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  • Redefining and combating poverty Human rights, democracy and common goods in today’s Europe

    Trends in social cohesion, No. 25

    Trends in social cohesion, N o. 25

    http://book.coe.int Council of europe Publishing

    The Council of Europe has 47 member states, covering virtually the entire continent of Europe. It seeks to develop common democratic and legal principles based on the European Convention on Human Rights and other reference texts on the protection of individuals. Ever since it was founded in 1949, in the aftermath of the Second World War, the Council of Europe has symbolised reconciliation.

    We are at a point in history where economic inequalities are more widespread each day. The situation of extreme poverty experienced by the majority of the populations in developing countries (“Third World” countries) often coincides with an absence of democracy and the violation of the most fundamental rights. But in so-called “First World” countries a non-negligible proportion of inhabitants also live in impoverished conditions (albeit mainly “relative” poverty) and are denied their rights. The European situation, which this publication aims to analyse, is painful: the entire continent is afflicted by increasing poverty and consequently by the erosion of living conditions and social conflicts.

    The economic and financial crisis has resulted in the loss of millions of jobs, and created job insecurity for many still working. Economic insecurity raises social tensions, aggravating xenophobia, for instance. Yet the economic and financial crisis could present a good opportunity to rethink the economic and social system as a whole. Indeed, poverty in modern societies has never been purely a question of lack of wealth.

    It is therefore urgent today to devise a new discourse on poverty. In pursuit of this goal, the Council of Europe is following up this publication in the framework of the project “Human rights of people experiencing poverty”, co-financed by the European Commission.

    www.coe.int

    ISBN 978-92-871-7336-2

    €44/US$88

    C ouncil of Europe Publishing

  • Redefining and combating poverty Human rights, democracy and common assets in today’s Europe

    This publication has received financial support from the Directorate General of Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion of the European Commission

    Trends in Social Cohesion, No. 25

    Council of Europe Publishing

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    French edition: Redéfinir et combattre la pauvreté – Droits humains, démocratie et biens communs dans l’Europe contemporaine

    ISBN 978-92-871-7422-2

    The opinions expressed in this work are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy of the Council of Europe.

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated, reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic (CD-Rom, Internet, etc.) or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the Directorate of Communication (F-67075 Strasbourg Cedex or [email protected]).

    Cover design: Documents and Publications Production Department (SPDP), Council of Europe Layout: Jouve, Paris

    Council of Europe Publishing F-67075 Strasbourg Cedex http://book.coe.int

    ISBN 978-92-871-7336-2 © Council of Europe, September 2012 Printed at the Council of Europe

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    TiTles in The same series

    No. 1 Promoting the policy debate on social exclusion from a comparative perspective (ISBN 978-92-871-4920-6, €8/US$12)

    No. 2 Trends and developments in old-age pension and health-care financing in Europe during the 1990s (ISBN 978-92-871-4921-3, €8/US$12)

    No. 3 Using social benefits to combat poverty and social exclusion: opportunities and problems from a comparative perspective (ISBN 978- 92-871-4937-4, €13/US$20)

    No. 4 New social demands: the challenges of governance (ISBN 978-92-871- 5012-7, €19/US$29)

    No. 5 Combating poverty and access to social rights in the countries of the South Caucasus: a territorial approach (ISBN 978-92-871-5096-7, €15/ US$23)

    No. 6 The state and new social responsibilities in a globalising world (ISBN 978-92-871-5168-1, €15/US$23)

    No. 7 Civil society and new social responsibilities based on ethical foundations (ISBN 978-92-871-5309-8, €13/US$20)

    No. 8 Youth and exclusion in disadvantaged urban areas: addressing the causes of violence (ISBN 978-92-871-5389-0, €25/US$38)

    No. 9 Youth and exclusion in disadvantaged urban areas: policy approaches in six European cities (ISBN 978-92-871-5512-2, €15/US$23)

    No. 10 Security through social cohesion: proposals for a new socio-economic governance (ISBN 978-92-871-5491-0, €17/US$26)

    No. 11 Security through social cohesion: deconstructing fear (of others) by going beyond stereotypes (ISBN 978-92-871-5544-3, €10/US$15)

    No. 12 Ethical, solidarity-based citizen involvement in the economy: a prerequisite for social cohesion (ISBN 978-92-871-5558-0, €10/US$15)

    No. 13 Retirement income: recent developments and proposals (ISBN 978-92- 871-5705-8, €13/US$20)

    No. 14 Solidarity-based choices in the marketplace: a vital contribution to social cohesion (ISBN 978-92-871-5761-4, €30/US$45)

    No. 15 Reconciling labour flexibility with social cohesion – Facing the challenge (ISBN 978-92-871-5813-0, €35/US$53)

    No. 16 Reconciling labour flexibility with social cohesion – Ideas for political action (ISBN 978-92-871-6014-0, €35/US$53)

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    No. 17 Reconciling labour flexibility with social cohesion – The experiences and specificities of central and eastern Europe (ISBN 978-92-871-6151-2, €39/ US$59)

    No. 18 Achieving social cohesion in a multicultural Europe – Concepts, situation and developments (ISBN 978-92-871-6033-1, €37/US$56)

    No. 19 Reconciling migrants’ well-being and the public interest – Welfare state, firms and citizenship in transition (ISBN 978-92-871-6285-4, €44/US$88)

    No. 20 Well-being for all – Concepts and tools for social cohesion (ISBN 978- 92-871-6505-3, €53/US$106)

    No. 21 Institutional accommodation and the citizen: legal and political interaction in a plural society (ISBN 978-92-871-6740-8, €41/US$83)

    No. 22 Rethinking progress and ensuring a secure future for all: what we can learn from the crisis (ISBN 978-92-871-6889-4, €44/US$88)

    No. 23 Towards a Europe of shared social responsibilities – Challenges and strategies (ISBN 978-92-871-7065-1, €49/ US$98)

    No. 24 Shared social responsibilities – Putting theory into practice (ISBN 978- 92-871-7422-2, €44/US$88). Forthcoming.

    No. 25 Redefining and combating poverty – Human rights, democracy and common assets in today’s Europe (ISBN 978-92-871-7336-2, €44/US$88)

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    ConTenTs

    Foreword Gilda Farrell .......................................................................................... 7

    Introduction – Redefining poverty so as to fight it Alessandra Sciurba ............................................................................... 9

    Part A – Poverty yesterday and today: types of approach ......... 19

    A historical perspective: from social inclusion to excluding democracy Emilio Santoro .................................................................................... 21

    Examining the relationships of poverty Laurent Bonelli ................................................................................... 59

    Part B – Human rights against poverty ........................................ 81

    Guaranteeing human rights in situations of poverty Diane Roman ..................................................................................... 83

    Human rights of people experiencing poverty in Europe: standards, obstacles and perspectives of protection in Council of Europe instruments

    Part 1: The European Convention on Human Rights Johannes Gerds ................................................................................ 115

    Human rights of people experiencing poverty in Europe: standards, obstacles and perspectives of protection in Council of Europe instruments

    Part 2: The European Social Charter Johannes Gerds ................................................................................ 151

    Part C – Concrete examples: poverty as a consequence of transition ..................................................................... 175

    Emergence of poverty in transition countries in South-East Europe: the case of Bulgaria Ilona Tomova ................................................................................... 177

    Social justice and poverty in Russia Lidia Prokofieva ................................................................................ 197

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    Part D – Democracy, social justice and poverty ......................... 215

    Poverty and democracy – Chances and conflicts Dirk Berg-Schlosser ........................................................................... 217

    “Poor bodies” in suspension Federica Sossi ................................................................................... 231

    Social justice, deficit reduction and diminishing social rights – Lessons from the UK’s “Big Society” Anna Coote and Faiza Shaheen ....................................................... 243

    Part E – Presen

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