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  • 7/31/2019 Rain Gardens Across Maryland


    Across Marylan

    ain ardens

    Cleaning Marylands waterways one rain garden at a tim

  • 7/31/2019 Rain Gardens Across Maryland



    IntroductionIf you enjoyed reading Rain Gardens in MarylandsCoastal Plain, you will enjoy reading Rain GardensAcross Maryland. This new and improved how-tomanual discusses the benefits of incorporatingmultiple small-scale practices into a rain gardendesign. You will also learn how to:

    Reduce impervious surfaces Size your rain garden to capture the

    maximum rainfall amount Select rain garden plants native to Maryland Install rain barrels

    Measure your rain gardens performance

    Environmental Site DesignFor homeowners required to install stormwatermanagement practices, this manual providesenvironmental site design, or ESD sizing criteria forrain gardens. Just look for ESD criteriatextboxes. The ESD criteria outlines the minimumrequirements homeowners shall implement in order tosatisfy Marylands stormwater regulations and shouldbe approved by your local approving authority before

    you begin building your rain garden. Homeownersinstalling rain gardens voluntarily do not have to meetESD criteria.

    Title 4, Subtitle 201.1(B) of the StormwaterManagement Act of 2007 defines an ESD as usingsmall-scale stormwater management practices,nonstructural techniques, and better site planning tomimic natural hydrologic runoff characteristics andminimize the impact of land development on waterresources to the maximum extent practical. Underthis definition, ESD includes:

    Minimizing impervious surfaces Conserving natural features e.g., drainage

    patterns, soil, vegetation Slowing down runoff to maintain discharge

    timing and to increase infiltration Using other nonstructural practices or

    innovative technologies approved by theMaryland Department of the Environment

    Small-scale practicesSmall-scale practices capture and treat stormwaterrunoff from impervious areas usually less than oneacre in size. These practices typically include naturalsystems, vegetation, and soils and may beinterconnected to create a more natural drainagesystem. Although this manual focuses on installingrain gardens, the ESD strategy requires thatstormwater management practices, including thesmall-scale practices listed below, be integrated intoone project to the maximum extent practical. Small-scale practices include:

    Rain gardens Rainwater harvesting Submerged gravel wetlands

    Landscape infiltration Infiltration berms Dry wells Micro bioretention Swales Enhanced filters

    Stormwater Design ManualThe primary goal of Marylands stormwatermanagement program is to maintain predevelopmentrunoff characteristics as nearly as possible. The ESDcriteria provides a comprehensive design strategy toachieve this goal and is described in MarylandsStormwater Design Manual. To learn more about theMaryland Department of the Environments approvedrain garden ESD sizing criteria and other approvedsmall-scale practices, refer to chapter 5 of theMaryland Stormwater Design Manual, EnvironmentalSite Design. This document can also be found athttp://www.mde.state.md.us/Programs/



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    Table of ContentsIntroduction ................................................................................... 1

    Location............................................................................................. 5

    Sizing ................................................................................................. 9

    Rain Garden Sizing Worksheet ................................................... 14

    Construction..................................................................................... 17

    Planting.............................................................................................. 23

    Maintenance ..................................................................................... 29

    Rain Garden Checklist.................................................................... 32

    Appendices ....................................................................................... 33

    References ....................................................................................... 44

    Acknowledgements......................................................................... 45

    Special Thanks................................................................................. 47

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    Figure 1. As runoff passes through the soil mixture, chemical and biological processes break down the pollutants. This helpsprotect the Atlantic Coastal and Chesapeake Bays from fertilizers, oils, and other pollutants carried by runoff.

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    Homeowners across Maryland areimproving water quality, reducingflooding, and increasing their propertyvalues by adding rain gardens to theirlandscape (figure 2). A typical raingarden consists of a shallow depressionthat is a planting bed of native plants,loose soil, mulch, and sometimes stone.Together, these elements collect,absorb, and clean runoff.

    Well designed rain gardens collect andsoak up rainwater that flows off ofhard surfaces. Commonly referred to

    as stormwater runoff, the rainwaterspreads throughout the rain garden. Asthe stormwater runoff passes throughthe soil mixture, physical and biologicalprocesses such as plant uptake andadsorption to soil particles removepollutants and nutrients in stormwaterrunoff (figure 1).

    Figure 2. Rain gardens absorb rainwater flowing from roofs, lawns and other impervious surfaces.

    ESD Criteria # 1. Definition

    A rain garden is a shallow, excavated

    landscape feature or a saucer-shaped

    depression that temporarily holds

    runoff for a short period of time. Raingardens typically consist of an

    absorbent-planted soil bed, a mulch

    layer and planting materials such as

    shrubs, grasses and flowers (figure 1).

    An overflow conveyance system is

    included to pass larger storms.

    Captured runoff from downspouts,

    roof drains, pipes, swales, or curb

    openings temporarily ponds and slowlyfilters into the soil over 24 to 48


    Source: Marylands Stormwater

    Management Act of 2007,

    Environment Article 4201.1 and203. ff.


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    Your rain garden(s) can help infiltrate100% of the runoff in your drainagearea with proper planning. Thats lessrunoff entering storm drains thateventually flow into our waterways andultimately the Atlantic Coastal and

    Chesapeake Bays (figure 3). In additionto cleaning our waterways, rain gardensalso help:

    Replenish groundwater resources Protect structures and

    landscaping Enhance the beauty of yards Provide wildlife habitat

    You can contribute to cleaner water by

    building a rain garden in yourlandscape. By using this document tohelp guide you through the rain gardenplanning and building process, you willlearn how to:

    Locate your rain garden Size your rain garden Build your rain garden Select native plants Maintain your rain garden

    Figure 3. When hard surfaces prevent rainwater fromseeping into the ground it will flow into drain systemscarrying with it pollutants and nutrients. Thestormwater, if left untreated, can harm our localstreams, creeks, rivers, and lakes and everythingdependent on clean healthy waterways.

    ESD Criteria # 2. Micro-scalePractice

    Rain gardens can be primary or

    secondary practices on residential,

    commercial, industrial, or institutional

    sites. This practice is typically used totreat runoff from small impervious

    areas like rooftops, driveways and

    sidewalks. Rain gardens can also be

    used in retrofitting and redevelopment

    applications and in a series where

    existing slopes require energy


    2 Introduction

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    Rain Garden FactsDoes a rain garden form a pondor wetland?


    The rainwater will soak into theground within 24-48 hours after astorm (figure 4).

    Will a rain garden become amosquito breeding ground?

    No. Mosquitoes lay eggs in standingwater. Rain gardens do not holdrainwater long enough for mosquitoes

    to reproduce successfully (figure 5).

    Does a rain garden require a lotof maintenance?

    No. Established native plants requireno more maintenance than any othertype of garden. Native speciesgenerally require less maintenance if

    they are planted in the right place.They do not need fertilizers,pesticides, or additional water otherthan what nature provides (unlessthere is a severe drought).

    Is a rain garden expensive tobuild and maintain?


    With any gardening project, thecost is related to the location, size,labor, tools, supplies and materials, andplants. To keep the costs low, invitefamily and friends to help build therain garden (figure 6) and buyperennials. Your one-time investmentwill come back each growing season.

    Figure 4. Dont be surprised if your rain garden haswater in it after a storm. Its supposed to. The raingarden installed across from the town hall in HighlandBeach, Maryland is strategically placed to collect runofffrom the road and lawns.

    Figure 5. The rain garden installed across from theHighland Beach Town Hall drains water after eachstorm. Well designed rain gardens drain 24-48 hoursafter a storm.

    Figure 6. Sweat equity cuts costs. Shown above,volunteers install a shade rain garden at theChesapeake Ecology Center in Annapolis, Maryland.


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    Figure 7. Identify existing landscaping features relative to your house to help locate the best place to build your rain garden. Thiscan help you capture runoff from impervious surfaces and improve your landscape.

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    This section explains how to locateyour rain garden by answering thefollowing questions:

    1. What elements should youconsider when choosing alocation for your rain garden?

    2. What type of soil do you have?3. What shape should it be?

    1. Where?

    To determine where to build your rain

    garden, you will need a goodunderstanding of the layout of your

    yard. To begin, identify existinglandscaping features and hard surfaceslike the driveway, any outbuildings, andhouse (figure 7). Map these featureson paper to help you begin envisioningwhere a rain garden could be built.Consider the tips below to help you

    choose the best rain garden location. When it rains, watch the flow of

    water on and around yourproperty. Using arrows, drawthe movement of water from

    your house or driveway (bothgoing away from or toward yourhouse). Youll begin to see thedirection runoff flows towards

    storm drains or waterways.Locate your rain garden so thatit intercepts the runoff beforeflowing into these outlets.

    Low-lying wet areas wherewater naturally ponds after aheavy storm may be good areasfor your rain garden too.

    LocationESD Criteria # 3. Location

    Lot-by-lot use of rain gardens is not

    recommended in residential

    subdivisions due to subsequent removalby homeowners. If used on a lot-by-lot

    basis, educating the homeowners will

    be needed to prevent removal. An

    educational sign similar to the one

    shown below in figure 8 is helpful. Rain

    garden excavation in areas with heavy

    tree cover may damage adjacent tree

    root systems.

    ESD Criteria #4. Infrastructure

    The location of existing and proposed

    buildings and utilities (e.g., water

    supply wells, sewer, storm drains,electricity) will influence rain garden

    design and construction. Landscape

    designers should also consider

    overhead telecommunication and

    electrical lines when selecting trees to

    be planted. Read the Construction

    section to learn more (pages 17-21).

    Figure 8. Install rain garden signs to raiseawareness.


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    crawl spaces. Check with yourlocal approving agency foradditional guidance.

    Level or gently sloping sites

    require the least amount ofdigging. Think about the views of your

    rain garden within the existinglandscape from differentperspectives, including insidethe house.

    1. Your rain garden is _____ feet from the.

    (impervious surface)

    2. Identify soil type

    Check the soil type of your rain gardensite before you begin digging. Your soiltype influences the gardens drainageand size. If your rain garden is sandy,

    The best location for the raingarden is in partial to full sun.

    Locate rain gardens downslopefrom a downspout, driveway or

    other impervious surfaces tocapture and treat more runoff(figure 9).

    Rain gardens should be at least25 feet away from a septicdrain field or well head and 10feet away from a dwellingfoundation to prevent waterfrom seeping into basements or

    ESD Criteria # 5. Soils

    Clay soils or soils that have been

    compacted by construction equipment

    greatly reduce the effectiveness of

    rain gardens. Loosening of compacted

    soils may improve drainage capability.

    Figure 9. The rain garden installed more than 30 feet from the house has a larger drainage area than the gardenlocated within 30 feet of the house. The farthest garden will likely capture and treat more runoff.

    6 Location

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    Figure 10. A quick sketch can help you visualize the gardens location. Its longest side should be oriented tointercept runoff flowing downhill and from any direct sources of runoff like a downspout.

    then you have the best drainage andcan build the garden smaller than thosebuilt on clay or silt laden sites.

    To identify your soil type put some soil

    in your hands. If the soil feels grittyand coarse, its probably sandy soil.Silty soil, however, feels smooth butnot sticky. Clay soils are very stickyand plastic-like to handle when wet.Youll be able to form a ball with it. Avisual inspection can also indicate thesoil type at your site. If you still havestanding water 24 hours after a rain

    event then you probably have some claysoils at the site.

    Rain garden areas high in clay contentmay require you to amend the nativesoil with a rain garden planting soilmixture (read pages 20 and 21 formore information). Another option is to

    select another rain garden location. Ifyou are unsure about your soil type,refer to appendix A for other types ofsoil tests.

    2. Your soil type is sand silt or clay.

    3. Shape

    Once youve picked out the location foryour rain garden, determine its shape.Your rain garden can be any shapecrescent or kidney shapes areattractivebut a long and narrow rain

    garden works well if you are placing itbetween structures, such as a drivewayand patio. Long rain gardens cancapture the greatest amount of runoffif located properly (figure 10).

    3. Your rain gardens shape is a .


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    12/52Figure 11. Make sure your rain garden surface ponding depth is deep enough to hold runoff, allowing it to gradually soak into thenative soils.

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    This section provides guidance onsizing your rain garden to capture atleast 70% of the runoff for theaverage yearly rainfall. In Maryland,

    the annual average rainfall is 42 inches.To capture 100% of the runoff from aspecific storm event, refer toappendix B to determine your rainfalldepth. You can skip to page 15 todetermine how to size your gardenbased on targeting a rainfall amount.Reading through this section, however,will help you understand what you will

    need to consider when sizing your raingarden. You can adapt these guidelinesto meet your sites unique conditionsand personal water quality goals. Readfurther to learn about these topics:

    1. Impervious surfaces2. Improving your drainage area3. Sizing your rain garden4. Quantifying performance

    Figure 12: Your drainage area may include impervious surfaces like portions of the lawn (highlighted in blue), roof,sidewalk, and driveway (highlighted in red). These elements can direct more stormwater runoff into rain gardens.

    1. Impervious surfaces

    Impervious surfaces in your drainagearea prevent water from seeping intothe ground, thereby increasing the

    amount of stormwater runoff capturedin your rain garden. The rain garden,shown in figure 12, is located less than30 feet from a roof downspout and hasa drainage area that includes theportion of the roof that feeds thedownspout and any ground level hardsurfaces that slope to the rain garden.

    ESD Criteria # 6. TreatmentThe rainfall amount used to size ESD

    practices shall be applied to the

    contributing drainage area. ESD

    practices shall be used to treat the

    runoff from one inch of rainfall on all

    new developments where stormwater

    management is required.


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    The rain garden located more than 30feet from the house can capture morerunoff because of the increasedamount of impervious surfaces,including the lawn (which can bepartially impervious), deck, roof,sidewalk, and driveway.

    2. Improving your drainage area

    Consider reducing impervious surfaceson your property to reduce the amountof runoff entering your rain garden byreplacing asphalt with permeablepavers or permeable concrete. Theyprovide a solid ground surface, strong

    enough to take heavy loads, like largevehicles, while at the same timeallowing water to filter through thesurface and reach the underlying soils(figure 13). Permeable pavers are alsoideal for patios, sidewalks, anddriveways. The voids in the surface ofthe paving allow water to drain throughand into the soil beneath. Other

    benefits of permeable pavers andpermeable concrete include:

    Increased groundwaterrecharge and/or storage,thereby lessening surfacepuddles and local flooding.

    Reduced stream bank erosionand downstream flooding. Capturing of nearly 100% of

    polluted runoff depending onproject design parameters,thereby mitigating impact onsurrounding surface waters.

    Decreased project cost byreducing retention/detentionsystems and runoff.

    Minimization of impacts andstress on existing storm sewersystems through reduced peakdischarges.

    Reduced heat island effect andthermal loading on surroundingsurface waters.

    Figure 13. Permeable pavers installed at the Back Creek Nature Park in Annapolis, Maryland provide a solid groundsurface that can support vehicles.

    10 Sizing

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    Faster snow melt on permeablepavement and drains, reducingwinter ice hazards, deicing saltuse, and snow removal costs.

    Another way to improve your drainagearea is to divert flows away from

    impervious surfaces. This is known asnon-rooftop disconnection. Simplydirect flow from impervious surfacesonto vegetated areas, where it cansoak into or filter over the ground.This will disconnect these surfacesfrom the storm drain system, reducingrunoff volume and pollutants deliveredto waterways.

    Non-rooftop disconnection is commonlyapplied to smaller or narrowerimpervious areas like driveways, opensection roads, and small parking lotsand depends on several site conditions(e.g., permeable flow path length, soils,slopes, compaction) to function well.

    Consider how you can improve your

    drainage area as you work through thefollowing calculations that will helpdetermine your rain gardens size.

    3. DimensionsTo determine the dimensions of yourrain garden, youll need to do a littlemath to assess the following:

    3a. Drainage area3b. Ponding depth3c. Rain garden area3d. Width and length

    3a. Calculate drainage area

    The following five steps will help youdetermine your drainage area.

    Figure 15. In the example above, about 25% of thetotal roof area feeds water to the downspout.

    Figure 14. In the example above, the roof is about 60feet by 40 feet. The total roof area is 2,400 ft2.

    1. Estimate the total roof area (insquare feet), roof area=lengthx width (figure 14).

    2. Estimate the percentage of rooffeeding the downspout(figure 15).

    1. The roof drainage area (RDA)equals the total roof areamultiplied by the percentage of

    roof feeding a downspout(see sample calculation below).

    RDA = (40 x 60 ) x 25%RDA = 2,400 ft2 x 25%RDA = 600 ft2

    4. Calculate the ground surfacearea draining to the site bymultiplying its length and width.


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    Be sure to include all impervioussurfaces that drain to yourgarden.Break the total areainto rectangles for easycalculations.

    5. The sum of the ground surface

    area and roof drainage areaequals the total drainage area.

    3a. Your drainage area is ______ ft2.

    3b . Determine ponding depth & slope

    Your rain gardens surface pondingdepth, as shown in figure 11 on page 8,depends on your sites slope. Todetermine your slope, you will need a

    level and to do a little math. Read all ofthe instructions below beforebeginning. Figure 16 may also help youvisualize the instructions below.

    1. Securely drive a stake on theuphill side near the mid-point ofthe gardens top edge. Drive asecond stake just past thedownhill edge of the site. The

    downhill stake must be tallenough to tie the string in thenext step.

    2. Tie stretchy string near thebottom of the uphill stake. Thestring should not touch theground or other objects. Using astring level or carpenters level,level the string from the uphill

    stake to the downhill stake.3. Measure the strings length

    (in inches) between the stakes.4. Measure the height (in inches)

    of the downhill stake from thestring to the ground.

    5. To calculate the slope of yoursite, divide the height by the

    ESD Criteria # 7. Target rainfall

    During the project planning and

    preliminary design, site soils and

    proposed imperviousness are used to

    determine target rainfall for sizing

    ESD practices to mimic wooded

    conditions (refer to page 15).

    ESD Criteria # 8. Drainage Area

    A rain gardens drainage area serving a

    single lot in a residential subdivision

    shall be 2,000 ft2or less. The

    maximum drainage area for all other

    applications shall be 10,000 ft2. Micro-

    bioretention or bioretention should be

    considered when these requirements

    are exceeded.

    ESD Criteria # 9. Topography

    Rain gardens require relatively flat

    slopes (

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    more depth, inch for inch, if you planto spread mulch on the surface. If youhave a more sloping site, you may needto remove or add soil to create a levelbase. Circle the proposed depth below.

    3b. Ponding depth: 5 6-7 8 (circle one)add mulch layer (if any) inches.

    3c . Determine rain garden area

    Use the sizing worksheet on the nextpage to determine your rain gardensarea. If you decide that the area is toobig consider breaking up the gardenarea into two or three smaller gardens.If you discover that your garden is too

    small to hold the amount of waterflowing into it create an overflow area(e.g., with stone) to relieve excesswater or create a system ofinterconnected rain gardens. Morethan one rain garden can be installed tobetter disperse and absorb runoff.

    Table 1. Slope and ponding depth reference table.

    strings length and multiply theresult by 100. A samplecalculation is provided below.

    Slope % = (9/180) x 100Slope % = 0.05 x 100Slope % = 5%

    Slope: %

    Use table 1 below to determine yourgardens surface ponding depth. Add

    Slope Surface PondingDepth

    Less than 5% 5 inches deep

    Equal to or greaterthan 5-7%

    6-7 inches deep

    Equal to or greaterthan 7-12%

    ~8 inches deep

    Equal to or greaterthan 12%

    Select another site or talkto a professionallandscaper

    Figure 16: A rain garden with a 5% slope (shown above) should have a surface ponding depth of 5 inches (table 1below). A surface ponding depth of 9 inches will allow for 3-4 inches of a topping layer.


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    Insert your answers from the previous pages to determine your rain gardensdimensions.

    Gardens distance from impervious surface(s): (page 6) Soil type: (page 7)

    Shape: (page 7)

    Drainage area: ft2 (page 12)

    Total surface ponding depth: inches (page 13)

    The size factor is (see table 2 below)

    Rain garden area = ft2

    Rain garden area= drainage area x size factor

    Width = feet (page 15)

    Length = feet

    Rain Garden Surface Ponding Depth

    Soil type 5 6-7 8 All depths

    Sand 0.19 0.15 0.08 0.03

    Silt 0.34 0.25 0.16 0.06

    Clay 0.43 0.32 0.20 0.10

    Less than 30 feet More than 30 feet

    Distance from downspout

    Table 2. In the table above, the size factor is determined by three items: the rain gardensurface ponding depth, soil type, and distance from the downspout. To determine the sizefactor for your rain garden, locate the intersection of these three items in the table above.For example, a rain garden that has a surface ponding depth of six inches, containssandy soils, and is less than 30 feet from a downspout has a size factor of 0.15. A raingardens installed more than 30 feet away from a downspout and has sandy soils will havea size factor is 0.03 regardless of its surface ponding depth.

    Rain Garden Sizing Worksheet


    14 Sizing

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    Figure 17. The shortest side should be 4-10 feet wide to balance the effect of slope with the rain garden depth andis best placed perpendicular to the slope. For lawns with a slope greater than 8%, the maximum recommendedwidth is 15 feet.

    Following, you will learn how to buildyour rain garden based on a rainfallamount and calculate your drainageareas recharge volume.

    1. Target rainfall

    Marylands environmental site designcriteria for sizing rain gardens arebased on capturing and retainingenough rainfall so that the runoffleaving a site is reduced to a levelequivalent to a wooded site in goodcondition. To estimate the amount ofrainfall treated by your rain gardenuse the formula below.

    If you would like to capture 100%runoff, refer to appendix B for yourlocal rainfall depth and considerinstalling other small-scale practicesdiscussed on pages 9 to 11 to improve

    your drainage capacity.

    3d. Determine length and width

    Estimating the rain garden length(longest side) and width (shortest side)is based on your garden area, personalpreferences, and a little bit of math.To begin, estimate how wide your

    garden should be by considering yourgardens shape and unique siteconditions. This includes the available

    yard space, the distance betweenlandscaped areas, and any physicalconstraints. By considering theseelements, you may decide that yourgarden should be 5 feet wide (figure17). Youve just selected the width of

    your garden. Use the selected width inthe sizing worksheet on the oppositepage to calculate the gardens length.

    4. Performance measures

    With a little bit of math work, you canquantify the impact your rain gardenhas on capturing stormwater runoff.


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    HSG - Description SSRF

    A ~ excessively drained 0.38

    B ~ well drained 0.26

    C ~ moderately well drained 0.13

    D ~ somewhat poorly drained 0.07

    Figure 18. Use the line graph above to plot your sites imperviousness and recharge volume. For example, if yourrecharge volume equals 0.15 and your site imperviousness equals 20% you are above the minimum rechargevolume for all HSG soils. However, if your site imperviousness is 90% you do not meet the minimum rechargevolume for HSG A or B soils. Additional small-scale practices may be necessary to achieve the sites rechargevolume. Source: Maryland Stormwater Design Manual, Unified Stormwater Sizing Criteria, p 2.6.

    Site Imperviousness (%)



    Table 3. Consult chapter 2 of the Maryland StormwaterDesign Manual, Unified Stormwater Sizing Criteria,and chapter 3 of the Natural Resources ConservationService Soil Survey Manual, Examination andDescription of Soils, for details.

    2. Recharge volume

    Impervious surfaces prevent rainfallfrom percolating into the ground,reducing the amount of groundwater

    recharge. This change alters thenatural hydrology of stream andwetland systems and harms the habitatof many aquatic organisms. Exceedingthe minimum recharge volume attemptsto reverse this impact by requiringthat a specific amount of stormwater

    be recharged into the groundwater.Recharge volume is based on thehydrologic soil groups (HSG) at thesite, and the amount of imperviouscover created by the development.Follow the next steps to calculate therecharge volume.

    1. Referring to table 3, classify yoursoil type within a HSG andidentify the HSG soil specificrecharge factor (SSRF).

    2. Calculate the drainage areasimperviousness (I).

    3. Calculate the recharge volume.Recharge volume = SSRF X I

    4. Plot your drainage areasimperviousness on the line graphabove to evaluate the rechargevolume (figure 18).

    A soilsB soils

    C soils

    D soils

    16 Sizing

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    In this section, you will learn how toprepare the site and dig your raingarden. To help guide you through theconstruction process sketch out thegardens dimensions and surroundings.A sketch similar to figure 19 is anexample that can help you duringconstruction.

    Preparing the site

    To avoid digging on or near utility linesor pipes, contact Miss Utility at1-800-257-7777 or www.missutility.net48 business hours prior to digging. Tobe on the safe side, you may considercontacting Miss Utility one week priorto digging. The following tips will alsohelp you prepare your site for digging.

    Figure 19. A sketch of your rain garden can help guide the construction process. In the example above, the raingarden is about 4-8 feet wide and has a surface ponding depth of 5-6 inches. Rocks located at the entrance pointhelps to dissipate runoff and the berm helps to hold water in the rain garden.

    ESD Criteria # 11. Inspection

    Regular inspections shall be madeduring the following stages of


    During excavation to subgrade

    and placement of planting soil.

    Upon completion of final grading

    and establishment of permanent


    For a self-installed rain garden,expect to pay between $3 and

    $5 per square foot in plant costsand soil amendments. Whenworking with a landscapingcompany to design and install

    your rain garden, the cost will


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    Figure 20. Bay-Wise master gardeners installed a rain garden at the Chesapeake Ecology Center in Annapolis, MD.

    significantly increase to around$10 to $15 per square foot.

    Depending on your rain gardensize you may want additional help(figure 20). Building an average-size rain garden can take oneperson several hours, while a

    team of friends or neighbors candig a rain garden in a fraction ofthe time. With more friends itsalso twice as much fun.

    At the site use a flat shovel topeel the grass away from thesoil. You might be able to reusethe sod to build a vegetatedberm.

    If the grass is too tough to peel,cover it with black plastic untilthe grass dies. This usually takes3-4 weeks. Pesticides should onlybe used as a last resort as thiscould harm pets, local wildlife,and nearby plants.

    ESD Criteria # 12. Conveyance

    Runoff shall enter, flow through, and

    exit rain gardens in a safe and non-

    erosive manner.

    ESD Criteria # 13. Internal slope

    A minimum internal slope of 1% shouldbe maintained and a shallow berm

    surrounding the rain garden is

    recommended to avoid short-

    circuiting. For sloped applications, a

    series of rain gardens can be used as

    scalloped terraces to convey water

    non-erosively (refer to pages 12-13).

    ESD Criteria # 14. Erosion &Sediment Control

    Rain gardens shall not be constructed

    until the contributing drainage area is

    stabilized. During construction, runoff

    should be diverted and the use of

    heavy equipment avoided to minimize


    18 Construction

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    If possible, plan to install yourrain garden in the late spring orfall when the soil will be easierto dig and when the plants aremore likely to thrive.


    Follow the steps below to begin diggingyour rain garden.

    1. Capturing runoff

    Be sure the runoff sources will flow tothe garden site. If your rain gardenwill receive runoff from roadways,make sure curb cuts are created

    (figure 21 and 22). This assuresrainwater will flow into the garden.

    2. Outlining the rain garden shape

    While referring to your sketches, layout the approximate shape of your raingarden with marking paint, heavy rope,or a hose. You can also use surveyorflags or overturn the grass to mark

    the gardens edge (figure 23 on page20). Another way to mark the edge isto mow the shape of your garden. If

    you decide to do so, make the cornersgentle, otherwise they will be difficultto mow. Remove and replace the stakeswhen you are done mowing (refer to

    page 12). Youll need the stakes forbuilding a berm. The edge between cutand uncut grass will give you an easy to

    Figure 22. A curb cut allows runoff to flow into a raingarden at Heritage Baptist Church in Annapolis, MD.

    Figure 21. Creating a curb cut allows stormwater runoff from streets to enter rain gardens.


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    maintain shape. Be creative with theshape, but gentle curves look the mostnatural.

    3. Constructing the berm

    A berm is a low soil mound constructed

    along the width and downhill side ofyour rain garden. Its top should beabout level with the uphill side and itsbase should be a foot or more widewith gently sloping sides. Berms on thedownhill side of a garden are necessaryon sloping sites. This will help holdwater in your garden giving it time toseep into the soil.

    To build your berm, consider reusingthe sod and soil from your rain gardenarea (figure 24). This will help create avegetated berm which is more likely towithstand berm erosion.

    4. Soil mixture (optional)

    Amend soil only if necessary. If youare planning to remove existing soil in

    order to add rain garden soil mixture,make sure you dig a few more inchesbelow the garden base (refer to figure16 on page 13). A soil mixtureconsisting of 50-60% sand, 20-30%topsoil (no clay), and 20-30% compostwill help establish plants and allowwater to soak in. Use the formulabelow to help estimate the amount of

    total fill needed for your garden.

    Fill = width x length x depth

    below garden base

    Follow the ESD criteria #15 if you arerequired to implement stormwatermanagement by your local approvingauthority.

    Figure 23. The Lower Eastern Shore Tributary StrategyTeam outlines the gardens shape by marking it withpaint and overturning sod.

    Figure 24. To construct the rain garden at the WardMuseum of Wildfowl Art in Salisbury, Maryland, theLower Eastern Shore Tributary Strategy Team reusedthe garden areas sod to build a vegetated berm alongthe downslope side of the garden.

    20 Construction

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    5. Putting it all together

    Referring to your sketches, you willknow how deep to dig. If your pondingdepth is 6 inches, you will remove all

    the sod and soil 6 inches below thelevel string line. Remember to dig a fewmore inches if you are adding mulch,compost, or soil.

    Begin digging at the uphill side nearthe stake and place the dirt (and sod)in the berm location. Level the bermsheight with the uphill side by eye-

    balling it, moving the downhill stakealong the lower edge of the rain gardenwhile making sure the string is level, orby placing a carpenters level on astraight 2x4 that reaches from theuphill side to the berm (figure 25).

    Now that the rain garden is dug youare ready to plant herbaceous

    Figure 25. If your level is long enough, use it to level the height of your rain garden berm.

    flowering perennials (flowers andgrasses) or woodies (shrubs and trees)in your garden. Read the next sectionto learn how to select and install native

    plants in your rain garden.

    ESD Criteria # 15. Planting Soil

    Planting soil should be mixed onsite

    prior to installation. If poor soils are

    encountered beneath the rain garden,

    a fourinch layer of washed gravel (1/8

    to 3/8 inch gravel preferred) may be

    used below the planting soil mix. The

    planting soil and mulch shall conformto the specifications found in appendix

    B.4 of the Maryland Stormwater

    Design Manual at






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    Figure 26. Rain gardens add color and life to your landscape.

    Blueflag Iris

    Tall White Beardtongue

    Blueberry BushSwamp Milkweed

    Marsh Marigold

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    With the grunt work done, youre nowready to bring your rain garden to lifewith your native plant selection (figure26). In this section, you will learn howto select plants, lay out a rain gardendesign, install plants, and apply mulch.

    Rain garden design

    Create a sketch of your rain garden

    design to help guide your plantselection (figure 27). To help youbrainstorm, refer to appendix C for asample design and review the tipsbelow.

    For a bold impact, reduce theamount of space between plantsby a few inches from the


    Figure 27. Sketch out your basic rain garden design. You dont have to be an architect!

    ESD Criteria # 16. Design

    Landscaping plans shall clearly specify

    how vegetation will be established and

    managed. A rain garden should be

    located in full to partial sun, at least

    two feet above the seasonal high

    water table and have a total rain

    garden depth of 12 to 18 inches (refer

    to figure 11 on page 8). Plants selected

    for use in the rain garden shouldtolerate both saturated and dry

    conditions and be native or adapted to

    Maryland. Neatly trimmed shrubs, a

    crisp lawn edge, stone retaining walls,

    and other devices can be used to keep

    a rain garden neat and visually



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    for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation

    Landscaping: Chesapeake Bay

    Watershed, www.RainScaping.org, andThe Low Impact Development Centeralso provide helpful tips on how tochoose the plants for your garden andprovides pictures of them too. Beloware some tips to help you select plants.

    Sun, partial sun, and shade

    Select native plants adapted to thesunlight your rain garden will receive.

    Height, color, and texture

    The physical properties of your plantswill help add variety and interest to

    your rain garden. If your rain gardenlacks flowering blooms, then takeadvantage of different leaf shades,shapes, and colors. For example,combining a variety of textures,staggering heights, and plants bearingvariegation increases visual interest ifclustered properly (figure 28).

    Figure 28. Clustering creates the visual impact in the rain garden along Lincoln Drive in Annapolis, MD.

    recommended spacing. Thisallows mature plants to overlap.

    Plant your native shrubs andflowers where their uniquetextures, colors, and heights willcomplement one another andhelp achieve the desired visualimpact. Like grade-schoolpictures, tallest in the back andshortest up front.

    Plant Selection

    Native plants create habitat suited forwildlife, grow well without chemicalsupplements, and require less

    maintenance. With native species, yourrain garden will be beautiful, healthy,and safely enjoyed by insects, birds,pets, and children. Decide which nativeplants meet your personal preferencesby referring to appendix D for a list ofnative plants or visit your local nursery.Online resources like the Native Plants

    24 Planting

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    Like real estate, landscaping has threerules: cluster, cluster, and cluster. Buyat least three individual plants of eachspecies, but seven is typically theminimum number for a cluster.


    Design your rain garden to be alivespring through fall by selecting plantsthat bloom throughout the seasons.For example, beardtongue blooms fromApril to June and cardinal flower, ahummingbird favorite, blooms fromJuly to September (see front cover).

    White turtlehead(figure 29) bloomsfrom August to October and is the onlyplant that the Maryland state insect,the Baltimore Checkerspot Butterfly,will lay its eggs on (figure 30). Bydesigning your garden to bloom yearround with native plants, local insectsand wildlife will benefit too.

    Figure 30. Baltimore Checkerspot Butterfly.Figure 29. White Turtlehead.


    Buy one or two-year old plants withwell-established root systems that arebeginning to circle or mat the pot, yetare young enough to adapt well to newgrowing conditions.

    Incorporating clusters of ferns,rushes, and grasses with yourflowering plants creates good rootcompetition. This is normal and causesa healthier root pattern to develop.Blending a mix of clustered plantspecies reduces the chance of thegarden being overrun by one species.If you would like to plant shrubs and

    trees, make sure they are well adaptedto at least part-time wet conditions.


    While referring to your rain gardendesign sketch, place the potted plantsin your rain garden. Try to visualizethem full grown and move them around


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    until youve reached the best effect.Be bold, but cluster! The following tipswill help you begin planting your pottedplants.

    Dig each hole so it is at leasttwice as wide as the pot and nodeeper than the pot. You willknow if the hole is deep enoughwhen the pots soil and theplants crown are level with theexisting grade.

    Plant one plant at a time fromone side to the other or fromthe middle out to avoid steppingon plants.

    Remove the plants by tappingthe side of the pots to loosenthem. Do not expose plant rootsany longer than necessary.

    Loosen the matted roots circlingwith the shape of the pot.

    Figure 31. Lower Eastern Shore Tributary Team members and volunteers planted native grasses, flowers, andshrubs at one of two rain gardens installed at the Providence Presbyterian Church in Salisbury, MD.

    ESD Criteria # 17. LandscapeInstallation

    The optimum planting time is during

    the Fall. Spring planting is also

    acceptable but may require watering.

    ESD Criteria# 18. Conveyance

    Runoff shall enter a rain garden at the

    surface through grass swales and/or a

    gravel bed. Energy dissipation shall be

    provided for downspout discharges

    using a plunge area, rocks, splash

    blocks, stone dams, etc.

    ESD Criteria # 19. Treatment A minimum layer of 6-12 inches

    of planting soil shall be provided

    (refer to figure 11 on page 8).

    A mulch layer 2-3 inches deep

    shall be applied to the planting

    soil to maintain soil moisture and

    to prevent premature clogging.

    26 Planting

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    Place the plant in the hole, fillthe hole with soil, and firmlytamp it.

    Water your plants immediately. To help remember whats what,

    put plant labels next to each

    cluster.With the helping hand of a friend, youwill be able finish in an hour or two(figure 31). Once all are planted, roundup your pots and either reuse orrecycle them.

    Toppings: stone and mulch

    Until the native plants can establishthemselves, spread stone across theentrance point of your rain garden toslow water flow (figure 32). This willalso help prevent strong storm eventsfrom washing out the mulch, soil, orbreaking through the berm. To lookmore natural, stones should be buried

    Figure 32. The rain garden above, designed by Kara Bowne Crissey and installed by the Severn Grove EcologicalDesign, placed rocks along the edge to dissipate runoff during storm events.

    at a depth of about one quarter oftheir height.

    Another option is adding organicmatter, such as shredded leaf mulch,to improve soil structure. It also

    conserves moisture, blocks light thatmany weed seeds need to germinate,lessens erosion, and is an attractivetop dressing for your planting bed.

    As a rule-of-thumb, apply mulch to adepth of 2-3 inches in planting beds.The depth of mulch to apply willdepend upon the type of material used.Be sure not to bury seedlings or

    dormant plants, and keep it a fewinches from the trunks of trees andshrubs. Commonly used organic mulchesinclude: chipped or shredded woodmulch, such as pine or cypress; pinneedles; and shredded leaves.Inorganic mulches include: gravel andother types of stone.


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    Figure 33. The drawing above illustrates how rain gardens and rain barrels work together to capture runoff. The downspout isdirected into a rain barrel to collect roof runoff. In order to collect more roof runoff, two rain barrels are connected to each other.The excess runoff will pour out through the rain barrels over-flow valve. You can attach an overflow hose to the valve to helpdirect flow towards your rain garden. By storing the stormwater runoff in rain barrels, youll be able to water your rain gardenduring dry periods.

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    Figure 34. A Burnsville, MN home before and after rain garden construction. The City of Burnsville, MN constructedrain gardens to improve the water quality of Crystal Lake by adding rain gardens to a 20-year-old neighborhood. Tolearn more about the project visithttp://www.landandwater.com/features/vol48no5/vol48no5_2.html.


    Give your rain garden TLC to ensure itfunctions properly. Tender loving caredoes not mean 24-7 maintenance, butby making adjustments when needed,

    youll be able to enjoy your gardenthroughout the seasons (figure 34). Inthis section youll learn how to maintain

    your rain garden by measuring itsperformance over time andincorporating rain barrels into yourrain garden design.

    Rain barrels

    Water your plants immediately. Theywill need about an inch of water perweek to become established. To helpregulate watering, incorporate rainbarrels into your rain garden design(figure 33). Simply connect your rainbarrel to the downspout draining to

    your garden (figures 36 and 37 on page


    30). Direct the overflow hose intoyour garden so that excessive runoffwill flow from the hose into yourgarden. Whatever is left inside the

    rain barrel can be used to water yourgarden in times of prolonged drought.Other rain barrel benefits include:

    Lower water costs (a rain barrelcan save approximately 1,300gallons of water during peaksummer months).

    Beautifully designed rain barrelsif built with the proper

    materials and tools (figure 35 onpage 30).

    Naturally rechargesgroundwater.

    Reduced water pollution byreducing stormwater runoff,which can contain pollutants likesediment, oil, grease, bacteria,and nutrients.

    Good design andregular maintenancewill continue to help

    clean stormwater.



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    Maintaining your rain barrel is easytoo. Keep these simple tips in mind fora properly functioning rain barrel.

    Clear debris away from the inlet ona regular basis to allow roof runoffto pour into the rain barrel.

    Unless your rain barrel canwithstand freezing temperatures,clean out your rain barrel at theend of the season and store itindoors to prevent water fromfreezing inside of it. Freezingtemperatures could damage yourrain barrel.

    Performance evaluationOnce youve constructed your raingarden youll need to maintain properdrainage and healthy plants. Considerthe following tips to maintain your raingardens performance.

    Rain garden performance

    Visual inspections offer the easiestway to evaluate your garden for properdrainage. After a storm ends, visuallyinspect the rain garden for standingwater at 24 and 48 hours. Youll needabout an inch of rain or more. If thereis still standing water after 48 hours,

    youll need to make adjustments basedon your sites conditions (refer topages 9 to 11). To verify properconstruction and ensure long-termperformance, check for the itemsbelow.

    Sediment accumulation in thebasin from the drainage area

    Clogged inlet or outlet Excessive erosion within the


    Figure 35. Rain barrel artwork.

    Figure 36. Highland Beach Town Hall rain barrels.

    Figure 37. Connected rain barrels at Arlington Echo.

    30 Maintenance

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    Healthy native plants

    Your native plants are the stars of thegarden. Take care of them by applyingthe tips below to evaluate the healthof your plants.

    Begin with a record of thegarden design showing the plantsinstalled and their location(refer to page 22).

    Record the time of growingseason and age of the garden.

    Describe the condition of thesite when you assess your plants.

    With the help of a plant fieldguide and your original gardendesign, identify the speciespresent and their growthrequirements. This will helpdetermine whether or not thecorrect species are present.

    Record the color, size, andquality of the leaves, stem, andflowers. Compare this to youroriginal garden design.

    Estimate the percentage ofvegetative cover to determine ifplants are established.

    Inspect your garden for wetlandplant species to determine ifhydric soils may be present,indicating prolonged periods ofsaturation.

    Take pictures of your garden to

    develop a complete record ofconditions at the time of yourassessment.

    During a growing season, recordobservations as needed. Followthese tips annually so that youllhave records to compare growingseasons and note any changes.

    Your contribution

    Each rain garden you build cleans ourwaterways so that one day well say inthe watershed of the Chesapeake andCoastal Bays, What falls on site, stayson site. -www.RainScaping.org

    ESD Criteria # 20. Maintenance

    Rain garden maintenance is

    generally no different than that

    required of other landscaped


    The top few inches of the

    planting soil should be removed

    and replaced when water ponds

    for more than 48 hours. Silts

    and sediment should be removed

    from the surface of the bed as


    Where practices are used to

    treat areas with higher

    concentrations of heavy metals

    (e.g., parking lots, roads), mulchshould be replaced annually.

    Otherwise, the top two to three

    inches should be replaced as


    Occasional pruning and

    replacement of dead vegetation

    is necessary. If specific plants

    are not surviving, more

    appropriate species should beused. Watering may be required

    during prolonged dry periods.

    Rain gardens shall have a

    maintenance plan and be

    protected by an easement, deed

    restriction, ordinance, or other

    legal measures preventing its

    neglect, adverse alteration and



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    Rain Garden ChecklistNo. Task Page

    1. Locate your rain garden site. 5-6

    2. Decide the best shape for your garden. 7, 19-203. Estimate its drainage area. 11-12

    4. Figure out its surface ponding depth. 12-13

    5. Determine your rain gardens area. 13-14

    6. Sketch out your gardens dimensions. 15, 17, 23

    7. Contact Miss Utility 1-800-257-7777. 17

    8. Figure out your budget. 17

    9. Make sure your garden catches the runoffyoure planning to treat.


    10. Build a berm. 20-21

    11. Dig your rain garden. 21

    12. Consider adding rain garden soil mixture,

    mulch, or stones (optional).

    6-7, 20,

    21, 2713. Buy native plants. 24-25,


    14. Lay out and plant the rain garden design.Remember to cluster, cluster, and cluster!

    23-27, 37

    15. Incorporate a rain barrel into your gardenlayout.


    16. Evaluate your rain garden for properdrainage and healthy plants.


    17. Review environmental site design criteriatips 1-20 to meet Marylands stormwatermanagemet criteria.

    ii, 1, 2-3,5-6, 9, 12,17-18, 21,23, 26, 31

    32 Rain Garden Checklist

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    AppendicesAppendix A:

    Soil tests

    Appendix C:Rain garden templates

    by Low Impact Development Center

    Appendix D:Native plantsby Maryland Cooperative Extension

    Swamp Sunflower

    Appendix B:

    Rainfall depthby the Maryland Departmentof the Environment.

    Maryland Stormwater Design Manual,Unified Stormwater Sizing Criteria


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    The percolation test and the clay testcan help you identify soil type in yourrain garden area.

    Percolation Test

    There are two percolation tests thatcan help you determine how fast waterdrains in your soil.

    1. Water in a hole

    Dig a hole about 1-2 feet wideand 2 feet deep at the raingarden site (figure 38).

    Fill the hole with water(figure 39).

    If the hole drains in less than24 hours, your soil is probably

    Drainage Time Soil Porosity Drainage Conditions

    Less than 4minutes

    Excellent percolationsand air circulation.

    This soil offers the best drainage conditionsfor planting a rain garden.

    4 to 10 minutes Somewhat compact ordense soil.

    Acceptable drainage for a rain garden butslower; may need to aerate or augment soil.

    Over 10 minutes Overly compact or dense. Very poor drainage; challenging conditions.Must augment soil, mill, and aerate.

    Soil tests

    Table 4. Drainage time.

    Figure 38. Dig a hole first. Figure 39. Fill the hole with water. Figure 40. Lastly, track time.

    suitable for a rain garden(figure 40).

    If theres water in the holeafter 24 hours select anothersite or talk to a professionallandscaper.

    2. Water in a can

    Remove the ends from a 46-

    ounce can or a large can of juice. Insert the can two inches into

    the ground. Pour a quart of water into the

    can. Depending on how many minutes

    it takes for the water to drain,you may or may not have suitablesoils for a rain garden (table 4).

    34 Appendix A

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    Clay-sandy soils test

    Soils with high clay content mayprevent proper drainage. Sandy soilsare the best soils for drainage. You canuse the tests below to identify soiltype or contact your local Natural

    Resources Conservation Serviceextension office for assistance.

    1. Clay ribbon

    The simplest way to test for clayor sandy soils (and at no cost) isto dampen a handful of soil in

    your hands (figure 41). Knead the soil into a ball

    (figure 42). Roll the ball between your hands

    to make a rope of soil uniformlythick (figure 43).

    Allow the rope to extendunsupported over yourforefinger until it breaks fromits own weight.

    If the rope extends unsupported

    greater than an inch before itbreaks, and feels more smooththan gritty, the soil may havetoo much clay in it. This site maybe unsuitable for a rain garden.Select another site or talk to aprofessional landscaper.

    2. Soil maps

    Soil maps are a good referencefor a basic understanding of thesoils in your neighborhood. Theywill tell you what soils are on andnear the land.

    Your local Natural ResourcesConservation Service extensionoffice will have soil maps for

    your area.

    Figure 41. Dampen a handful of soil in your hands andknead the soil. Clay soil, when compacted, can preventdrainage. Sandy soil feels gritty and may be moredifficult to knead, crumbling in the palm of your hands.

    Figure 42. Knead the soil into a ball about an inch indiameter.

    Figure 43. Roll the ball between your hands to make arope of soil uniformly thick. If your rope breaks beforeextending an inch then you probably have sandy soilsthat allow proper drainage. This site may be suitablefor your rain garden.

    35Appendix A

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    Rainfall Depth ChartRainfall Depth (inches)

    1 yr - 24 hr 2 yr - 24 hr 10 yr - 24 hr 100 yr - 24 hr

    Allegany 2.4 2.9 4.5 6.2

    Anne Arundel 2.7 3.3 5.2 7.4

    Baltimore 2.6 3.2 5.1 7.1

    Calvert 2.8 3.4 5.3 7.6

    Caroline 2.8 3.4 5.3 7.6

    Carroll 2.5 3.1 5.0 7.1

    Cecil 2.7 3.3 5.1 7.3

    Charles 2.7 3.3 5.3 7.5

    Dorchester 2.8 3.4 5.4 7.8

    Frederick 2.5 3.1 5.0 7.0

    Garrett 2.4 2.8 4.3 5.9

    Harford 2.6 3.2 5.1 7.2

    Howard 2.6 3.2 5.1 7.2

    Kent 2.7 3.3 5.2 7.4

    Montgomery 2.6 3.2 5.1 7.2

    Prince Georges 2.7 3.3 5.3 7.4

    Queen Annes 2.7 3.3 5.3 7.5

    St. Marys 2.8 3.4 5.4 7.7

    Somerset 2.9 3.5 5.6 8.1

    Talbot 2.8 3.4 5.3 7.6

    Washington 2.5 3.0 4.8 6.7

    Wicomico 2.9 3.5 5.6 7.9

    Worcester 3.0 3.6 5.6 8.1


    Table 5. Listed in the table above are rainfall depths associated with the 1, 2, 10 and 100-year, 24-hour stormevents (source: Chapter 2 of the Maryland Stormwater Design Manual, Unified Stormwater Sizing Criteria, page2.11) . Marylands environmental site design (ESD) sizing criteria for new development requiring stormwatermanagement states that ESD practices shall treat the runoff from one inch of rainfall. However, if your water qualitygoal is to treat 100% of the runoff from a 1 year, 24-hour storm event, use the rainfall depth chart above todetermine how much rainfall you need to plan for. For instance, a Worcester County resident treating 100% ofrunoff from the 1 year, 24-hour storm event needs to size their rain garden to treat the runoff from a three inchstorm event. Refer to page 15 to learn more about sizing your rain garden based on targeting a rainfall amount.

    36 Appendix B

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    Rain garden template

    Butterfly Swale,Low Maintenance, 250 SF, Coastal Plain, Pt Shade/Shade

    A - 10 Myosotis scorpioides(Forget-me-not) or Mertensia virginiana(Virginiabluebell)B - 13 Gentiana andrewsii(Bottle Gentian) or Aster cordifolius(Blue Wood Aster)C - 10 Amsonia tabernaemontana(Blue-star flower)D - 12 Lobelia siphilitica(Great Blue Lobelia)E - 13 Phlox divaricata(Woodland Phlox)F - 12 Aruncus dioicus(Goatsbeard)G - 32 Elymus hystrix(Bottlebrush Grass) or Ajuga reptans(Carpetbugle)H - 1 Aesculus parviflora(Bottlebrush buckeye)I - 16 Aster cordifolius(Blue Wood Aster) or Tradescantia virginiana(Spiderwort)J - 7 Viola papilionacea(Common Blue Violet) or Dicentra eximia(Hardy BleedingHeart)

    Note: The number of plants for each designated area is approximate.

    Butterfly SwaleLow Maintenance, 250 SF, Coastal Plain, Full Sun

    A - 10 Chelone glabra(White turtlehead)B - 13 Verbena hastate(Blue Vervain)C - 10 Amsonia tabernaemontana(Blue-star flower)D - 12 Lobelia cardinalis(Cardinal Flower)E - 13 Amsonia hubrechtii(Narrow-leaf Blue-Star flower)F - 12 Muhlenbergia capillaries(Pink Muhly Grass)G - 52 Carex stricta(Tussock sedge)H - 1 Magnolia virginiana(Sweetbay)

    I - 16 Aster novi-belgii, Professor Anton Kippenburg (New York Aster)J - 7 Chelone lyonii(Pink Turtlehead)

    37Appendix C

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  • 7/31/2019 Rain Gardens Across Maryland


    Flower colors

    The key below is a simplified list ofcolors and includes all shades.





    The key following will help you identifywhich native plants are suitable for

    your rain garden based on sunlightexposure, its soil moisture content,color, height, and bloom time. Foradditional native plants, refer to

    Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat andConservation Landscaping: Chesapeake

    Bay Watershed.


    Full sun (Su) receives directsunlight for at least six hours aday during the growing season.

    Partial shade (PS) receivesapproximately three to six hours

    of direct sunlight during thegrowing season.

    Shade (Sh) receives less thanthree hours of direct sunlight orfiltered light.

    Soil Moisture

    Moist (M) areas are where thesoil is saturated for much of the

    growing season, except indroughts. These plants canhandle saturated areas longer.

    Average (A) areas are wherethe soil is damp, and may beoccasionally saturated. Plants

    can handle saturated and drysoils. Dry (D) areas are where water

    does not remain after a rain.These areas may be in full sun orin a windy location, on a steepslope, or have sandy soil. Plantsin this category are droughttolerant.

    Cinnamon Fern

    Common Name Scientific Name M D Su PS Sh Height

    Cinnamon Fern Osmunda cinnamomea X X X X 2-5

    Royal Fern Osmunda regalis X X X X 1.5-6

    Sensitive Fern Onoclea sensibilis X X X X 1-3.5





    Northern Lady Fern Athyrium filix-femina X X X 1-3

    Maidenhair Fern Adiantum pedatum X X X 1-2

    Royal Fern Sensitive Fern


    39Appendix D

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    Grasses and sedges


    Common Name Scientific Name M A D Su PS Sh Height

    Broomsedge Andropogon virginicus X X X X 1-3

    Switch Grass Panicum Virgatum X X X X X 3-6

    Tussock Sedge Carex stricta X X X 1-3.5


    Scientific Name M A D Su PS Sh Height Color Bloom

    Beebalm Monarda didyma X X X X 2-5 R, Pu Jul-Aug

    Blueflag Iris Iris versicolor X X X X 3 Bl, Pu May-Jun

    Ginger, Wild Asarumcanadense

    X X X X 0.5-1 B, Pu Apr-May

    Cardinal Flower Lobelia cardinalis X X X X 2-4 R Jul-Sept




    X X X X X 1-5 W Jul-Sept

    Foamflower Tiarellacordifolia

    X X X 0.5-1 W Apr-Jul


    Solidago rugosa X X X X 1-6.5 Y Sept-Oct

    Great BlueLobelia

    Lobelia siphilitica X X X X 2-3 Bl Aug-Oct

    Jacobs Ladder Polemoniumreptans

    X X X X 0.5-1.5 Bl Apr-Aug

    Wild Ginger Smooth Solomons Seal

    SwitchgrassBroomsedge Tussock Sedge

    Great Blue Lobelia

    40 Appendix D

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    Herbaceous cont.

    41Appendix D

    Common Name Scientific Name M A D Su PS Sh Height Color Bloom

    Lyre-leaf Sage Salvia lyrata X X X X X 1-2 Pu Apr-Jun

    Marsh Marigold Caltha palustris X X X 1-2 Y Apr-Jun

    Meadow Phlox Phlox maculata X X X X X 1-3 P, Pu May-Sept

    Mist Flower Conocliniumcoelestinum

    X X X X X X 1-3.5 Pu Jul-Oct

    Narrow-LeavedMountain Mint



    X X X X X 1.5-2.5 Pu, W Jul-Sept

    New York




    X X X X 3.5-8 Pu Aug-Oct

    Obedient Plant Physostegiavirginiana

    X X X X X 1.5-5 P, Pu Jun-Sept

    SmoothSolomons Seal



    X X X X X 1-3.5 Y Apr-Jun

    Spiderwort Tradescantia


    X X X X 1-3 B, Pu Apr-Jul

    Summer Phlox Phlox paniculata X X X 1.5-6.5 P, Pu Jul-Oct




    X X X X 4-6 P, W May-Jun




    X X X 1.5-5.5 Y Aug-Oct

    Tall WhiteBeardtongue



    X X X X X 2-5 W Apr-Jun

    Turtlehead Chelone glabra X X X X 1-3 W, P Aug-Oct

    Woodland Phlox Phlox divaricata X X X 1.5 Bl, W Apr-Jun

    Rose Mallow Hibiscusmosheutos

    X X X X 3-6 P, W Jul-Sept

    Joe Pye Weed Eupatoriumfistulosum

    X X X X X 1.5-10 P Jul-Sept

    Woodland PhloxObedient PlantNew York Ironweed

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    42 Appendix D


    Scientific Name M A D Su PS Sh Height Color Bloom




    X X X X X 6 Pu Jun-Aug




    X X X X X 3-6 W Apr-May

    Buttonbush Cephalanthusoccidentalis

    X X X X X 5-12 W, P Jun-Sept

    Elderberry Sambucuscanadensis

    X X X X X X 6-12 W May-Jun



    X X X X X 6-12 P May-Jun

    Inkberry Ilex glabra X X X X X X 6-10 W May-Jul


    Kalmia latifolia X X X X X X 12-20 W, P Jun-Jul




    X X X X X 5-10 Y Mar-Apr

    Pink Azalea Rhododendron


    X X X X X X 3-10 P, W Apr-May


    Photinia pyrifolia X X X X X 1.5-13 W Mar-May


    Cornus amomum X X X X 6-12 W Mar-Apr




    X X X X X X 10-15 W, P Apr-May

    Spicebush Lindera benzoin X X X X 6.5-16 W, Y Mar-May

    Mountain Laurel Sourthern ArrowwoodRed Chokeberry

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    Shrubs cont.

    Common Name Scientific Name M A D Su PS Sh Height

    American Holly Ilex opaca X X X X X 15-50

    Black Gum Nyssa sylvatica X X X X X 30-75

    Fringetree, White Chionanthus virginicus X X X 20-35Red Maple Acer rubrum X X X X 40-100

    River Birch Betula nigra X X X X 50-75

    Serviceberry/Shadbush Amelanchier canadensis X X X X 35-50

    Swamp White Oak Quercus bicolor X X X 60-100

    Sweetbay Magnolia Magnolia virginiana X X X X X 12-30

    Willow Oak Quercus phellos X X X X 80-100


    Scientific Name M A D Su PS Sh Height Color Bloom

    Sweet PepperBush

    Clethra alnifolia X X X X 6-12 W Jul-Aug


    Itea virginica X X X X X X 6-10 W Apr-Jun

    Wax Myrtle Myrica cerifera X X X X X 6-15 G Mar-Apr

    Winterberry Ilex verticillata X X X X X 6-12 W, Y,G, B


    Witherod Viburnum nudum X X X X X 6.5-20 W Jun-Jul

    Swamp Azalea Rhododendron


    X X X X 6.5-10 W, P May-Aug

    White Fringetree Sweetbay Magnolia Red Maple


    43Appendix D

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    Aseleson, Brooke C., Rebecca S. Nestingen, John S. Gulliver, Raymond M. Hozalski, and John L. Nieber, 2009. PerformanceAssessment of Rain Gardens. Journal of the American Water Resources Association(JAWRA) 45(4):1019-1031.


    Central Ohio Rain Garden Initiative. 2009. Columbus, Ohio. Available online at http://www.centralohioraingardens.org.Accessed October 28, 2009.

    Chesapeake Bay Foundation. No date. Build Your Own Rain Garden. Annapolis, Maryland. Available online at http://www.cbf.org/site/PageServer?pagename=exp_sub_resources_publications. Accessed May 15, 2008.

    City of Tallahassee. No date. Rain Gardens: A How-to Manual for Homeowners. Tallahassee, Florida. Available online athttp://www.tappwater.org/what-raingardens.aspx?a=viewPost&PostID=2243. Accessed May 15, 2008.

    Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory.September 2008. Green Infrastructure Research Program. Science Brief.

    Lexington Fayette Urban County Government. 2007. Rain Gardens. Brochure. Lexington: CDP Engineers, Inc. Available onlineat www.dca.ky.gov/NR/rdonlyres/69A3C57d-3984-4BA4-BA9B-CC8B90352C0C/0/

    LFUCG2007rainGardenBrochureFinal.pdf. Accessed May 16, 2008.

    Low Impact Development Center. Rain Garden Design Templates. Available online at http://www.lowimpactdevelopment.org/raingarden_design/templates.htm. Accessed May 22, 2008.

    Maryland Cooperative Extension, University of Maryland. 2005. Native Plants of Maryland: What, When and Where. CollegePark, Maryland. Available online at www.hgic.umd.edu. Accessed May 30, 2008.

    Maryland Stormwater Design Manual. Maryland Department of the Environment. 2000. Available athttp://www.mde.state.md.us/Programs/WaterPrograms/SedimentandStormwater/

    Mill Creek Watershed Council of Communities. 2007. What is a Rain Garden. Cincinnati: CDP Engineers, Inc. Available onlineat http://www.millcreekwatershed.org/rain-gardens.html. Accessed May 16, 2008.

    Rain Gardens of West Michigan and West Michigan Environmental Action Council. Copyright 2000-2008. Create a RainGarden. Grand Rapids, Michigan. Available online at http://www.raingardens.org/Create_A_Garden.php. Accessed

    May 15, 2008.

    Rain Garden Network. Chicago, IL. Available online at http://www.raingardennetwork.com/. Accessed October 28, 2009.

    Rainscaping Campaign. National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. Funded by the 2009 Chesapeake Bay Small Watershed GrantsProgram. Available online at www.Rainscaping.org. Accessed October 27, 2009.

    Seymour, Rose Mary. Copyright 2008. Reclaim Your Rain: Rain Gardens for Home Landscapes. Duluth, Georgia. Availableonline at http://www.duluth-ga.com/dt/public_works/stormwater/stormwtrmgmt.html. Accessed May 15, 2008.

    ______. No date. Build Your Own Rain Garden. Duluth, Georgia. PowerPoint presentation. Available online at http://www.accstormwater.com/publicinfo/Build_a_Rain_Garden.pdf. Accessed May 15, 2008.

    Slattery, Britt E., Kathryn Reshetiloff and Susan M. Zwicker. 2003. Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and ConservationLandscaping: Chesapeake Bay Watershed. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Chesapeake Bay Field Office, Annapolis,MD.

    South River Federation and the Center for Watershed Protection. October, 2002. How to Install a Rain Garden.Edgewater, Maryland. Available online at http://www.cwp.org/. Accessed May 15, 2008.

    United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service. Plants Database. http://plants.usda.gov/. Accessed October 28, 2009.

    Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the University of Wisconsin-Extension Environmental Resources Center.2003. Rain Gardens: A how-to manual for homeowners. Madison: University of Wisconsin-Extension offices,Cooperative Extension Publications. UWEX Publication GWQ037 1-06-03-5M-100-S and DNR publication PUB-WT-776 2003.


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    Worcester County Commissioners:Bud Church, President

    Linda Busick, Vice-PresidentJudy BoggsRobert Lee Cowger, Jr.Louise GulyasJames L. PurnellVirgil Shockley

    Authors:Sandy Coyman, Worcester County*Keota Silaphone, Worcester County


    Mike Fritz, Environmental Protection AgencyJames Garrity, Worcester County*Christy Hallman, Worcester County*Zora Lathan, Chesapeake Ecology CenterKatherine Munson, Worcester CountyDavid Wilson, Maryland Coastal Bays ProgramPhyllis Wimbrow, Worcester County

    *no longer affiliated with Worcester County

    Image credits:Front coverCardinal flower image courtesy of

    William C. Miller lll, The Azalea Works.

    Page ivRain garden cycle drawing courtesy ofMarge Coyman based on Rice CreekWatershed District and Emmons &Oliver, Inc.

    Page 1Rain garden in the landscape drawingcourtesy of Marge Coyman.

    Page 2Stormwater runoff drawing courtesy ofKeota Silaphone based on stormwatergraphic design at www.RainScaping.org.

    Page 3Highland Beach rain garden photos andshade rain garden at the ChesapeakeEcology Center courtesy of Zora Lathan.

    Page 4Aerial imagery diagram courtesy of ErinRoss and Marge Coyman.

    Page 5Rain garden sign photo courtesy ofKeota Silaphone.

    Page 6Aerial imagery diagram courtesy ofKeota Silaphone and Marge Coyman.

    Page 7Rain garden area drawing courtesy ofKeota Silaphone and Marge Coyman.

    Page 8Rain garden depth drawing courtesy of

    Marge Coyman based on an illustrationby Doug Adamson, Southview Design.

    Page 9Aerial imagery diagram courtesy ofKeota Silaphone and Marge Coyman.

    Page 10Permeable pavers at Back CreekNature Park in Annapolis, MD. Photocourtesy of Zora Lathan.

    Page 11Aerial imagery diagram courtesy ofKeota Silaphone and Marge Coyman. Roofphoto courtesy of Keota Silaphone.

    Page 13Slope sketch courtesy of KeotaSilaphone and Marge Coyman.

    Page 15Graphic drawing courtesy of JimmyGarrity and Marge Coyman.

    Page 17Rain garden profile courtesy of KeotaSilaphone and Marge Coyman.

    Page 18Bay-Wise master gardeners building arain garden photo courtesy of ZoraLathan.

    Page 19Curb cut image courtesy of the City ofBurnsville, MN. Rain garden installed atHeritage Baptist Church in Annapolis,MD photo courtesy of Zora Lathan.

    Page 20The Maryland Lower Eastern ShoreTributary Team marking the gardenedge photo courtesy of Jimmy Garrity.

    Reusing the garden areas sod photocourtesy of Christy Hallman.

    Page 21Leveling image courtesy of IowaNatural Resources Conservation Service.

    Page 22Rain garden template drawing courtesyof Erin Ross and Marge Coyman.Spiderwort, Blue iris, and Tall whitebeardtongue photos courtesy of KeotaSilaphone. Blueberry bush photocourtesy of L. Michael Adams. Thefollowing images were downloaded fromwww. Wildflower.org: Marsh marigold

    image courtesy of Doug Sherman andSwamp milkweed image courtesy of Sallyand Andy Wasowski.

    Page 23Rain garden template drawing courtesyof Keota Silaphone and Marge Coyman.

    Page 24Lincoln Drive rain garden photocourtesy of Cindy Wallace.

    Page 25White turtlehead image courtesy ofU.S. Forest Service. Baltimore


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    Checkerspot Butterfly image courtesyof Wikimedia Commons.

    Page 26Rain garden planting at the ProvidencePresbyterian Church in Salisbury,Maryland. Photo courtesy of KeotaSilaphone.

    Page 27Rain garden photo courtesy of KaraBowne Crissey.

    Page 28Rain barrel and rain garden artworkcourtesy of Keota Silaphone.

    Page 29Before and after rain garden imagescourtesy of the City of Burnsville, MN.

    Page 30Highland Beach town hall rain barrelsand Arlington Echo rain barrel photos

    courtesy of Zora Lathan. Rain barrel artimage courtesy of Sheree ofwww.watercolorplus.com.

    Page 33Soil photo courtesy of the WorcesterCounty Department of Public Works andKeota Silaphone. Average yearlyprecipitation image courtesy ofwww.WorldBook.com. Rain gardendrawing courtesy of Erin Ross and MargeCoyman. Swamp sunflower imagecourtesy of Sally and Andy Wasowski,www Wildflower.org.

    Page 34Soil test photos courtesy of theWorcester County Department of PublicWorks and Keota Silaphone.

    Page 35Soil test photos courtesy of theWorcester County Department of PublicWorks and Keota Silaphone.

    Page 37Rain garden template courtesy of LowImpact Development Center.

    Page 38Jacobs Ladder image courtesy ofStefan Bloodworth, www.Wildflower.org.Lyre-leaf Sage image courtesy ofNorman G. Flaigg, www.Wildflower.org.

    Beebalm image courtesy of ThomasBarnes of the University of Kentucky.Page 39Cinnamon fern image courtesy of

    www.RainScaping.org. Royal fern andsensitive fern images courtesy of Sallyand Andy Wasowski,www.Wildflower.org.

    Page40Broomsedge image courtesy ofWildflower Center staff. Switchgrass

    photo courtesy of Zora Lathan. TussockSedge image courtesy of NRCS-USDA.

    The following images were downloadedfrom www. Wildflower.org: Wild gingerimage courtesy of Doug Sherman, Greatblue lobelia image courtesy of StefanBloodworth, and Smooth solomons sealimage courtesy of Norman G. Flaigg.

    Page 41New York ironweed image courtesy ofStefan Bloodworth, www Wildflower.org.Obedient plant photo courtesy of KeotaSilaphone. Woodland phlox imagecourtesy of Mrs. W.D. Bransford,www.Wildflower.org.

    Page 42Mountain laurel, red chokeberry, andsouthern arrowwood photo courtesy ofKeota Silaphone.

    Page 43White Fringtree photo courtesy ofSpencer Rowe. Sweetbay magnolia imagecourtesy of Sally and Andy Wasowski,www.Wildflower.org. Red maple imagecourtesy of www.RainScaping.org.

    Back coverCardinal flower image courtesy ofWilliam C. Miller lll, The Azalea Works.

    Revised & printed January 2010.

    Originally printed September 2008.

    Acknowledgements cont.

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    Rain GardensAcross Marylandis based on original content

    from Rain GardensA How-To Manual for Homeownersdeveloped by the Wisconsin Department of NaturalResources and the University of Wisconsin-Extension andRain Gardens in Marylands Coastal Plaindeveloped by theWorcester County Department of Comprehensive Planning.

    This project was funded by the Maryland Coastal Bays

    Program, the RainScaping Campaign, and Arlington EchoOutdoor Education Center.

    For more information, contact the Worcester CountyDepartment of Development Review and Permitting at(410) 632-1200, 1 West Market Street, room 1200, SnowHill, Maryland 21863. Additional copies of Rain GardensAcross Marylandcan be downloaded fromwww.co.worcester.md.us, www.mdcoastalbays.org,www.arlingtonecho.org, www.aacountywatershedstewards.org,and www.RainScaping.org.

    Special Thanks

    The original hardcopy document has been printed by Delmarva Printing, Salisbury, Maryland.

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    Final thought

    Dont stress too much over it. The raingarden does not have to be perfect to doits job, and it will change over timethats one of the things that makes it sorewarding; its a living, dynamic system.Dig a hole, relax, and let nature take its

    course. Observe and have fun.

    -Spencer Rowe, Wetland ScientistJune 1, 2008