qc chapter 1
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QUALITY CONTROL J5124
PN. NUR ADILLA BINTI KASIM
ASSESSMENT Continuous Assessment consist (PB) a. Quiz (min. 4) b. Test (min. 2) c. Assignment/Tutorial
30% 30% 40% = 100% ~ 50% 100% ~ 50%
TOTAL = 100%
REFFERENCE1. Besterfield, Dale H. (2004). Quality Control Seventh Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall, Singapore. 2. World Wide Web incorporate with Quality Control
Ability to the product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer requirements or expectations.
QUALITY DEFINITIONWhen the expression quality is used, Usually think in terms of an EXCELLENT product or service that FULFILLS or EXCEED OUR EXPECTATION.
ISO 9000 : 2000
Degree to which a set of inherent characteristic fulfills requirements.Degree Inherent Char. Requirement : Poor, Good and Excellent. : Existing in something, permanent char. : Quantitative and qualitative. : Need or expectation
1. Performance 2. Aesthetics 3. Features 4. Conformance 5. Reliability 6. Durability 7. Perceived Quality 8. Serviceability
Everything works: fit and finish, ride handling, accelerations. Exterior and interior design Convenience: placements of gauges High Tech: cell-phone, DVD player Safety: anti-skid, airbags Car matches manufacturers spec.
Infrequent needs for repairs Useful life in miles, resistance to rust Top-rated Service after sale
1. Convenience 7. Time 2. Reliability
Seven Dimensions of Service Quality
1. Convenience 2. Reliability 3. Responsiveness 4. Time 5. Assurance 6. Courtesy 7. tangibles
Was the service center conveniently located? Was the problem fixed? Were customer service personnel willing and able to answer questions? How long did customer have to wait? Did the personnel seem knowledge about the repair? Were the personnel friendly and courteous? Were the facilities clean? Were personnel neat?
Determinants of Quality Design How well the service/product conform to the design Ease of use Service after delivery
Poor Quality1. 2. 3. 4. Loss of business Liability Productivity Cost
Responsibility of Quality
Quality is not the responsibility of a single person or a team. It is the responsibility of everyone and it is our way of life and one of our core values
QUALITY ASSURANCESystematic process of checking to see whether a product or service being developed is meeting specified requirements to increase customer confidence and a company's credibility, to improve work processes and efficiency.
Phase of Quality AssuranceInspection of lots before/after production Inspection and corrective action during production Quality built into the process
Acceptance SamplingThe least progressive
Continuous ImprovementThe most progressive
InspectionAppraisal activity that compares goods or services to a standard.Inputs Transformation Outputs
QUALITY CONTROLThe use of techniques and activities to achieve, sustain and improve the quality of a product or service.
Quality ControlProcess that measures output relative to a standard and takes corrective action when output does not meet standards.
Statistical Quality Control (SQC)
The term used to describe the set of Statistical tools (QC) used by quality professionals.
Statistical quality control can be divided into Three broad categories: 1. Descriptive statistics are used to describe quality characteristics and relationships. Included are statistics such as the mean, standard deviation, the range, and a measure of the distribution of data.
Statistical quality control can be divided into Three broad categories: 2. Statistical process control (SPC) involves inspecting a random sample of the output from a process and deciding whether the process is producing products with characteristics that fall within a predetermined range. SPC answers the question of whether the process is functioning properly or not.
Statistical quality control can be divided into Three broad categories: 3. Acceptance sampling is the process of randomly inspecting a sample of goods and deciding whether to accept the entire lot based on the results. Acceptance sampling determines whether a batch of goods should be accepted or rejected.
Main objective of Quality Control; 1. To gather data that would allow for the constant improvement of manufacturing processes 2. To maintain quality standards. 3. To ensure customer satisfaction. 3. To reduce the costs associated with the scrapping of defective goods.
Integrated techniques and activities; 1. Specification of what is needed. 2. Design of the product or service to meet specification. 3. Production & installation to meet the full intent of the specifications. 4. Inspection to determine conformance to specifications. 5. Review of usage to provide information for the spec. if needed.
QC vs QAQuality control emphasizes testing of products to uncover products which do not meet specifications (i.e., do not meet the minimum level of quality). Quality assurance attempts to improve and stabilize production, and associated processes, to avoid, or at least to minimize, issues that led to the products which do not meet the metrics in the first place
CUSTOMERS1. Internal Customers: This means if one department, individual or process within an organization. supplies another such within the same organization with goods, information or services then the latter is described as the internal customer of the former. For example, a dispatch department may be the internal customer of a packing department, which in turn may be the internal customer of the manufacturing process. 2. External Customers: External customers are those persons who come from the outside to fulfill their needs. E.g. the common people.
TOTAL QUALITY MNGMT (TQM) A philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represent the foundation of a continuously improving organization.
Purpose of TQM; 1. Provide a quality product to customer. 2. Increase productivity & lower cost. 3. Enhance competitive position in the marketplace. 4. Achieve business objective of profit & growth. 3. Job security & satisfying work place.
Two primary objective of TQM; 1. Zero defect. - Zero defects is a laudable objective only where the process ability to predictably generate output within the specification limits is improved instead of widening the specification limits. 2. 100% Customer satisfaction. - Inspection of each unit of incoming material individually. 100 % inspection is timeconsuming and costly.
Main principles of TQM; 1. Prevention: The cost of rectifying the defect is many times higher than the cost of avoiding them. 2. Getting things right first time: To bring the number of defects to zero. 3. Quality: On each shoulder responsible of personnel. 4. Continuous improvement: Continuous attempt made to improve quality by new tech., or method. 3. Employee involvement: Critical roles by employees at every stage of production & operation process to identify area of improvemnet.
CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT (CI) A systematic approach to improving a process. It involves: 1. Document 2. Measurement 3. Analysis
CI Goals1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Increasing customer satisfaction Achieve higher quality Reducing waste Reducing cost Increasing productivity Reducing production time
HOMEWORK1. Define 6SIGMA and 5S 6m 2. The difference between GUARANTEE & WARRANTEE. 4m 3. Describe briefly seven (7) basic Quality Tools below with simple diagram: 1. Flowchart 4. Pareto Diagram 2. Check Sheet 5. Scatter Diagram 3. Histogram 6. Control Charts 7. Cause & Effect Diagram 20m