radio prjct

IMPACT OF RADIO ON YOUTHS Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements For the award of the degree of BACHELOR OF JOUNALISM AND MASS COMMUNICATION Under the guidance of: Mrs. VINEETA (Associate Professor, MAIMS) Submitted by CHETNA MISHRA (BJMC-5 TH SEM) ROLL NO --06314702412 MAHARAJA AGARSEN INSTITUE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES Affiliated to Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University

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IMPACT OF RADIO ON YOUTHSSubmitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements

For the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF JOUNALISM AND MASS COMMUNICATIONUnder the guidance of:Mrs. VINEETA(Associate Professor, MAIMS) Submitted by




Affiliated to

Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University

Dwarka, Delhi 110075DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this Project Report entitled IMPACT OF RADIO ON YOUTHS, submitted by me to the GGSIPU Delhi, is a bonafide work undertaken by me and it is not submitted to any other University or Institution for the award of any degree diploma / certificate or published any time before.

Signature of StudentName: CHETNA MISHRARoll No.: 06314702412CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the project report entitled entitled IMPACT OF RADIO ON YOUTHS done by Ms. CHETNA MISHRA is an authentic work carried out by him at Maharaja Agarsen Institute of Management Studies under my guidance. The matter embodied in this project work has not been submitted earlier for the award of any degree or diploma to the best of my knowledge and belief.


The present study focuses on the role of FM radio as an information source. The overall aim is to develop knowledge on how the FM radios contribute as a source of information and help the urban youth to improve their knowledge and keep them updated. It expounds the relationship between FM radios and urban youth from the perspective of Thiruvananthapuram Corporation. Data are collected from male and female youth. Questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. The study established that though as an entertainment media, FM Radio has worked to improve awareness and knowledge among youth, ranging from social issues, development, women empowerment, health and hygiene to local governance. The station FM has been an appropriate medium that has facilitated an interface between duty bearers and rights holders. The findings of the study also throw light on the urban consumerism on advertisements by FM Radio. The study ends with some recommendations on how the FM radio can best serve the interests of the listeners with informative and innovative programs which could contribute as a tool in the process of social development.What the newspapers projected as the most important national issues differed from what the survey participants listed as the most important national issues. However, the differentiator may not be Twitter as a tool itself, but rather because of the nature and general framework of social media communication. Despite not proving to be the catalyst for the difference in perception, Twitter still plays a significant role in how individuals communicate and understand the different modes of communication. Twitter has garnered a community that dramatically differs from those who are not on Twitter. This community believes in the power and influence of social media, while those who are not on twitter but still active on social media hold traditional mass media in higher esteem.

This research sheds light on an understudied topic, but there is still much to be discovered. A more robust study, aware of more variables, would better determine Twitters exact role in the evolution of communications. Twitter is a fascinating and complex tool that is still in the early stages of development. There is much to learn from Twitter and communications scholars should be studying and mindful of the progression of this communications technology.


I would like to express my sincere gratitude towards for providing me this great opportunity to work and learn through the Seminar program.I am grateful to my guide for imparting constant attention, useful suggestions, expert guidance and valuable suggestions during the course of this project. I would like to thank all the faculty members of BJMC department of Maharaja Agarsen Institute of Management Studies for their support and encouragement.

I also express my sincere indebtedness and gratitude to my parents and all my friends who have encouraged and inspire me constantly to complete this seminar work.


Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION1.1 Introductionto Radio

1.2 History

1.3 Radio in India

1.4 FM Radio in India

1.5 Different FM radio station

1.6 Characteristics of radio industry

1.7 Objectives1.8 Advantages

1.9 Programs

2. Literature Review

2.1 Radio audience surveys

2.2 Radio Recall Research

2.3 Radio and lifestyle

2.4 Reasons for Radio listening

3. Methodology

3.1 Data collection Techniques

3.2 Sampling Techniques

4. Questionnaire & Pie-charts

5. Conclusion

6. References


INTRODUCTION1.1 INTRODUCTION TO RADIOCommunication has been central to human life. Sharing of emotions, feelings, needs, aspirations and evolution of a social order from simple to complex have all gone together. The process has, in fact, been complimentary. Mass society resulted in the formation of mass aspirations and the means to approach them have been the mass media. The society presented itself with typical diversity and uniqueness and hence the challenge before the mass media over the years to continuously evolve and create a dynamic social-fit. Radio as a mass medium has had its own course of evolution and comes to be accepted as a means to support the efforts of development in a modernizing society. The support to the efforts of social and governmental institutions has, in turn, undergone changes and the attempt to trace the course of such changes has to be truly creative, thoughtful, imaginative and above all reflective of reality. In keeping with the respective social objectives, the concern of radio has been to aid the process of changing lives of those who exist on the margins of development. Differing perceptions of development potential at different times needed to be unbundled leading to devising of commensurate communication strategies within the typical development framework. In India, where literacy remains a substantial barrier to development, radio, can reach a large number of poor people because it is affordable and uses little electricity which is low supply in many countries and barely affordable for many poor. In 2000, AIR programs could be heard in two-third of all Indian households in 24 languages and 146 dialects, over some 120 million radio sets. Radio gives a voice to the community they serve with programs in local languages, respecting local culture, traditions and interests. And it facilitates dialogue within the community; while on a national level it encourages diversity, creativity and citizens participation in democratic processes. Radio never force anyone to sit and watch or do radio. Instead it allows people to move around and live their life and same time radio will me on which entertains you, supports you and become part of your everyday life. One of the distinctive characters of radio is its ability to create imagination in its audience mind which does not exist in other media. The level of imagination though depends heavily on its audience. It is not only the description and sounds of real and unreal world we hear through the radio. We also hear the voice of the person who describes them. The anonymity around these speakers creates an image in the minds of people. As one of the oldest means of communication, the role of radio was huge. No other mass medium was capable of being so persuasive, informative, inspiring, entertaining, and affordable. It is not just to the audience who tasted the fruit of radio but also to the advertisers it was boon because its cost of advertising is cheap compared other media.A combination of a number of discoveries of electro-magnetic waves, radio waves, the wireless telegraph and the triode amplifier valve by technicians and scientists from different countries gave rise to the development of wireless telegraphy and later to radio broadcasting. It took ten years for wireless telegraphy, whose sole use was point-to point tele-communication, from ship to ship and ship to shore, to become a broadcasting system that was one of the main media for mass culture.1.2 History of RadioIn 1896 Italian inventor Gugliemo Marconi created a wireless telegraph that used radio waves to carry messages in Morse code. This was the first practical use of radio. Marconi employed his business flair to establish the Marconi Wireless Telecommunication Company, in Italy, then Britain and the USA, setting up a series of shore-based radio stations to receive and retransmit telegraph signals to oceangoing ships, where telegraph wires could not reach. The company also manufactured and operated the radio equipment. By 1913 Marconi dominated radio in Europe and United States. This shift from one type of technological and social usage to another took place in relation to two developments: Frist World War promoted the industrialization of wireless telegraphy; secondly in the United States the radio created a communication environment in which amateurs could operate freely. Radio broadcasting needed the mass production of receivers and marketing for it to be commercially viable. This came about during World War I largely because of military requirements. After the War, radio founded its commercial base and was given a social form through a combination of several traditions- those of telecommunications, mass industry and the press. The earliest radio transmissions in 1915 were by universities to disseminate news. The first radio stations were set up in Pittsburg, New York and Chicago in the 1920s to broadcast election news, sporting events and opera performances. By mid-1923 as many as 450 stations sprouted across the United States - all run by amateurs. In Britain and in Europe, however, radio broadcasting was felt to be much important a mass medium to be left to private profit oriented companies. Public service broadcasting supported taxes or license fee and hence the advertising oriented commercial broadcasting found widespread favor. Thus it was while the NBC and CBS were established as private commercial stations in in the United States, the British Government took initiative to set up the BBC in 1920 as an autonomous public service corporation. Other European countries established national public service networks, some directly under government control, and others as autonomous establishments. Colonial powers like Britain and France opened broadcasting stations (BBC World Service and Radio France) in Asia and Africa to extend their governance over local populations and to propagate their interests in politics and trade. The United States Government established the Voice of America.

The UK has a strong tradition of public service broadcasting, a flourishing commercial radio industry and a growing community radio sector. The majority of stations in Britain are owned and operated either by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) or commercial companies. BBC stations provided a wide variety of entertainment and information in both music and speech formats.The FM radio developed in Germany after World War 2. In 1948, a new wavelength plan was setup for Europe at a meeting in Copenhagen. In this meeting only very few medium wave frequencies were given to Germany which had negative effect on broadcasting in this region. As a result, Germany began broadcasting on Ultra Short Wave (USW- which is now called VHF). With few more experiments done with modulation of VHF radio, it was realized that FM radio was much better alternative.

1.3 RADIO IN INDIARadio broadcasting started in India in November 1923 with amateur setting up of Radio Club in Calcutta (now Kolkata). Later in 1924, similar club started in Bombay (Mumbai) and Madras (Chennai) by transmitting programs two and half programs daily. But by 1927 October Madras Club became bankrupt and was closed down.

Same year British government gave license to the British Broadcasting Company to start broadcasting through radio stations in Bombay and Kolkata. But by 1930, the company couldnt collect enough revenue and the broadcasting came under the direct control of Department of Labor and Industries. Soon the company was renamed as Indian State Broadcasting Service (ISBS). Between 1930 and 1935, the Indian broadcasting faced financial stringencyIn June 1935, the Indian State Broadcasting Service changed its designation to All India Radio (AIR). In 1937 AIR was transferred from the ministry of labor and industries to the Department of communication. In 1941, AIR was transferred to a new department Information and broadcasting which after Independence became a ministry in 1947. Government of India controls the radio broadcasting in India that works under the Directorate General of All India Radio. All India Radio was renamed as Akashvani in the year 1957. There were only six radio stations in India when it got independence. By mid-1999s All India Radio expanded itself to 146 AM stations along with a national channel and Integrated North East service which was started with the aim of reaching every tribe of the region and for the external service. There are five regional headquarters for All India Radio with New Delhi in the North zone, Kolkata in the east, Guwahati in the North East, Mumbai in the west zone, and Chennai in the south zone.

Mean time in 1954, Radio Ceylon started its commercial services in different parts of India. It became very popular as its content was mainly popular Hindi music. To counter this Akashvani started its new service known as Vividh Bharathi. Audience in India smelled a new flare of content in radio where 85% of the programs were music- film, light, regional folk and devotional. The rest was Hindi news bulletins, skits and short features. In 1967, Vividh Bharathi was commercialized. Initially only 10% of the total transmission time was allowed for advertisers. By April 1982, commercial spots were introduced to the main channel and were later carried to the entire network immediately before and after major morning and evening Hindi and English news bulletins. National and international sports events sponsored by commercial houses were also carried on the national network. Vividh Bharathi gained lot of its revenue from extensive advertisements.

16th January 2009, All India launched its first digital transmission from Delhi in short wave. Today All India Radio has a network of 232 broadcasting centers with 149 medium frequency (MW), 54 high frequency (SW) and 171 FM transmitters. The e coverage is 91.79% of the area, serving 99.14% of the people in the largest democracy of the world. AIR covers 24 Languages and 146 dialects in home services. In External services, it covers 27 languages; 17 national and 10 foreign languages.

1.4 FM RADIO IN INDIAFor over four decades the Indian government had direct control over radio broadcasting in India-from recruitment to policies, management and even in programming content. History took its turn when government allowed private FM players to buy blocks on All India Radio and provide services from program content and book advertisers. Soon the radio industry saw a sudden increase in radio advertising and sponsorship with a profit of 93 crores. The pressure on the government was more key players in this were media giants like Times of India and Mid-Day Group. They were also blessed with economic liberalization and globalization. But in June 1998, the Prasar Bharathi decided to cancel the operations of private FM operators. But this led to a major damage in the advertising industry. The advertising revenue came down to 50 percent. This forced the government to rethink about the role of private FM players in India.

On July 6, 1999, the government announced that forty cities in India will be able to enjoy 150 new privatized FM channels. 1.5 Different FM Radio Station AIR FM Rainbow / FM-1 (102.6MHz) AIR FM Gold /FM-2 (106.4MHz) Oye FM (104.8MHz) Fever 104 (104MHz)

Radio Mirchi FM (98.3MHz) Red FM (93.5MHz) Big FM (92.7MHz)1.6 Characteristics of the Radio industryLow advertisement ratesRadio is a cost effective medium for the advertisers. Radio advertising rates are low on cost-per- thousand basis as compared to other media.

Low content costsRadio does not require any commissioned original content unlike other media such as print and television. Royalty fees have to be paid for the music content to Phonographic Performance Limited (PPL) and Indian Performing Rights Society (IPRS) and certain music companies.

Prime time differs from televisionThe prime time for radio listenership differs from prime time television viewing. Radio listenership peaks in the morning, afternoon and late nighttime slots, while for television the prime time is the night slot.

Reaches the required audience

Listenership of radio as indicated by the Indian Listenership Track (ILT) survey is the highest among the younger audiences (15-29) and the SEC A audiences. The research indicates that almost 70% of SEC A (higher socio economic class) audiences listens to radio everyday. This is the audience most sought by advertisers.

Audio mediumRadio is not a visual medium like television and thus people prefer television to radio. Besides this, the only source of revenue for the FM radio operators is advertisement revenues and they do not receive any subscription revenues from the listeners.


a) To analyze the impact of Radio in a social media as a communication tool amongst youth.b) To understand general attitude of Youth Listeners toward Radio. c) To find out the time spend on listening to Radio by Youthsd) To analyze how Youths are motivated and gained by Radio.

1.8 Advantages

Advertising is perceived to be less intrusive on radio than on television, where it very obviously interrupts programmes and prompts zapping to other channels or muting the channel or getting involved in other activities like visits to the kitchen or bathroom. It provides more opportunities for frequent repetition of messages. Radio stations create and record radio advertisements for local businesses.

National campaigns can be bought on local stations through sales houses. Spread of radios all across rural areas paves the way for mass use. High geographic and demographic selectivity. The cost of radio ad is relatively low.1.9 ProgramsDifferent Programs Aired by AIR for youths are as follows :


Health & family welfare programmes are regular broadcasts of All India Radio. All regional and Local Radio Stations produce and broadcast these programmes in their respective regional languages. Subjects covered in these programmes are based on the raise in marriage age delay the first child, space between two children, terminal methods, maternal care, child survival, promotion of inter-spouse communication/male responsibility, neutralizing male preference syndrome, medical terminal of pregnancy, management of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act- 1994, AIDS,drug abuse, breast feeding, child right, girl child, adverse child sex ratio and to alter the Negative mindsets leading to abortion of Girl Child foetus, Pre- Conception & Pre- Natal Diagnostic Techniques act and the penalties contained therein to create public opinion against violation of its provisions, disability, T.B., leprosy and reproductive child health etc.Health campaigns on immunisation,Polio,blood Thalesimia eye donation are publicized widely in these programmes.Regular programmes are mounted against Drug abuse, tobacco consumption, illicit trafficking, AIDS etc. and to create awareness about the Rehabilitation and facilities being provided to the leprosy affected persons/ families and campaigns based on articles 8,9,21,27 &30 of the UNCRPD to raise social awareness on the issues of persons with diasabilities .


Children programmes are broadcast from all Regional and Local Radio Stations of AIR on weekly basis in their respective regional languages. These programmes are designated for age group 5-7 years and 8-14 years. Special programmes for rural children are also broadcast from AIR stations. Plays, short stories, features, choral singing, interviews, stories from epics etc are part of these broadcasts. Childrens Day is celebrated on November 14th as Baal Diwas with special children activities, stage shows and invited audience programmes.

Programmes are planned keeping in mind the following action points:

1. Protection of Rights of children

2. Care and Support to disabled Children and child labour, children under difficult circumstances.

3. Equal status of girls.

4. Universal access to basic education to children and more attention to girls education.

5. Providing safe and supportive environment to children

6. Improvement in the economic condition of family and self-reliant society.

7. National and International cooperation for better future of the child.

8. Safe drinking water facility and sanitary means of excreta disposal.

Women Programmes

Women programme of All India Radio covers subjects related to socio- economic development of women, health & family welfare, Food and nutrition,scientific home management, women entrepreneurship, education including adult education, women empowerment, gender issues etc. Special programmes focusing on the status and importance of the girl child are broadcast throughout the year to create social awareness to welcome the girl childs birth .These programmes also aim at creating social awareness about the rights and privileges of women through the propagation of legal literacy.Different traditional folk forms are used to communicate with the rural women audience,

Problems Confronting Women, viz:

Atrocities on women

Trafficking of women

Female foeticide and infanticide

Obscene portrayal of women

Security for women

Maternity benefits, crche etc. for working women

Equal wage for equal work

Ban child labour

Literature ReviewIMPACT OF MOTIVATION, ATTARACTION AND PARASOCILA INTERACTION ON TALK RADIO LISTENING BY ALAN.M.RUBIN AND MARY .M.STEPA study was conducted by Alan.M.Rubin and Mary.M.Stepto study the impact of motivation, attraction, and parasocial interaction on talk radio listening focusing on explained talk radio exposure, information acquisition and perceived attitudinal and behavioral effects in the US.The researchers were interested in adult listeners to public affairs talk radio. The questionnaires were completed by 2235 participants, most who were recruited by research assistants from an undergraduate communication research class at a large Midwestern university. Respondents ranged between the age from 18 to 92 years; 53.4% were male and 60.9% were currently married. They listened to talk radio over a period that averaged 7.95 years and for 6.33 hours each week, fourteen percent of the sample had called a talk radio show during past 6 months.Findings:

Para socially interacting with a talk radio host predicted planned and frequent listening to the host, treating the host as an important and credible source of information, and feeling the host influenced attitudes and actions about societal issues.

The results support the significance of attraction in the development of in the development of parasocial relationships. Interpersonal attraction did not strongly predict the attitudinal and behavioral effects.

Social attractions failed to predict behavioral effects and were a negative predictor of attitudinal effects. More listeners liked or attracted to their favorite host, the less they felt their attitudes are influenced.

Attitudinal effects seemed to be depended more on whether the listener respected rather than the liked the host. The talk between the host and the caller recreates and reinforces several interactional features including roles and similarities

Not only did instrumental, informational seeking motivation predict attitudinal and behavior effects, so did ritualized, pass time/habit motivation.

YOUTH, THE INDIAN LISTENERS OF RADIO: SOME OBSERVATIONS a research By Binod C Agrawal, TALEEM Research Foundation, Bhopal, Ahmedabad, India. Presented in RadioAsia2011 Conference, February 21-23, 2011 at New Delhi India.The aim of the study was to understand the radio listening by youth in sub-continent of India. The observations made in the study are based on meta-analysis of several media studies conducted over a period of time having a subsample of youth radio listener in each study. The conclusion that was drawn from the brief observations is that over a period of timeradio continues to thrive on the Indian film songs and music without generating much of its original sound track of music and sounds. Youth listeners like other listeners are attracted to this genre of song and music though among the urban youth listener western music is also making its mark.RADIO AUDIENCE SURVEYSAC NIELSON ORG-MARG launched a study to measure radio listenership in India, called RAM (Radio Audience Measurement). The study aimed to track the performance levels of various FM radio stations due to emergence of FM radio in India. In Mumbai, the agency currently carried out a project to provide media planners and broadcasting housed with quantitative information on FM radio listenership that comprised individuals 15 years and above from all the socio economic categories. Structured questionnaires were distributed to a sample of 1000 people. Recall methods involving face to face and telephone interviews were used to monitor radio listenership besides Diary method and Watch meters. Vividh Bharathi was still the most listened to/preferred radio station, followed by AIRFM and Radio Mirchi

Listenership timeslots revealed that between 7 am to 11.30 am, the FM listening is at its zenith, followed by 7 pm to 11pm.

Listenership was high in the morning and the early evenings (pre prime times in the TV) as well as late nights.

Apart from content and audio clarity, what appealed to the listeners were the Radio-jockeys. A good radio jockey can definitely improve listenership of a program.

Radio city seemed to be a hit among the interviewed radio listeners with 82%awareness levels and 70 % listenership within the first few days of its launch. And this figure was considerably higher among the students and professionals with 92%of the radio listeners in these two audience segments tuning in.


Radio Recall Research is tested 1200 commercials with 200 respondents per commercial. Madison Media have distilled a finding adapted to Indian context and had arrived at a set of best practices for radio broadcasting:

Properties created on radio are most cost effective and have advantage of high recall. Music oriented properties targeted at youth last long and provide immense benefit for advertisers.

The traditional baton of radio had been the in-car listening, though low in case of ownership of personal cars in India. It is more important to understand that radio will be the best medium to target upwardly mobile high spending executives and businessmen.

A recent study by IMRB survey conducted in Mumbai on radio listenership during July 2002 indicates that the new category of Private FM Radio is rapidly establishing itself as a viable medium. The research sampled 10003 people in 15 plus age group.

Findings: Radio Mirchi listenership in Mumbai is 91%, eight times higher than that of Radio city, which is recorded 11% listenership. Vivid Bharathi recorded 11% while all other radio stations including AIR showed 15% listenership. Radio Mirchi has a stranglehold on all segments of the population 91% and SEC A population, 93% among the males, 96% among the students, 89% among the working work and 87% among house wives.

An average radio listener spends a total of 87 minutes listening to radio RJ a daily basis in Mumbai. From this, 79% time is spent on listening to radio Mirchi, followed by 7% Vivid Bharathi, 6% on Radio City and a further 8% on all other private FM channels put together. In terms of Top of Mind awareness, Radio Mirchi came out top with 41% while Vividh Bharathi, 6% on Radio City and a further 8% on all other private FM channels put together.

RADIO AND LIFESTYLEA study conducted by Indian Institute of planning and Management on the topic radio listenership habits among youth, it is found that 51 percent of the youth in Hyderabad listen to radio in car/bus or auto. The primary objective of the study was to have a detailed insight on radio listenership of the youth between the age group of 25-35. A longitudinal study was conducted for the study. Findings: Out of the total 70 respondents 51percent of them listened to radio only in the car /bus/auto, 23 percent of them listened to radio only at home, 3 percentage listened to radio at workplace, 9 percentage listened to radio at home and in the car, 3 percent listened to radio at the 3 percent listened to radio at the workplace and at home, 11 percent listened to radio in the car and at home.

Out of the total 70 respondents 21.43 percent listened to radio in the morning, 14.28 percentages listened to radio in the afternoon, 17.14 percentages listened to radio in the evening and 47.14 percent listened to radio in the night.

Out of the total 70 respondents 29 percentage did not switch radio channels during advertisements whereas 71 percent switched radio channels during advertisements.THE STUDY OF THE CONSUMPTION, ASSOCIATION, AND ARTICULATION OF MEDIA (RADIO), MESSAGES AND PRODUCTS AMONGST WOMEN BY RADIO MEOWAs part of the in-house research initiative, a brief yet intensive research was undertaken by Meow Research across the three cities of Delhi, Kolkata, and Mumbai to understand the consumption, association, and articulation of media (Radio). The research revealed that radio is not just a neutral technology in the lives of women. The consumption patterns reveal that radio plays a significant role strongly embedded in the social, cultural, economic, political, and moral cultures of these contexts. The manner in which homemakers and professional women associate with and consume radio as a technology and a medium are distinct, bringing to forefront the contexts, constraints, and circumstances they operate within.The study show that

For most of the homemakers radio is a constant companion which allows them to pay heed to the domestic chores. As compared to professional women, homemakers are more loyal audience. There is a distinct pattern in homemakers consumption of radio pattern throughout the day based on preference of specific shows, stations, and hosts during those hours. Until and unless the routine is interrupted by unprecedented incidents, homemakers diligently follow the routine. The pattern of radio consumption amongst professional women is determined by the demands of their jobs. Most working women listen to the radio on their mobile phone when they are driving to or back from work. For those professionals who have a pre-determined routine, they reflect a tendency to follow identified favorite shows akin to the loyal listenership of homemakers. At least 85 per cent of the women across the three cities stated that they tuned in to the radio when other family members were present on their mobiles or portable sets.

For most women, one of the most important anchors to engage with a station and a show is the radio jockey or radio host.

REASONS FOR RADIO LISTENINGFor many the reason for listening to radio at work is that it fulfills their functional needs. But same time, many listen to radio because radio is just on. For most of them however, the role of radio, either implicitly or explicitly is centered on emotional needs and satisfaction. Radio is seen as a vehicle of helping to pass time and it acts mainly as a mood enhancer. For many the role of radio is that of companionship. Listening to radio for many is a solitary experience.

Findings are as follows: The radio listening of just about everybody is to stations, not to the programs. Very few listeners switch on radio in the beginning of the program and off at the end of it.

Moreover, radio listening is time based, not program based. If the time slot of the program is changed, its audience will almost will certainly follow it at new time slot. The program will inherit the previous audience in the new time slot, though after a while the audience may change.

In general, the total radio audience declines slowly between 6 am and midnight. The radio audience is largest at mealtimes. The number of people listening to radio usually reaches a peak particularly around 6am-8am, 12 noon-2pm and 6pm-8 pm. Therefore, higher advertising around these times.

In general, the total radio audience declines slowly between 6 am and midnight. The radio audience is largest at mealtimes. The number of people listening to radio usually reaches a peak particularly around 6am-8am, 12 noon-2pm and 6pm-8 pm. Therefore, higher advertising around these times.

Though radio listening is a habit for most people, many people think their habits are more regular than they really are. Listeners behavior does not follow their self perceived habits. Their listening habits are slow to the change. Many people have a favorite radio station that they listen to most often than any other, be one station to listen to at home, another while driving.

MethodologyData collection TechniquesSample Selection The sample of the study is those who listen to FM and between the age group of 17 years to 30 years. The questionnaire survey is conducted among 110 youth. The demographic variables that are used in the study are age, gender, education and occupation. Source of DataTwo types of data collected through Research: Primary DataData collected directly from the listeners through Questionnaires. Secondary DataData collected from researches, books, newspapers, and online media.Sampling Techniques

Non-Probability Sampling: In non-probability sampling, there is an assumption that there is an even distribution of characteristics within the population. Since elements are chosen arbitrarily, there is no way to estimate the probability of any one element being included in the sample.

Drawback: Reliability cannot be measured in non-probability sampling. Statisticians are reluctant to use it because there is no way to measure the precision of the resulting sample.

Despite this drawback, non-probability sampling methods can be useful when descriptive comments about the sample itself are desired.

Secondly, they are quick, inexpensive and convenient.

The most common types are:

Convenience or haphazard sampling Volunteer sampling

Judgement sampling

Quota sampling.

Questionnaire &



Signature of the Supervisor

Name: Mr. Manoj Kumar Sharma