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Reconstruction Reconstruction Chapter 6 Chapter 6

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  • Slide 1
  • ReconstructionReconstruction Chapter 6
  • Slide 2
  • Chapter Preview Freedmen Freedmens Bureau Reconstruction Suffrage Black Codes Scalawag Carpetbaggers Universal Male Suffrage Disenfranchise Ku Klux Klan Redeemers Filibuster Reapportionment Understanding Clause Freedmen Freedmens Bureau Reconstruction Suffrage Black Codes Scalawag Carpetbaggers Universal Male Suffrage Disenfranchise Ku Klux Klan Redeemers Filibuster Reapportionment Understanding Clause
  • Slide 3
  • People to Know President Andrew Johnson William L. Sharkey Benjamin G. Humphreys Edward O. Ord James L. Alcorn Adelbert Ames Hiram Revels Robert H. Wood Blanche K. Bruce James Zacharias George President Andrew Johnson William L. Sharkey Benjamin G. Humphreys Edward O. Ord James L. Alcorn Adelbert Ames Hiram Revels Robert H. Wood Blanche K. Bruce James Zacharias George
  • Slide 4
  • Places to Know Warren County Clinton Warren County Clinton
  • Slide 5
  • Quotable History: Whenever I hear anyone arguing for slavery, I feel a strong impulse to see it tried on him personally. ABRAHAM LINCOLN, Mar. 17, 1865 Whenever I hear anyone arguing for slavery, I feel a strong impulse to see it tried on him personally. ABRAHAM LINCOLN, Mar. 17, 1865
  • Slide 6
  • Reconstruction and Transition In 1860, Mississippi was one of the Souths wealthiest states. Cotton production with slave labor was the reason. After the Civil War that changed. In 1860, Mississippi was one of the Souths wealthiest states. Cotton production with slave labor was the reason. After the Civil War that changed.
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • The End Of the War In 1865, the War was over and Mississippi was devastated The damage to the states cities was severe Roads and Bridges were impassable Many hotels, stores and public buildings had been burned The wealth the state had enjoyed prior to 1860 no longer existed. 1/3 of adult white males returned home too injured to ever work again. Many others returned to find their farms and businesses destroyed. Both white and black families suffered from extreme poverty in the following years and everyone was affected. In 1865, the War was over and Mississippi was devastated The damage to the states cities was severe Roads and Bridges were impassable Many hotels, stores and public buildings had been burned The wealth the state had enjoyed prior to 1860 no longer existed. 1/3 of adult white males returned home too injured to ever work again. Many others returned to find their farms and businesses destroyed. Both white and black families suffered from extreme poverty in the following years and everyone was affected.
  • Slide 9
  • FreedmenFreedmen The nearly 400,000 freedmen (former slaves) Faced extreme hardship. Homeless, uneducated and free for the first time in their lives, the freedmen had little more than the clothes on their backs. Many walked from town to town in search of work or just to exercise their newfound freedom Others searched for lost family members that had been sold away into slavery. The social dynamic of the state changed. Blacks were afraid of slavery returning and Whites were afraid of reprisals as well as unnaccepting of equal rights for former slaves The nearly 400,000 freedmen (former slaves) Faced extreme hardship. Homeless, uneducated and free for the first time in their lives, the freedmen had little more than the clothes on their backs. Many walked from town to town in search of work or just to exercise their newfound freedom Others searched for lost family members that had been sold away into slavery. The social dynamic of the state changed. Blacks were afraid of slavery returning and Whites were afraid of reprisals as well as unnaccepting of equal rights for former slaves
  • Slide 10
  • Political Rights The question of political rights created both fears and expectations Freedmen looked forward to exercising their new rights while many whites feared these rights being exercised. Whites also feared the federal government and the inevitable punishment for the war. Congress created the Freedmens Bureau to help former slaves find food, shelter, education, paying jobs and healthcare. General Sherman issued an order after his march to the sea for confiscated lands in SC and GA to be divvied up among freedmen and these rumors spread to Ms that every freedman would receive 40 acres and a mule. This, however, was not federal policy The question of political rights created both fears and expectations Freedmen looked forward to exercising their new rights while many whites feared these rights being exercised. Whites also feared the federal government and the inevitable punishment for the war. Congress created the Freedmens Bureau to help former slaves find food, shelter, education, paying jobs and healthcare. General Sherman issued an order after his march to the sea for confiscated lands in SC and GA to be divvied up among freedmen and these rumors spread to Ms that every freedman would receive 40 acres and a mule. This, however, was not federal policy
  • Slide 11
  • Presidential Reconstruction
  • Slide 12
  • Before the war ended, Lincoln developed a plan to rebuild the south and get them back into the Union as quickly and efficiently as possible. This was known as Reconstruction. Reconstruction had 2 simple steps: 1. All southerners, except high ranking officers would be pardoned after taking an oath of loyalty to the Union. 2. When 10% of voters in a rebel state had taken the oath, that state could form a government and re-enter the Union. However, Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865 and Andrew Johnson became President and altered Lincolns vision of post-war America. Before the war ended, Lincoln developed a plan to rebuild the south and get them back into the Union as quickly and efficiently as possible. This was known as Reconstruction. Reconstruction had 2 simple steps: 1. All southerners, except high ranking officers would be pardoned after taking an oath of loyalty to the Union. 2. When 10% of voters in a rebel state had taken the oath, that state could form a government and re-enter the Union. However, Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865 and Andrew Johnson became President and altered Lincolns vision of post-war America.
  • Slide 13
  • Johnsons Reconstruction Johnsons Reconstruction was different than Lincolns. He expanded the group of people who were NOT allowed to get a pardon. High-ranking officers, politicians and land-owners who owned property worth more than $20,000 had to apply directly to the president for a pardon He required that new state constitutions be written Southern states had to repeal their secession ordinances They had to void their war debts They had to ratify the 13th amendment to the US constitution Reconstruction in Ms began in June 1865 when William Sharkey, a former slaveholder who opposed secession was named provisional governor. Johnsons Reconstruction was different than Lincolns. He expanded the group of people who were NOT allowed to get a pardon. High-ranking officers, politicians and land-owners who owned property worth more than $20,000 had to apply directly to the president for a pardon He required that new state constitutions be written Southern states had to repeal their secession ordinances They had to void their war debts They had to ratify the 13th amendment to the US constitution Reconstruction in Ms began in June 1865 when William Sharkey, a former slaveholder who opposed secession was named provisional governor.
  • Slide 14
  • Constitutional Convention of 1865 Ms Constitutional Convention opened on August 14, 1865. Ms was the first state to call for a convention under Johnsons reconstruction plan. Many believed that if Ms wrote a constitution that was fair to freedmen and met Johnsons requirements that the other states would follow. However, the convention was attended by 100 representatives who had opposed secession but were in favor of keeping the state constitution virtually unchanged and allowing few if any rights and privileges to freedmen. They also did not want Ms to share any responsibility for the abolition of slavery or wellbeing of freedmen. Ms Constitutional Convention opened on August 14, 1865. Ms was the first state to call for a convention under Johnsons reconstruction plan. Many believed that if Ms wrote a constitution that was fair to freedmen and met Johnsons requirements that the other states would follow. However, the convention was attended by 100 representatives who had opposed secession but were in favor of keeping the state constitution virtually unchanged and allowing few if any rights and privileges to freedmen. They also did not want Ms to share any responsibility for the abolition of slavery or wellbeing of freedmen.
  • Slide 15
  • SuffrageSuffrage President Johnson encouraged Gov. Sharkey and the delegates to extend suffrage (Voting Rights) to educated Blacks and those who owned property. The delegates ignored him They refused to give freedmen the right to vote They only passed resolutions voiding Mississippis ordinance of secession and officially accepted the abolition of slavery. The delegates did not vote on the 13th amendment or reject the states war debt because these requirements were added to Johnsons plan after the convention had completed its work. The convention delegates made it clear that they did not want any black participation in government at all. President Johnson encouraged Gov. Sharkey and the delegates to extend suffrage (Voting Rights) to educated Blacks and those who owned property. The delegates ignored him They refused to give freedmen the right to vote They only passed resolutions voiding Mississippis ordinance of secession and officially accepted the abolition of slavery. The delegates did not vote on the 13th amendment or reject the states war debt because these requirements were added to Johnsons plan after the convention had completed its work. The convention delegates made it clear that they did not want any black participation in government at all.
  • Slide 16
  • The Election of 1865 Elections were called and three men ran for Governor of Ms: Ephraim S. Fisher of Coffeeville Benjamin G. Humphreys of Claiborne County William S. Patton of Lauderdale County Fisher opposed secession and remained loyal to the Union during the war. Humphreys opposed secession but joined the Conf. Army Patton opposed secession and it is unclear what role he had in the war. Humphreys won. Most others elected served in the Conf. government of the state and rejected the rights of freedmen Elections were called and three men ran for Governor of Ms: Ephraim S. Fisher of Coffeeville Benjamin G. Humphreys of Claiborne County William S. Patton of Lauderdale County Fisher opposed secession and remained loyal to the Union during the war. Humphreys opposed secession but joined the Conf. Army Patton opposed secession and it is unclear what role he had in the war. Humphreys won. Most others elected served in the Conf. government of the state and rejected the rights of freedmen
  • Slide 17
  • The New Black Codes
  • Slide 18
  • The new legislature immediately took up the issue of civil and political rights for blacks in the state. They passed 4 Acts, hailed as necessary to protect freedmen and were known as the Black Codes: 1st Act - Civil Rights Act of 1865: Legalized marriage Right to sue in court Prohibited interracial marriage Prevented blacks from testifying in court cases involving whites Limited black ownership of land They could only rent or lease land in towns, limiting their ability to farm. The new legislature immediately took up the issue of civil and political rights for blacks in the state. They passed 4 Acts, hailed as necessary to protect freedmen and were known as the Black Codes: 1st Act - Civil Rights Act of 1865: Legalized marriage Right to sue in court Prohibited interracial marriage Prevented blacks from testifying in court cases involving whites Limited black ownership of land They could only rent or lease land in towns, limiting their ability to farm.
  • Slide 19
  • New Black Codes (cont) Another provision required black workers to sign employment contracts, witnessed by 2 whites. If they broke the contract they could be arrested and returned to their employer. Other Provisions: Prohibited blacks from carrying firearms or other weapons Provided for the arrest, fining, or imprisonment of blacks who assembled without permission or who were unemployed Blacks who could not pay the fine could be hired out to anyone who could pay it These codes were seen by Republicans as Ms trying to reverse the outcome of the war and reinstitute slavery Another provision required black workers to sign employment contracts, witnessed by 2 whites. If they broke the contract they could be arrested and returned to their employer. Other Provisions: Prohibited blacks from carrying firearms or other weapons Provided for the arrest, fining, or imprisonment of blacks who assembled without permission or who were unemployed Blacks who could not pay the fine could be hired out to anyone who could pay it These codes were seen by Republicans as Ms trying to reverse the outcome of the war and reinstitute slavery
  • Slide 20
  • The Feds React As a result of the Black Codes Congress moved quickly to make them inconsequential. They wrote and passed the 14th Amendment to the Constitution to make every state abide by the outcome of the war. As a result of the Black Codes Congress moved quickly to make them inconsequential. They wrote and passed the 14th Amendment to the Constitution to make every state abide by the outcome of the war.
  • Slide 21
  • The 14th Amendment AMENDMENT XIV Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868. Note: Article I, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of the 14th amendment. Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age,* and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. AMENDMENT XIV Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868. Note: Article I, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of the 14th amendment. Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age,* and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
  • Slide 22
  • 14th Amendment (cont) Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice- President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. Section 5. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice- President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. Section 5. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
  • Slide 23
  • Congressional Reconstruction
  • Slide 24
  • Mississippi and several other states refused to ratify the 14th Amendment so Congress took control of Reconstruction On March 2, 1867, Congress passed the Reconstruction Act Carved the South up into 5 military districts and set new, strict requirements for restoring the civil government. Mississippi was in the 4th Military District. General Edward O. Ord was put in command. His first task was to register all eligible voters He organized voter registration boards in each county By Sept. 1867, 137,000 adult males (black and white) were registered. Blacks were the majority in 32 counties and whites in 29 counties Mississippi and several other states refused to ratify the 14th Amendment so Congress took control of Reconstruction On March 2, 1867, Congress passed the Reconstruction Act Carved the South up into 5 military districts and set new, strict requirements for restoring the civil government. Mississippi was in the 4th Military District. General Edward O. Ord was put in command. His first task was to register all eligible voters He organized voter registration boards in each county By Sept. 1867, 137,000 adult males (black and white) were registered. Blacks were the majority in 32 counties and whites in 29 counties
  • Slide 25
  • 1867 Politics Mississippis Republican Party formed in 1867 during the electorates first real opportunity to vote They included white Mississippians who supported Congressional Reconstruction, Northern whites who came after the war, and black leaders. Native white Republicans were known as Scalawags Northern white Republicans living in the state were known as Carpetbaggers The Republican Party favored a new constitution and supported enfranchising black voters. Blacks overwhelmingly became Republicans and with their support the Party got approval for a new constitution. Mississippis Republican Party formed in 1867 during the electorates first real opportunity to vote They included white Mississippians who supported Congressional Reconstruction, Northern whites who came after the war, and black leaders. Native white Republicans were known as Scalawags Northern white Republicans living in the state were known as Carpetbaggers The Republican Party favored a new constitution and supported enfranchising black voters. Blacks overwhelmingly became Republicans and with their support the Party got approval for a new constitution.
  • Slide 26
  • Constitution of 1868 The convention met in Jackson in January 1868 The composition of the 100 delegates differed dramatically from that of the 1865 convention 17 Blacks, 29 Scalawags, 25 Carpetbaggers, 17 Democrats The black delegates offered 2 important resolutions for the new constitution: 1. Universal Male Suffrage of any race or color. 2. Free public education for all children ages 6-18. The constitution also forbade discrimination in public transportation, eliminated the property qualification for voting or holding office, and extended property rights to married women The convention met in Jackson in January 1868 The composition of the 100 delegates differed dramatically from that of the 1865 convention 17 Blacks, 29 Scalawags, 25 Carpetbaggers, 17 Democrats The black delegates offered 2 important resolutions for the new constitution: 1. Universal Male Suffrage of any race or color. 2. Free public education for all children ages 6-18. The constitution also forbade discrimination in public transportation, eliminated the property qualification for voting or holding office, and extended property rights to married women
  • Slide 27
  • BacklashBacklash Not all Mississippians accepted the new constitution Democrats objected to the provision that disenfranchised (to take the right to vote away) all persons who supported the Conf. or secession. They also fought the provision that gave the governor more power and the oath that former Confederates had to take acknowledging that All men are created equal. The ratification of this constitution failed because of KKK intimidation and Democrats refusing to vote. Not all Mississippians accepted the new constitution Democrats objected to the provision that disenfranchised (to take the right to vote away) all persons who supported the Conf. or secession. They also fought the provision that gave the governor more power and the oath that former Confederates had to take acknowledging that All men are created equal. The ratification of this constitution failed because of KKK intimidation and Democrats refusing to vote.
  • Slide 28
  • RatificationRatification In November 1869, President Grant resubmitted it to the voters having removed the oath and the disenfranchisement provisions and it finally passed.
  • Slide 29
  • Republican Rule in Mississippi Republicans ruled the state beginning in 1869 when James L. Alcorn won the Governorship Republicans also won a majority in the legislature In January 1870, the legislature met the final 2 requirements for readmission into the Union by ratifying the 14th and 15th Amendments. Republicans ruled the state beginning in 1869 when James L. Alcorn won the Governorship Republicans also won a majority in the legislature In January 1870, the legislature met the final 2 requirements for readmission into the Union by ratifying the 14th and 15th Amendments.
  • Slide 30
  • The Prodigal State Returns To represent the state in the US Senate, the legislature elected: Adelbert Ames...who had originally come from Maine Hiram Revels...a black minister from Natchez Hiram Revels took Jefferson Davis seat and became the first African American to serve in the US Senate. On February 23, 1870, Mississippi was finally readmitted into the Union. To represent the state in the US Senate, the legislature elected: Adelbert Ames...who had originally come from Maine Hiram Revels...a black minister from Natchez Hiram Revels took Jefferson Davis seat and became the first African American to serve in the US Senate. On February 23, 1870, Mississippi was finally readmitted into the Union.
  • Slide 31
  • Governor James L. Alcorn In his inaugural address he denounced secession and pledged to be the Governor of ALL the people. He was popular but did not have the support of white Democrats who railed against equality of the races. The economy of the state improved Land values increased Public school system was expanded In his inaugural address he denounced secession and pledged to be the Governor of ALL the people. He was popular but did not have the support of white Democrats who railed against equality of the races. The economy of the state improved Land values increased Public school system was expanded
  • Slide 32
  • The Partys Over In 1871, Alcorn resigned to replace Revels in the Senate. Revels became the first President of Alcorn State College, a newly established college for African Americans In 1873, Alcorn and Ames both ran for Governor Ames accused Alcorn of deserting Republican philosophies and siding with white Democrats in the state. Ames also accused Alcorn of not protecting African Americans from the KKK. Ames won but the Republican party was split and weakened in the state In 1871, Alcorn resigned to replace Revels in the Senate. Revels became the first President of Alcorn State College, a newly established college for African Americans In 1873, Alcorn and Ames both ran for Governor Ames accused Alcorn of deserting Republican philosophies and siding with white Democrats in the state. Ames also accused Alcorn of not protecting African Americans from the KKK. Ames won but the Republican party was split and weakened in the state
  • Slide 33
  • African American Political Power In 1868, Gen. Ord appointed Benjamin T. Montgomery, a planter, to be Justice of the Peace. He was the first African American in the state to hold public office. Between 1869-1881 African Americans held a number of seats in the legislature. Several served as Speaker of the House and Secretary of State Many local political offices were also held by African Americans Robert H. Wood was elected the mayor of Natchez and was likely the first African American mayor in the nations history. Blanche K. Bruce became the first African American to serve a full term in the US Senate In 1868, Gen. Ord appointed Benjamin T. Montgomery, a planter, to be Justice of the Peace. He was the first African American in the state to hold public office. Between 1869-1881 African Americans held a number of seats in the legislature. Several served as Speaker of the House and Secretary of State Many local political offices were also held by African Americans Robert H. Wood was elected the mayor of Natchez and was likely the first African American mayor in the nations history. Blanche K. Bruce became the first African American to serve a full term in the US Senate
  • Slide 34
  • EducationEducation Education was always bad in the state but the Civil War hurt it even further. Whites had been unwilling to institute a public school system before the war and after the war there were virtually no functioning schools. Education was revived in 1868, when the new constitution required it. In 1870, the legislature established a school system in each county under the leadership of an elected state superintendent and county superintendents appointed by a state board of education. Over $3 million was spent on education and school construction and by 1875 there were nearly 90,000 African American and 79,000 white students Education was always bad in the state but the Civil War hurt it even further. Whites had been unwilling to institute a public school system before the war and after the war there were virtually no functioning schools. Education was revived in 1868, when the new constitution required it. In 1870, the legislature established a school system in each county under the leadership of an elected state superintendent and county superintendents appointed by a state board of education. Over $3 million was spent on education and school construction and by 1875 there were nearly 90,000 African American and 79,000 white students
  • Slide 35
  • The End of Republican Rule
  • Slide 36
  • Return of the Democrats Democrats desperately wanted to regain political power. They argued that Republicans were wasting money They hated federal troops still present in the state They argued that carpetbaggers controlled the African American vote They considered themselves Redeemers of the old way of life. The Democrats used intimidation to coerce white Republicans to switch parties and violence to prevent African Americans from voting In December 1874, 500 white Democrats in Warren County gathered at the courthouse and forced the sheriff to resign Democrats desperately wanted to regain political power. They argued that Republicans were wasting money They hated federal troops still present in the state They argued that carpetbaggers controlled the African American vote They considered themselves Redeemers of the old way of life. The Democrats used intimidation to coerce white Republicans to switch parties and violence to prevent African Americans from voting In December 1874, 500 white Democrats in Warren County gathered at the courthouse and forced the sheriff to resign
  • Slide 37
  • Violence Continues African Americans came out to support Sheriff Crosby but a riot ensued and 29 African Americans were killed along with 2 whites and violence did not end until federal troops stepped in. Similar violence occurred across the state. After riots broke out in Clinton in 1875 and a prominent Republican was murdered people began to fear speaking out. The federal government had pulled back and the Democrats strategy worked. On November 4, 1875 the Democrats won back the state legislature and used it to bully and impeach Republican leaders across the state. The legislature was able to appoint an interim governor and take control of the state African Americans came out to support Sheriff Crosby but a riot ensued and 29 African Americans were killed along with 2 whites and violence did not end until federal troops stepped in. Similar violence occurred across the state. After riots broke out in Clinton in 1875 and a prominent Republican was murdered people began to fear speaking out. The federal government had pulled back and the Democrats strategy worked. On November 4, 1875 the Democrats won back the state legislature and used it to bully and impeach Republican leaders across the state. The legislature was able to appoint an interim governor and take control of the state
  • Slide 38
  • Presidential Election of 1876 Democrat Samuel Tilden and Republican Rutherford B. Hayes basically tied in the Electoral College There were disputed votes in Louisiana, South Carolina, Oregon and...surprise, surprise Florida Congress set up a commission to decide on the disputed votes It was composed of 8 Republicans and 7 Democrats awarded all 20 electoral votes to Hayes. Congress accepted the decision after a secret deal was reached ending a Filibuster (Continuous speechmaking to delay a vote) by Southern Democrats They agreed to end the filibuster if Hayes would remove all troops from the south Democrat Samuel Tilden and Republican Rutherford B. Hayes basically tied in the Electoral College There were disputed votes in Louisiana, South Carolina, Oregon and...surprise, surprise Florida Congress set up a commission to decide on the disputed votes It was composed of 8 Republicans and 7 Democrats awarded all 20 electoral votes to Hayes. Congress accepted the decision after a secret deal was reached ending a Filibuster (Continuous speechmaking to delay a vote) by Southern Democrats They agreed to end the filibuster if Hayes would remove all troops from the south
  • Slide 39
  • EffectsEffects The removal of federal troops from the south was the last obstacle the Democrats had to taking complete control of the politics of the state Now they could intimidate voters, use violence, conduct voter fraud and basically engineer elections at will The Democrats reversed the Republicans policies and cut taxes and funding for schools and colleges. The Democrats decreased the number of state jobs and institutionalized racism throughout the state. The removal of federal troops from the south was the last obstacle the Democrats had to taking complete control of the politics of the state Now they could intimidate voters, use violence, conduct voter fraud and basically engineer elections at will The Democrats reversed the Republicans policies and cut taxes and funding for schools and colleges. The Democrats decreased the number of state jobs and institutionalized racism throughout the state.
  • Slide 40
  • The Constitution of 1890
  • Slide 41
  • It All Comes Full Circle By the mid-1880s white Democrats had decided that they could no longer accept a state constitution that they perceived as having been written by scalawags, carpetbaggers and African Americans The whites from the northern counties favored Reapportionment (redrawing the voting districts) of the state to take power away from Republicans The convention met in August 1890, and was dominated by white Democrats. Only 1 African American delegate was sent (Montgomery) The Democrats devised a scheme to eliminate African American political participation James Zacharias George wrote much of the scheme which is outlined in Sect. 12 of the state constitution By the mid-1880s white Democrats had decided that they could no longer accept a state constitution that they perceived as having been written by scalawags, carpetbaggers and African Americans The whites from the northern counties favored Reapportionment (redrawing the voting districts) of the state to take power away from Republicans The convention met in August 1890, and was dominated by white Democrats. Only 1 African American delegate was sent (Montgomery) The Democrats devised a scheme to eliminate African American political participation James Zacharias George wrote much of the scheme which is outlined in Sect. 12 of the state constitution
  • Slide 42
  • The Scheme Adult Males who wanted to vote had to: Register at least 4 months before an election Live in the state for 2 years and in that district for at least 1 year Pay an annual $2 poll tax Be able to read any section of the state constitution OR understand it when read to them This is known as the Understanding Clause which was added as a loophole to allow illiterate whites to vote Two years after the adoption of the Second Mississippi Plan, African American registered voters dropped from 142,000 to 8,615. 30,000 poor whites were removed from the rolls because of the $2 tax Adult Males who wanted to vote had to: Register at least 4 months before an election Live in the state for 2 years and in that district for at least 1 year Pay an annual $2 poll tax Be able to read any section of the state constitution OR understand it when read to them This is known as the Understanding Clause which was added as a loophole to allow illiterate whites to vote Two years after the adoption of the Second Mississippi Plan, African American registered voters dropped from 142,000 to 8,615. 30,000 poor whites were removed from the rolls because of the $2 tax
  • Slide 43
  • End Chapter 6 Read Chapter 7