scholars views culture as “the set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of a society or social group… (encompassing) in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs” (UNESCO, 2001). Multicultural education refers to an idea that aims at promotion of educational equality and social justice. It carries multiple benefits and positively affects students moral and physical development. Diversity actively connects a variety of cultural, ethnic or linguistic groups within a single society. Teachers should be conscious of a fact that every student in their diverse classroom has a great potential to be a useful member of society and an invaluable resource for others. Furthermore, multicultural and multilingual classroom should be regarded as an encouragement of development and success, rather than an issue for students and educators. Multicultural education refers to education and instructions which engage students of different cultures and linguistic backgrounds in the same activities, taking into consideration their views, beliefs and languages. It is designed to serve culturally different students in an equal and just way. On the other hand, intercultural education aims at promotion of understanding of differences

  • Journal of Education and Humanities Volume 1, Issue 1, Summer 2018

    14

    amongst people and their cultures. Furthermore, it refers to teachings that shows a great respect and even promotes diversity in multiple areas of human life. However, the major challenge which teachers might have when trying to promote the notion multiculturalism is dealing with rather natural and inherent tensions that arise when two or more different (or even opposing) world views meet. Those tensions, which reflect the diversity of co-existing values of multicultural world, usually can’t be observed through an ‘either/or’ answer. However, the dynamic interaction between opposing views and aspects is what enriches education and multiculturalism. This method of teaching and learning is based upon “consensus building, respect, and fostering cultural pluralism within societies” (Bennett, 1995). In conclusion, multicultural education intends to promote and incorporate positive cultural features and dialogue into language classroom atmosphere through creating a welcoming environment for everyone. THE POSITION OF A TEACHER A language teacher as a leader of a classroom has the main role in managing the way in which teaching and overall interaction between the teacher and the students occur. From Zeichner’s (1992) review of successful teaching approaches we can observe several key elements for effective teaching of culturally and linguistically diverse children:

    1. Teachers should be completely aware of their own ethnic, cultural and linguistic identities.

    2. Teachers emphasize high expectations for all students and believe that all of them are capable of making progress and success.

    3. Teachers should develop good relations with their students and should not see them as “the others”.

    4. Teachers influence the creation of curricula that emphasize the development of higher-level cognitive and language skills.

    5. Teachers influence the creation of curricula that include the contribution and perspectives of the different national, ethnic or cultural groups which compose the classroom.

    In addition to the stated approaches, language teachers are to foster a good relationship with the families of their students, and they are to get to know different customs related to families’ cultures. In conclusion, the real role of education and teachers is also stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as following: “Education shall be directed to the full development of human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial and religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace” (Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948). Furthermore, culturally responsive teaching is a term used nowadays for describing differentiated instructions and fitting teaching to the students’ needs.

  • Classroom as a Microcosm: Teaching Culturally Diverse Students Senad Bećirović & Damir Bešlija

    15

    Instructor Gay views this way of teaching as "using the cultural characteristics, experiences, and perspectives of ethnically diverse students as conduits for teaching them more effectively" (Gay, 2002 p. 106). She states that content and skills that are planned to be taught through educational systems are learned more easily when they belong to students' frames of reference and potential experiences (Gay, 2002).

    STRATEGIES FOR A CULTURALLY DIVERSE CLASSROOM Strategies represent the ways through which a language teacher can make classroom a place of joy and quality learning. It is this welcoming environment that should push students to learn and behave in a good manner.

    1. Set and maintain high expectations for everyone regardless of their ethnicity, cutlre or language

    It has been proven that students whose teachers demonstrated high expectations for them learn better. Teachers who encourage students to identify and solve problems, and involve them in collaborative activities make their students aware of their ability to complete different tasks (Burris & Welner, 2005).

    2. Demonstrate care by learning about your students’ needs, concerns and strengths Students show greater interest to participate in classroom activities when a teacher demonstrates care for them and their needs, hopes and dreams. Nel Noddings (1995) claims that "we should care more genuinely for our children and teach them to care" (p. 24).

    3. Learn about students' cultures and languages to better understand how and why they behave in certain ways in and out of the classroom.

    Teachers need to understand many different ways in which parents or care-givers might express concern about the education of their children in respect to their culture and language. For example, Gibson (1983) reports that Punjabi immigrant parents in California believe it is only the teacher's task to educate and that they as parents should not be involved in school activities. Furthermore, they showed that they care a lot about their native language, and that they are very cautious with their children learning another foreign language. All of this is to be taken into consideration when preparing a strategy for teaching (Gibson, 1983)

    4. Promote and encourage participation of parents or care-givers in school activities. Parents are a child's first teachers, but they are not necessarily aware how much they influence their children’s development. Teachers can enhance parents’ participation by informing them about the importance of a bond between home environment and children's learning in school (Saravia-Shore, 1992). Communication is crucial in language acquisition and learning.

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    5. Choose culturally relevant curricula that recognize, incorporate, and reflect students' heritage

    Students certainly feel encouraged and motivated to study when they see that a teacher knows about and admits the contributions that their own racial or ethnic groups made to the community. This allows students to practice their language and other skills in real-life situations. They also realize that teacher values and appreciate each child's background, which creates more welcoming environment in a classroom.

    6. Include the arts in the curriculum. One of the best ways to enhance students’ is to engage them in arts activities which promote dialogue on important issues. Providing opportunities for students to express their ideas and beliefs enables them to master talents and enhance multiple intelligences (Gardner, 1983).

    BENEFITS OF MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION There are several very important benefits of multicultural education that might be encountered during the education period, but also afterwards throughout one’s life. In this paper, we will present and examine benefits of breaking stereotypes and prejudices, biculturalism, acceptance of others and acculturation (Banks, 1993).

    Breaking stereotypes and prejudices

    Stereotypes represent core beliefs about certain characteristics that are believed to be features of a particular group or community. Stereotypes are usually incorrect and discriminatory and they, therefore, carry negative consequences for the people they are applied to. Furthermore, stereotype threat, as explained by Steele (1997) refers to “the event of a negative stereotype about a group to which one belongs becoming self-relevant, usually as a plausible interpretation for something one is doing, for an experience one is having, or for a situation one is in, that has relevance to one’s self-definition” (p. 686). Taking into consideration a danger of stereotyping, one might come to the conclusion how great benefit breaking stereotypes in a multicultural language classroom is.

    Biculturalism

    One of the greatest advantages of multicultural classroom is a formation of a bicultural perspective amongst students. Buriel et al. (1998) explained how knowledge of two cultures and languages allows students to better adjust to dual cultural need, and “may provide bicultural and bilingual students with more

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    problem-solving strategies, interpersonal skills, and self-confidence for accessing academic resources at school and in their communities” (p. 294). Therefore, students who become bicultural and bilingual can overcome communicational difficulties easier and are consequently able to co-exist and co-work in a culturally diverse environment.

    Acceptance of others

    In the twenty first century when humankind seeks toleration and acceptance in order to function well, the benefit of assimilation which is provided by multicultural education is of an utmost significance. In the second-language acquisition literature the mentioned assimilation is explained to be “the replacement of one’s native culture, including language, values, social competencies and sense of identity, with that of another culture” (LaFromboise, Coleman, & Gerton, 1993). Therefore, the ultimate aim of assimilation might be considered to be social acceptance by members of the dominant group, which can be achieved in a classroom with culturally different beliefs and perspectives (LaFromboise et al., 1993).

    Acculturation The other benefit of a culturally diverse classroom is acculturation which refers alterations which result from a continuous contact between different cultures and languages: The mentioned changes come from learning the language, tradition and overall practices of the new culture (Sam & Berry, 2010). However, the mentioned phenomenon, like assimilation, might result in the negligence of one’s own culture (Buriel, 1993). As stated by Sam and Berry (2010), “individuals need to belong to a group in order to secure a firm sense of well-being.” (p.475). When this is accomplished, students of a multicultural classroom are fully prepared to regard other cultures not only as equally important, but in a sense as their own. EDUCATION SYSTEMS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Even though law regulates educational systems (plural form is used since B&H recognizes three different systems of education, which are connected to three major nationalities), Bosnia and Herzegovina often has many issues with implementing its unique education policies. One of the dilemmas that the government has is the question of whether to separate the public education system into special nation-oriented schools with different curricula (since the national diversity represents an obstacle instead of being beneficial). Many scientific papers have been written on this topic in journals in B&H but still no solutions have been offered that would be acceptable to all sides. Furthermore, this might be considered a political abuse of educational rights at the national

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    level that avoids each attempt toward sincere democratization and acceptance of national, linguistic and religious diversity in the education systems.

    There has been much manipulation of educational systems for political and ideological reasons from the time the war was over up until now. Education has often misused teaching the students different interpretations of the same events. For example, history textbooks in B&H may explain the initiation of the war as aggression, or a fight for liberation and national emancipation. Moreover, sometimes educational systems divide students based on their nationality, language, and religion. Also, they tend to argue over the quality and acceptability of history and language textbooks. In these environments newly formed education policies primarily reflect the superiority of majorities over minorities. In some cases minority children are allowed access only to education organized to serve the needs of the majority students. This type of behaviour towards minority students demonstrates an unwillingness to accept Bosnian and Herzegovinian diversity present in the community. Although this exclusion goes against law, nationalist leaders are powerful enough to implement their will in schools, often making a phenomenon called “two schools under one roof”. However, these problems occur infrequently in large cities such as Sarajevo, Tuzla, Bihać and Zenica, because they kept their multi-ethnic views and nurtured them through the educational system even during the war period (Pašalić-Krešo, 1999).

    CONCLUSION

    The twenty first century is a century of an encounter of different cultures, beliefs and languages, and as such it exposes individuals to living in a culturally diverse society. Furthermore, educational institutions are becoming places of perspectives intertwining and are beginning to embrace the idea of the multiple cultures influencing students’ development. In order for students to enhance their learning process and teachers to create a warm and welcoming atmosphere in their classes, it is of an utmost importance to analyze possible methods and approaches which can be used in everyday work at school. Multiculturalism has become one of the most intricate phenomena of the time in which we live. As a result of the different communities living together, there is a great demand for analyzing the benefits of a multicultural education in order to assure those who are suspicious of it, and believe that bringing students together can endanger their individual cultural customs and beliefs. In conclusion, this paper provides a reader with the information regarding the phenomenon of culturally diverse classroom, teachers’ position and possible strategies for easing both educators’ and students’ work, defines multiculturalism in its essence and analyses four major benefits of multicultural education. REFERENCES Art. 26.2, Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

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    Banks, J.A. (1993). Multicultural education: Characteristics and goals. Boston, MA: Allen & Bacon. Bennett, C. (1995). Comprehensive multicultural education: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). Massachusetts: Allen & Bacon. Buriel, R., Perez, W., De Ment, T., Chavez, D., & Moran, V. (1998). The relationship of language brokering to academic performance, biculturalism, and self-efficacy among Latino adolescents. Hispanic Journal of Behavioural Sciences, 20(3), 283- 297. doi:10.1177/07399863980203001 Burris, C. C., & Welner, K. G. (2005). Closing the achievement gap by detracking. Phi Delta: Kappa. Gay, G. (2002) Preparing for culturally responsive teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 53, No.2,106-116. Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: BasicBooks. Gibson, M. A. (1983). Home-school-community linkages: A study of educational opportunity for Punjabi youth. Stockton, CA: South Asian American Education Association. Noddings, N. (1995, November). Teaching themes of caring. Education Digest, 61(3), 24. Sam, D., & Berry, J. (2010). Acculturation: When individuals and groups of different cultural backgrounds meet. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(4), 472-481. doi:10.1177/1745691610373075 Saravia-Shore, M., & Arvizu, S. F. (Eds.). (1992). Cross-cultural literacy: Ethnographies of communication in multiethnic classrooms. New York: Garland. Zeichner, K. M. (1992). Educating teachers for cultural diversity. East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teacher Learning. LaFromboise, T., Coleman, H., & Gerton, J. (1993). Psychological impact of biculturalism: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 114(3), 395-412. doi:10.1037/0033- 2909.114.3.395 Pašalić-Krešo, A. (1999). Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Minority Inclusion and Majority Rules The system of education in BiH as a paradigm of

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    political violence on education. Sarajevo: Faculty of Education and Humanities UNESCO (1992): International Conference on Education, 43rd Session, The Contribution of Education to Cultural Development, p.5 UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2001); cf. also the definition given in the Mexico City Declaration on Cultural Policies, adopted by the World Conference on Cultural Policies (Mexico City, 1982): Culture is “the whole complex of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features that characterize a society or social group. It includes not only the arts and letters, but also modes of life, the fundamental rights of the human being, value systems, traditions and beliefs.”

  • Journal of Education and Humanities Volume 1 (1), pp. 21-29, Summer 2018. ISSN 2566-4638 © International Burch University http://dx.doi.org/10.14706/jeh2018113

    Jane Eyre as a Byronic Hero(ine)

    Adisa Ahmetspahić Rumejsa Ribo

    University of Zenica

    Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    [email protected] [email protected]

    Abstract: This paper aims to offer a new understanding of the Byronic hero through the character of Jane Eyre. By definition, the

    Byronic hero presents a potent individual who defiantly breaks the

    social norms of his time as they oppose his own moral philosophy.

    Ever since the archetype of the Byronic hero was created,

    prevalently male characters in literature have been characterized as

    such, from Byron’s Childe Harold, Emily Brontë’s Heathcliff, to

    Dumas’ Dantes. Even though she was a female, Jane Eyre, Charlotte

    Brontë’s title character, displayed behavior resembling that of the

    previously mentioned male characters. This indicates that Jane Eyre

    did not only break the social norms of her time but also the mold of

    the Byronic hero. On her journey from childhood to adulthood, many

    tried to suppress her wayward behavior. However, she always

    managed to rise above such plights and continued going off the

    beaten track, just like other Byronic heroes. Relying on the close-

    reading method, this paper follows Jane Eyre through different

    stages of her life in which she reveals her Byronic nature.

    Keywords: Jane Eyre, Byronic, hero, female, quaint.

    Article History Submitted: June 10, 2018 Accepted: July 13, 2018

    http://dx.doi.org/10.14706/jeh2018113

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    INTRODUCTION Jane Eyre, often considered Charlotte Brontë’s most compelling novel, was published in 1847. From the moment of the book’s publication up until the present time, Jane Eyre has been a frequent subject of criticism. What makes the novel so enthralling is its title character-Jane. Many critics of Brontë’s time regarded Jane Eyre’s character as unconventional and immoral. In The Quarterly Review from 1848, Elizabeth Rigby, also known as Lady Eastlake, expressed her strong disapproval of Jane Eyre and lambasted her as:

    the personification of an unregenerate and undisciplined spirit […] She has inherited in fullest measure the worst sin of our fallen nature—the sin of pride. Jane Eyre is proud, and therefore she is ungrateful, too. It pleased God to make her an orphan, friendless, penniless—yet she thanks nobody, and least of all Him, for the food, and raiment, the friends, companions, and instructors of her helpless youth […] On the contrary, she looks upon all that has been done for her not only as her undoubted right, but as falling short of it. […] Altogether the auto-biography of Jane Eyre is pre-eminently an anti-Christian composition. (as cited in Mundhenk & Fletcher, 1999, p. 176)

    Even though it can be said that Lady Eastlake was a little harsh on Jane Eyre, one must admit that Jane Eyre is indeed a quaint character. Her intelligence, rebellious nature, self-pride and –determination, as well as the peculiarity that pervades these traits, are almost Byronic. While describing the reception of Jane Eyre, more contemporary critics, such as Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, alluded to this understanding of Jane Eyre: “They (the audience) were disturbed not so much by the proud Byronic sexual energy of Rochester as by the Byronic pride and passion of Jane herself” (Gubar, 1977, p. 780). However, this is not surprising if we bear in mind that the Brontë sisters drew heavily from Lord Gordon Byron’s works and adopted some of the recurrent patterns, themes, and character types (Bloom, 2007, p. 1). Their fascination with Byron’s persona and with the archetype of the Byronic hero is visible both in Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre as well as in Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights. Nonetheless, in their novels and in literature up to date mostly male characters have been characterized as Byronic heroes. It is unknown whether Charlotte Brontë purposely incorporated the traits of the Byronic hero into the character of Jane Eyre. Be that as it may, if one considers the features of Jane Eyre’s character and the features of the Byronic hero that will be presented in the section that follows, it is evident that these two greatly overlap. Therefore, the aim of our paper is to offer a new understanding of Jane Eyre. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND A growing body of literature has analyzed the notion of the Byronic hero. The very name ‘the Byronic hero’ is itself highly suggestive as it was derived

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    from the name of its instigator-Lord Gordon Byron. Some preliminary work that elaborates on the Byronic hero was carried out by Colwyn Edward Vulliamy (1948) who defines Byronic hero and Byronism as

    a state which originates in contempt and exasperation … It is a protest of the individual against the rigid imposition of standards and a dogmatic assertion of moral authority…It begins with a declaration of war against the vulgar, the commonplace, the artificial, the stupid and the self-righteous (as cited in Misra, 1992, p. 182).

    In the same vein, more recently, Michael Jones (2017) suggests that the Byronic hero is “defined by an internal classlessness that is deepened by his exile from any recognizable domestic life” (p. 19). In other words, the Byronic hero possesses intellectual giftedness, great self-pride as well as his own code of conduct which is in stark contrast with that of the society. According to Misra (1992), the Byronic hero is often lonely and ironical. However, as Misra further explains, the Byronic hero is courageous and strong-willed. Interestingly, he preserves all the above-mentioned traits even in suffering (p. 246). The indefatigable energy that the Byronic hero shows makes him both enthralling and repulsive to other people at the same time. This archetype first appeared in Byron’s long narrative poem Childe Harolde’s Pilgrimage (1812). Its title character is a young man who defies the social norms and is haunted by his memories. The Byronic hero also appeared in other Byron’s works such as: The Corsair (1814), a tale written in verse, and Manfred (1817), a closet drama (The Norton Anthology of English literature, n. d.). Forina (2014) lists several famous Byronic heroes in literature: Edmond Dantes from Alexander Dumas’ The Count of Monte Cristo, Heathcliff from Emily Brontë’s The Wuthering Heights, and Mr. Rochester from Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre (p. 85). Even though the Byronic hero is a variation of the Romantic hero, a literary period to which Lord Byron belongs, the archetype of the Byronic hero was born out of Byron’s fascination by John Milton’s Paradise Lost’s (1667) main character-Satan. In essence, Milton’s Satan is not inherently evil. Quite the contrary, his Satan is a highly proud arch rebel. By presenting Satan as a larger-than-life figure, Milton in a way debunked the myth of Satan as a repugnant and devilish anti-Christian figure (The Norton Anthology of English literature, n. d.). By the same token, Jane Eyre was regarded an “anti-Christian” who “has inherited in fullest measure the worst sin of our fallen nature — the sin of pride”. Research by literary experts, such as that of Atara Stein (2009), contends the prevailing opinion that the Byronic hero is necessarily a male. In his The Byronic Hero in Film, Fiction, and Television (2009), Stein draws out attention to Charlotte Brontë’s Catherine Earnshaw and Thomas Hardy’s Eustacia Vye whom he considers Byronic heroines. For Stein, the Byronic heroine is a woman who resists taking the inferior role in a male-dominated society. In her battle with societal restrains and conventions, the Byronic heroine displays a rebellious and a sort of obtrusively self-assertive behavior. Evidently, her behavior is on par with the behavior of her male equivalent (p. 171, 172).

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    Since Jane Eyre is an autobiography, a bildungsroman, its title heroine’s character is gradually revealed throughout the book. Different stages of her journey from childhood to adulthood depend on the places she lived in. Therefore, Jane Eyre as a Byronic heroine will be analyzed based the stages of her life where she displays her Byronic nature most prominently. For the sake of providing an in-depth analysis of and understanding Jane Eyre’s Byronic traits, we opted for the close-reading method. As Smith (2016) points out, although close-reading method is not an existent methodology, it proved to be viable in Anglo-American literary studies. It aids thorough analysis of a particular piece of work often related to some burning issues or questions of interest (p. 57, 58). DISCUSSION Gateshead Jane’s ‘autobiography’ begins significantly with her first moment of rebellion (Nestor 1987, p. 51), when she fights back Master Reeds: “You are like a murderer – a slave-driver – you are like the Roman emperors” (Brontë, 1864, p. 7). Jane is enraged by his treatment as she explains when grown up: “I was a trifle beside myself, or rather out of myself […] I felt resolved […] to go all lengths”. Pauline Nestor suggests that Jane’s fiery nature stems from “her refusal to allow her own victimization” (Nestor, 1987, p. 51), so Jane decides to go all lengths, as she says, and punch her cousin for trying to victimize her. To punish Jane, her aunt, orders for Jane to be taken into the Red room by the servants. While taking her to the Red room, Miss Abott comments: “For shame! For shame! What shocking conduct, Miss Eyre, to strike a young gentleman, your benefactress’s son! Your young master.”(Brontë, 1864, p. 7), and as a true Byronic heroine not letting nor admitting anyone to be superior to her, Jane replies: “Master! How is he my master?” (Brontë, 1864, p. 7). There, deeply frustrated and angry, Jane thinks of different plans to put an end to her problems:

    “Unjust! unjust!” said my reason, forced by the agonizing stimulus into precocious though transitory power; and Resolve, equally wrought up, instigated some strange expedient to achieve escape from insupportable oppression – as running away, or, if that could not be effected, never eating or drinking more, and letting myself die. (Brontë, 1864, p. 12)

    Her readiness to go to extremes reflects her Byronic nature, nature capable of putting oneself to great tortures just for the sake of self-pride and self-dignity. Not only does she express her opinion to people of approximately the same age or people from her household but even others as noticeable in the scene when Mr. Brocklehurst comes to see her and talks to her:

    “No sight so sad as that of a naughty child,” he began, “especially a naughty little girl. Do you know where the wicked go after death?” “They go to hell,” was my ready and orthodox answer. “And what is hell? Can you tell me that?” “A pit full of fire.” “And

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    should you like to fall into that pit, and to be burning there forever?” “No, sir.” “What must you do to avoid it?” I deliberated a moment: my answer, when it did come was objectionable: “I must keep in good health and not die.” (Brontë, 1864, p. 30).

    With her ingenious answer, Jane shows a trait of a Byronic heroine, a heroine who possesses a shrewd nature and is not prone to submitting into the mass. Due to her rebellious behavior at Gateshead, one of the house servants previously mentioned, Miss Abbot, describes her as “a sort of infantine Guy Fawkes” (Brontë, 1864, p. 30). Guy Fawkes is one of the best-known participants of the Gunpowder Plot, a conspiracy against King James VI & I that took place in 1605. This implies that the figure of Guy Fawkes remained popular almost two hundred years after. Besides, how fiery and combative a ten-year-old girl must be to be compared to Guy Fawkes””. The kind of life she had at Gateshead underpinned her sense of justice and helped her self-consciousness to develop. In the stages of her life that followed Gateshead, Jane again stays true to herself and nothing and nobody can change neither her nor her personality. Lowood Not only at Gateshead but even throughout her life at Lowood does Jane show her strong will against injustice. In a scene when her friend Helen Burns is mistreated by one of the employees at Loowod, Jane explains how she would react if someone tried to subdue her: “And if I were in your place I should dislike her; I should resist her.” (Brontë, 1864, p. 55). Like a typical Byronic hero, Jane has old head on young shoulders and is ready to give a lesson to those who oppress her. Equally, as seen from the aforementioned example, she is willing to encourage others in doing so. Jane Eyre, just like “the contemporary Byronic hero is much more likely to take on a successful leadership role in the battle against oppression” (Stein, 2004, p. 10), especially if that oppression comes from the authority. As Stein points out, “the defiance of institutional authority” (Stein, 2004, p. 2) is what a Byronic hero, just like Jane, passionately supports. In the above-mentioned quote, it is visible that Jane wants others to be involved in that fight against institutional oppression. She is not a passive observer, but rather an active doer. Interestingly, in this scene Jane displays another trait of the Byronic hero: kindness to those who are oppressed. As Misra (1992) explains, the Byronic hero takes no “delight in the suffering of other people […]. The Byronic hero is capable of tenderest feelings and kindest sympathy” (p. 210). In addition, it cannot pass unnoticed that Jane is a type of a person who takes matters into her own hands. She does not wait for anyone to tell her what to do, but when push comes to shove, she rather does it herself, as we can see from the next episode of her life. After residing for eight years at Lowood, Jane decides she must change her surroundings and advertise for a new job, again showing how courageous and acumen she is: “I then ordered my brain to find a response and quickly […] for as I lay down it came quietly and naturally to my mind: Those who want situation advertise: you must advertise in the shire

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    Herald..!” (Brontë, 1864, p. 89). Here her self-determination to pursue her happiness crosses the boundaries of what was expected of a woman by the Victorian society. While crossing the boundaries expected to be respected by women of the age, Jane is fitting herself into the frame of the Byronic heroine. Jane finds a job as a governess at Thornfield, which some critics regard as rather difficult; because she does not belong either to the family or the servants. Therefore, Jane is put in a rather confusing position, somewhere between a servant and a peer. Yet, she still chooses independence over dependence on somebody else and becomes a governess in the time when most women saw marriage as a solution. Thornfield After arriving at Thornfield, Jane somehow feels stagnant and usually goes for a walk in the fields. One day she meets Mr. Rochester, the master of Thornfield, there who falls off a horse, so she helps him to rise. Their first meeting is memorable and unique bearing in mind that women were helped to rise when they fell down, and Jane does the opposite and therefore inverts the notion of a damsel in distress. When she first meets Mr. Rochester, the master of Thornfield, Jane refuses to speak on his command but instead scolds him for assuming an attitude of superiority (Michie, 2006, p. 90). Jane wants to make decisions on her own and not even Mr. Rochester is allowed to interfere – she confronts him and articulately explains “I am not a bird, I am a free independent human being with an independent will” (Brontë, 1864, p. 268). Her behavior and her longing for independence together with solitude coincide with that of Byronic heroes, which is visible when she says: “The more solitary, the more friendless, the more unsustained I am, the more I will respect myself” (Brontë, 1864, p. 336). It seems to us that Stein describes Jane when he says that a Byronic hero: “He is a loner who often displays a quick temper or a brooding angst […]” (Stein, 2004, p. 8). Her life decisions only augment her character towards fully acquiring prominent Byronic-like features: independency and valor, and to acquire something fully one needs to have predisposition for that, not everyone can achieve it. Consequently, with this in mind Jane Eyre pursues her dreams and defies the norms of the time, makes decisions by herself and does not allow anyone to influence them, not even Mr. Rochester. In a true Byronic fashion, Jane warns him that she is her own decision-maker.“ […] I shall advertise” (Brontë, 1864, p. 237), Jane informs Rochester when she finds out that Mr. Rochester wants to marry Miss Ingram. As noticeable, she immediately decides to leave him even if that would mean her spending a night in the woods all alone, hungry and what not. Even the love that she feels for Mr. Rochester cannot stop her from leaving him. She chooses pride over pity. Hence, her capacity for feeling and her pride and refusal to be victimized are just some of the qualities that make her fit into the mold of a Byronic hero.

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    CONCLUSION As has been noted in the discussion, whenever the societal chains overshadow her paths, Jane rebels and establishes herself as an outcast and outsider again. The consternation of Jane Eyre’s character compels the reader from the beginning of the novel where she exhibits a strong sense of resoluteness and honor. She affirms that later in her life while making decisions of substance, such as those of leaving Lowood, applying for the position of a governess at Thornfield, leaving Thornfield and leaving Marsh End. Jane’s life cycle resembles the “wandering” pattern of behavior, again one prominent quality of Byronic heroes. Also, Jane’s sanguinity coincides with that of other Byronic heroes in literature such as Childe Harold, Heathcliff, Edmond Dantes and others. Just like Childe Harold, whose name bears the title Childe which, according to medieval tradition, is a young man ready to become a knight, in this case Harold at the end of his pilgrimage/progress (Dizdar, 1999, p. 165), Jane Eyre also becomes a knight-like character at the end of her pilgrimage. She becomes Mr. Rochester’s “eyes and ears”, saving him one more time as if he were a damsel in distress and Jane his knight. In the end, it is Jane who is “[…] independent […], as well as rich […]” and her “own mistress” (Jane Eyre, 1864, p. 464) and Mr. Rochester the one who needs her help. While some of Mr. Rochester’s Byronic qualities collapse during by the end of the novel, Jane’s Byronic qualities are discovered and “Her authority over her psychic and economic self is assured” (Thomas, 1990, p. 168). According to Harvey (1969), characters’ giving up their Byronic features is a common character development of Victorian age. (p.315). Therefore, no wonder that Jane has to wait for Mr. Rochester to lose some parts of his Byronic nature to be able to marry him. On the other hand, it is universally acknowledged that the opposites attract, thus the two Byronic heroes could not get married until one of them, Mr. Rochester, lost his Byronic nature. As the focus of the paper was solely on Jane Eyre and her Byronic nature, there is some possibility that the social changes, circumstances and expectations of the time were not analyzed in-depth. For example, the position of the main character as an orphan deserves consideration in terms of orphans’ treatment by the Victorian society and how this treatment influenced their identity. Besides, it is equally vital to consider how female characters from literature of the day relate to the present time. In other words, it is important to analyze whether the social expectations for women have changed over a few centuries. Studies, which take into account the above-mentioned issues, are deferred to our future work.

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    REFERENCES Bloom, H. (2007). Bloom’s Modern Critical Interpretations: Charlotte’s Brontë’s Jane Eyre. New York, USA: Chelsea House. Brontë, C. (1864). Jane Eyre. New York, USA: Carleton. Dizdar, S. (1999). Poezija engleskog romantizma. Sarajevo, BIH: Šahinpašić. Forina, M. (2014). Edward Rochester: A New Byronic Hero. Retrieved from http://vc.bridgew.edu/undergrad_rev/vol10/iss1/19. Gilbert, S. (1977). Plain Jane’s Progress. Signs, 2(4), 779-804. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3173210. Harvey, W. (1969). Charles Dickens and the Byronic Hero. Nineteenth-Century Fiction. Oakland: University of California Press. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/28932860Charles. Jones, M. D. (2017). The Byronic Hero and the Rhetoric of Masculinity in the 19th Century British Novel. Jefferson, North Carolina, USA: McFarland & The Company. Available at: https://books.google.ba/books?isbn=1476627452/. Michie, E.B. (2006). Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre: A Case Book. New York, USA: Oxford University Press, Inc. Misra, K. S. (1992). The Tragic Hero Through Ages. New Delhi, India: Northernbook Centre. Available at: https://books.google.ba/books?isbn=8172110367. Mundhenk, R., & Fletcher, L. M. (Eds.). (1999). Victorian Prose: An Anthology. New York, USA: Columbia University Press. Available at: https://books.google.ba/books?isbn=0231504780. Nestor, P. (1987). Women Writers: Charlotte Brontë. Hampshire, UK: Macmillan Education Ltd. Shorter, C. (2013). The Brontës Life and Letters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Smith, B. H. (2016, October 17). What Was "Close Reading"?: A Century of Method in Literary Studies. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/29218401/What_Was_Close_Reading_A_Century_of_Method_in_Literary_Studies.

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    Stein, A. (2004). The Byronic Hero in Film, Fiction, and Television. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Romantic Age: Topic 1: Explorations. (n. d.). Retrieved from http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/nael/romantic/topic_5/welcome.htm. Thomas, R. (1990). Dreams of Authority: Freud and the Fiction of the Unconscious. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

  • Journal of Education and Humanities Volume 1 (1), pp. 30-42, Summer 2018. ISSN 2566-4638 © International Burch University http://dx.doi.org/10.14706/jeh2018114

    The Impact of English on Bosnian: Anglicisms in Bosnian Press

    Berina Šijerkić Eldin Milak, MA

    International Burch University

    Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    [email protected] [email protected]

    Abstract: This study is mainly concerned with the presence of Anglicisms in and their influence on the Bosnian language, with a

    greater focus on Anglicisms in the media and web portals. The study

    investigates several local web portals in an attempt to determine

    which sections of the portals and are adapting English words the

    most, and in what way the adaptation occurs. The study also explores

    the way in which journalists use Anglicisms in their work. The main

    goal of this research was to determine at what level Anglicisms are

    adapted into the Bosnian language the most, and what aspects of

    language contain most Anglicisms in use. This research helps us

    understand the importance of the English language in general, and

    particularly its impact on the Bosnian language.

    Keywords: Anglicisms, adaptation, Bosnian language, media, portals.

    Article History Submitted: June 26, 2018 Accepted: July 13, 2018

    http://dx.doi.org/10.14706/jeh2018114

  • The Impact of English on Bosnian: Anglicisms in Bosnian Press Berina Šijerkić & Eldin Milak

    31

    INTRODUCTION It is believed that today we have around 6800 languages across the world. Some of them went extinct, either because the people who spoke the language died, or because the language was assimilated into another language group. Around 880 million people currently speak the Mandarin language, which makes it the first language in the world taking into consideration the number of native speakers. In that sense, English is the second language in the list, counting around 380 million native speakers around the world. An interesting fact about English is that, in China, it is more frequently spoken than the Mandarin language, which has a greater number of native speakers. This tells of the importance of English today throughout the whole world. Even though linguists say that by year 2050 around 90% of languages we have today will go extinct, the English language had considerably changed through the past, but it is still widely spoken nowadays. English never went extinct; it only changed from Old, to Middle, to Modern English, nevertheless staying English. It has never died and it will never die based on how much influence English has on other languages today. Studies indicate that there is no language that has not been affected by another language, and that did not, at some point, get in touch with another language. Some of the ways in which languages affect each other are colonization and military campaigns. When it comes to the Bosnian language, the main way through which English entered Bosnian is media and education. By media we mean social media, newspapers, television, and similar ‘sources’ of language, which proved to be the most influential sources of English among people who speak the Bosnian language (or Serbian and Croatian). As we already mentioned, English language has never died and it will never die based on the fact that it influences other languages in many different ways, particularly when it comes to borrowing. Anglicisms are words borrowed from the English language to other languages, making them the most frequent borrowed words among all of the world languages. This research paper will examine Anglicisms in the Bosnian language, with a focus on the usage of Anglicisms in media, and mainly newspapers and web portals. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Reasons for the introduction of Anglicisms In this research, we consider that there are three main reasons why English words are borrowed and adapted at different levels into the Bosnian language. The first reason is that people are nowadays exposed to television containing mainly English TV content. Furthermore, given that individuals translating English to Bosnian sometimes cannot or choose not to find a lexical equivalent in Bosnian,

  • Journal of Education and Humanities Volume 1, Issue 1, Summer 2018

    32

    the translation often contains a number of borrowings. The words left in their original form are most frequently interpreted from the context if the original meaning is not immediately clear. This process represents a slow but safe way in which English words enter into Bosnian. The inability to find an equivalent in the Bosnian language is the second reason for the borrowing of new words, and that mainly happens when a concept from the English language simply cannot be fully explained in Bosnian, so the borrowing process occurs. However, we consider prestige as the greatest reason nowadays for borrowing and adaptation of English words into Bosnian, primarily because young people want to be more eloquent, and so they consider that knowing foreign words and using them as Anglicisms in Bosnian will make them sound and look smarter. This is increasingly the case with todays’ population in Bosnia and Herzegovina, given the fact that everyone, especially young people, is exposed to social media, printing press, and similar sources that present and serve English words adapted into Bosnian. The transition of Anglicisms into any receiving European language is analyzed at the following levels:

    a) the phonological level (in order to determine the phonological changes in the transition model of Anglicisms),

    b) the morphological level (to register changes in the morphology of Anglicisms),

    c) the semantic level (in order to analyze changes in meaning that occur in the process of adaptation models of Anglicisms),

    d) the orthographic level (in order to determine ways of forming the topography of Anglicisms influenced by the model),

    e) the stylistic level (to detect stylistic features of Anglicisms in the recipient language) (Filipović, 1986, pp. 47-48)

    Anglicisms in Newspapers Theory Newspapers serve as the main source where people could find a lot of Anglicisms and borrowed words from other languages. We could find many words from the English language that are not officially accepted and introduced into Bosnian dictionaries, but that people nevertheless frequently use when writing news. People who read news slowly integrate foreign words written in newspapers into their idiolect, which in time is adapted into their own language on all levels. This then means that the words are not considered foreign anymore, but are adapted and considered Anglicisms in this case. According to Senka Simeunović (2008), the adaptation of English words into the Bosnian language on the morphological level could be done in one of four ways:

    1. In the original way as is written in the English language. (e.g. websajt) 2. Adapting English sounds and letters to the Bosnian Latin script which

    means transferring y to u, w to v, x to iks (e.g. show – šou)

  • The Impact of English on Bosnian: Anglicisms in Bosnian Press Berina Šijerkić & Eldin Milak

    33

    3. The closest transcription to the Bosnian language which includes transferring voice variations of letters into the Bosnian language (e.g. apstrakt)

    4. Translating, if possible (e.g. call center – pozivni centar) (Simeunović, 2008)

    When analyzing our leading newspapers and portals in Bosnia and Herzegovina, “Dnevni avaz”, “Klix.ba”, “SportSport.ba”, and some other portals, we concluded that there are many words that are used in writing which have not officially entered the Bosnian language yet. There are many different ways of adapting and using certain English borrowings right now, which leads us to the conclusion that the words, or expressions, are still in the process of entering the language. A perfect example for this is the previously mentioned example call center, since speakers of Bosnian are using it in many different ways, which results in the phenomenon of hybrid words. Hybrid words or hybridisms are words that etymologically derive from at least two languages. With reference to our example call center, in “Dnevni avaz” hybridism is often present, as in, for example, shopping centar, call centar, fer play, and so on. We could find many of these words by reading newspapers or portals in the Bosnian language, and most frequently in the newspaper “Dnevni avaz”, and the news site “Klix.ba”. The Corpus for the present study The corpus for this research was taken from samples of usage of Anglicisms in the Bosnian press. Different web portals were followed and examined, but the most frequent ones were “Dnevni avaz” and “Klix.ba”, as well as “SportSport.ba”. Words examined in the research are listed below:

    Table 1. Corpus used in the study

    WORD USED

    WEB PORTAL/SOURCE

    ARTICLE URL

    Brend “Dnevni avaz” Ana Vintur spašava modni brend koji niko više ne želi nositi. (2018).

    https://avaz.ba/showbiz/jet-set/378473/ana-vintur-spasava-modni-brend-koji-niko-vise-ne-zeli-nositi

    Miting “Klix.ba” Olimpijska dvorana Zetra spremna za Erdoganov miting.

    https://www.klix.ba/vijesti/bih/olimpijska-dvorana-zetra-spremna-za-erdoganov-miting/180519023

    Džojstik “Klix.ba” Xbox dobija novi prilagodljivi kontroler za osobe s invaliditetom.

    https://www.klix.ba/scitech/tehnologija/xbox-dobija-novi-prilagodljivi-kontroler-za-osobe-s-invaliditetom/180518107

    https://avaz.ba/showbiz/jet-set/378473/ana-vintur-spasava-modni-brend-koji-niko-vise-ne-zeli-nositihttps://avaz.ba/showbiz/jet-set/378473/ana-vintur-spasava-modni-brend-koji-niko-vise-ne-zeli-nositihttps://avaz.ba/showbiz/jet-set/378473/ana-vintur-spasava-modni-brend-koji-niko-vise-ne-zeli-nositihttps://www.klix.ba/vijesti/bih/olimpijska-dvorana-zetra-spremna-za-erdoganov-miting/180519023https://www.klix.ba/vijesti/bih/olimpijska-dvorana-zetra-spremna-za-erdoganov-miting/180519023https://www.klix.ba/vijesti/bih/olimpijska-dvorana-zetra-spremna-za-erdoganov-miting/180519023https://www.klix.ba/scitech/tehnologija/xbox-dobija-novi-prilagodljivi-kontroler-za-osobe-s-invaliditetom/180518107https://www.klix.ba/scitech/tehnologija/xbox-dobija-novi-prilagodljivi-kontroler-za-osobe-s-invaliditetom/180518107https://www.klix.ba/scitech/tehnologija/xbox-dobija-novi-prilagodljivi-kontroler-za-osobe-s-invaliditetom/180518107

  • Journal of Education and Humanities Volume 1, Issue 1, Summer 2018

    34

    Hardver Klix.ba Na Twitteru objavljene nove fotografije I specifikacije smartphonea HTC U12 Plus

    https://www.klix.ba/scitech/tehnologija/na-twitteru-objavljene-nove-fotografije-i-specifikacije-smartphonea-htc-u12-plus/180518103

    Interfejs “Klix.ba” Legove nove kockice omogućavaju sklapanje i programiranje Batmobilea

    https://www.klix.ba/scitech/tehnologija/legove-nove-kockice-omogucavaju-sklapanje-i-programiranje-batmobilea/180518086

    Startup “Klix.ba” HaBeetat pobjednik jedinstvenog takmičenja startupa “Get in the Ring”

    https://www.klix.ba/biznis/startupi/habeetat-pobjednik-jedinstvenog-takmicenja-startupa-get-in-the-ring/180507080

    Portfolio, Screening process

    “Klix.ba” Poslovni akcelerator 2018: Prilika za mala I srednja preduzeća u BiH

    https://www.klix.ba/biznis/startupi/poslovni-akcelerator-2018-prilika-za-mala-i-srednja-preduzeca-u-bih/180316010

    Crossover(e) “Klix.ba” Testirali smo Infiniti Q30: Globalizaciji u čast

    https://www.klix.ba/auto/testovi/testirali-smo-infiniti-q30-globalizaciji-u-cast/180413070

    Shopping centar

    Dnevni avaz “Drama u centru Sarajeva: Evakuisan shopping centar "Importanne", intervenisala i Hitna pomoć!”

    https://avaz.ba/vijesti/crna-hronika/283334/drama-u-centru-sarajeva-evakuisan-shopping-centar-importanne-intervenisala-i-hitna-pomoc

    Flashback scena

    Klix.ba “Publika u Cannesu masovno napuštala projekciju filma zbog scena nasilja”

    https://www.klix.ba/magazin/film-tv/publika-u-cannesu-masovno-napustala-projekciju-filma-zbog-scena-nasilja/180516002

    Speed ikanabis

    Klix.ba “Hapšenje u srednjoj Bosni zbog speeda i kanabisa”

    https://www.klix.ba/vijesti/crna-hronika/hapsenje-u-srednjoj-bosni-zbog-speeda-i-kanabisa/180511067

    Ofsajd, meč, korner

    SportSport.ba “Nije bio ofsajd”

    https://sportsport.ba/magazin/odemwingie-nije-bio-ofsajd/250842

    Boksač Klix.ba “Južnokorejski boksač Choi Yo-sam”

    https://www.klix.ba/sport/umro-korejski-boksac/080102030

    https://www.klix.ba/scitech/tehnologija/na-twitteru-objavljene-nove-fotografije-i-specifikacije-smartphonea-htc-u12-plus/180518103https://www.klix.ba/scitech/tehnologija/na-twitteru-objavljene-nove-fotografije-i-specifikacije-smartphonea-htc-u12-plus/180518103https://www.klix.ba/scitech/tehnologija/na-twitteru-objavljene-nove-fotografije-i-specifikacije-smartphonea-htc-u12-plus/180518103https://www.klix.ba/scitech/tehnologija/legove-nove-kockice-omogucavaju-sklapanje-i-programiranje-batmobilea/180518086https://www.klix.ba/scitech/tehnologija/legove-nove-kockice-omogucavaju-sklapanje-i-programiranje-batmobilea/180518086https://www.klix.ba/scitech/tehnologija/legove-nove-kockice-omogucavaju-sklapanje-i-programiranje-batmobilea/180518086https://www.klix.ba/biznis/startupi/habeetat-pobjednik-jedinstvenog-takmicenja-startupa-get-in-the-ring/180507080https://www.klix.ba/biznis/startupi/habeetat-pobjednik-jedinstvenog-takmicenja-startupa-get-in-the-ring/180507080https://www.klix.ba/biznis/startupi/habeetat-pobjednik-jedinstvenog-takmicenja-startupa-get-in-the-ring/180507080https://www.klix.ba/biznis/startupi/poslovni-akcelerator-2018-prilika-za-mala-i-srednja-preduzeca-u-bih/180316010https://www.klix.ba/biznis/startupi/poslovni-akcelerator-2018-prilika-za-mala-i-srednja-preduzeca-u-bih/180316010https://www.klix.ba/biznis/startupi/poslovni-akcelerator-2018-prilika-za-mala-i-srednja-preduzeca-u-bih/180316010https://www.klix.ba/auto/testovi/testirali-smo-infiniti-q30-globalizaciji-u-cast/180413070https://www.klix.ba/auto/testovi/testirali-smo-infiniti-q30-globalizaciji-u-cast/180413070https://avaz.ba/vijesti/crna-hronika/283334/drama-u-centru-sarajeva-evakuisan-shopping-centar-importanne-intervenisala-i-hitna-pomochttps://avaz.ba/vijesti/crna-hronika/283334/drama-u-centru-sarajeva-evakuisan-shopping-centar-importanne-intervenisala-i-hitna-pomochttps://avaz.ba/vijesti/crna-hronika/283334/drama-u-centru-sarajeva-evakuisan-shopping-centar-importanne-intervenisala-i-hitna-pomochttps://avaz.ba/vijesti/crna-hronika/283334/drama-u-centru-sarajeva-evakuisan-shopping-centar-importanne-intervenisala-i-hitna-pomochttps://www.klix.ba/magazin/film-tv/publika-u-cannesu-masovno-napustala-projekciju-filma-zbog-scena-nasilja/180516002https://www.klix.ba/magazin/film-tv/publika-u-cannesu-masovno-napustala-projekciju-filma-zbog-scena-nasilja/180516002https://www.klix.ba/magazin/film-tv/publika-u-cannesu-masovno-napustala-projekciju-filma-zbog-scena-nasilja/180516002https://www.klix.ba/vijesti/crna-hronika/hapsenje-u-srednjoj-bosni-zbog-speeda-i-kanabisa/180511067https://www.klix.ba/vijesti/crna-hronika/hapsenje-u-srednjoj-bosni-zbog-speeda-i-kanabisa/180511067https://www.klix.ba/vijesti/crna-hronika/hapsenje-u-srednjoj-bosni-zbog-speeda-i-kanabisa/180511067https://sportsport.ba/magazin/odemwingie-nije-bio-ofsajd/250842https://sportsport.ba/magazin/odemwingie-nije-bio-ofsajd/250842https://www.klix.ba/sport/umro-korejski-boksac/080102030https://www.klix.ba/sport/umro-korejski-boksac/080102030

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    Kup Dnevni avaz “Na 8. Međunarodnom tuniru „Šampion junior kup 2018“

    https://sport.avaz.ba/omladinski-nogomet/364748/zeljini-talenti-dominirali-na-turniru-%E2%80%9Esampion-junior-kup%E2%80%9C

    Hit Dnevni avaz “Glumica Emma Watson ima novi potencijalni filmski hit”

    https://www.klix.ba/magazin/film-tv/emma-watson-ima-novi-filmski-hit-u-kojem-se-pojavljuje-u-drugacijoj-ulozi/170421126

    Ajpod Dnevni avaz “I Ajpod neophodan za obrazovanje u Švedskoj.”

    http://avaz.ba/vijesti/kolumne/298322/prvacici-dobro-dosli-u-proslost

    Fer-plej Dnevni avaz Svjetska fudbalska federacija (FIFA) uvođenjem kriterijafer-pleja u rangiranju reprezentacija željela je izbjeći lutriju, rečeno je novinarima u Moskvi.

    https://www.klix.ba/magazin/kultura/pidzama-za-sestero-na-sceni-narodnog-pozorista-sarajevo/130227103

    Hevi metal Dnevni avaz Nakon punih 37 godina svoga postojanja, američki hevi metal bend ''Metallica'' dobio je prestižnu nagradu

    https://avaz.ba/globus/svijet/389130/hevi-metal-grupi-metallica-urucena-muzicka-nobelova-nagrada

    Vaterpolo Klix.ba “Hrvatska je u finalu Svjetskog prvenstva u vaterpolu u Budimpešti savladala Mađarsku”

    https://www.klix.ba/sport/vaterpolo-hrvatska-savladala-madjarsku-i-osvojila-drugu-titulu-prvaka-svijeta/170729086

    Dribler Klix.ba “Messi postao najbolji dribler u h