renewable energy scenario in india

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1 RENEWABLE ENERGY SCENARIO IN INDIA A SEMINAR REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY IN POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING BY AJAY KUMAR 130000713001 UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF Asst. Prof. AMIT VERMA DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 2013-2015 FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY UTTARAKHAND TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY DEHRADUN

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Page 1: RENEWABLE ENERGY SCENARIO IN INDIA

1

RENEWABLE ENERGY SCENARIO

IN INDIA

A SEMINAR REPORT

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS

OF THE DEGREE OF

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY

IN

POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING

BY

AJAY KUMAR

130000713001

UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF

Asst. Prof. AMIT VERMA

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

2013-2015

FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY

UTTARAKHAND TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

DEHRADUN

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I avail this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude and profound thanks to Mr.

Amit Verma, Assistant Professor & Head, Faculty of Technology, Dehradun (UTU-Campus

), for giving me constant guidance to work on this seminar report as titled “Renewable

Energy in India”. He has been a guiding source by providing continuous suggestions and

advice throughout the study period of the seminar.

With heartfelt gratitude, I acknowledge the cooperation and support rendered to me

by Mr. Md. Sakib, Asst.Prof., Women Institute of Technology, Dehradun and Mr. Sandeep

Negi, Asst.Prof., Women Institute of Technology, Dehradun from time to time.

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UTTARAKHAND TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, DEHRADUN

(FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY)

UTU-CAMPUS

2013-2015

CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION

I hereby declare that, the seminar report as entitled “Renewable Energy in India”

submitted for the partial fulfillment of the degree of Master of Technology in Power

System Engineering from Uttarakhand Technical University, Dehradun, with introductory

idea and future scope.

I have not submitted the matter embodied in this dissertation for the award of any other

degree or diploma.

Date : 29/11/2014 AJAY KUMAR

Place: Dehradun Enrolment No.130000713001 M.Tech (Power System Engineering) Faculty of Technology, Uttarakhand Technical University, Dehradun.

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ABSTRACT

Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resources which are replenished

such as wind, wave, solar, biomass and tidal power. Governments and companies around the

world are investing heavily in developing technologies to harness the power of clean

renewable energy sources because of their potential to produce large quantities of energy

without generating greenhouse gases which can contribute to climate change. Most of the

power generation in India is carried out by conventional energy sources, coal and mineral oil-

based power plants which contribute heavily to greenhouse gases emission.

Renewable energy sources consist of solar, hydro, wind, geothermal, ocean and

biomass. The most common advantage of each is that they are renewable and cannot be

depleted. They are a clean energy, as they don't pollute the air, and they don't contribute to

global warming effects. Since their sources are natural the cost of operations is reduced and

they also require less maintenance on their plants.

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Chapter 1

Introduction

1. General Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resources—such as sunlight,

wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat—which are renewable (naturally replenished).

Renewable energy technologies range from solar power, wind power, hydroelectricity/micro

hydro, biomass and bio fuels for transportation.

Solar energy makes use of the sun's energy. It is advantageous because the systems

can fit into existing buildings and it does not affect land use. But since the area of the

collectors is large, more materials are required. Solar radiation is also controlled by

geography. And it is limited to daytime hours and non-cloudy days. Solar cells convert

sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are often used to power calculators and watches.

They are made of semiconducting materials similar to those used in computer chips. When

sunlight is absorbed by these materials, the solar energy knocks electrons loose from their

atoms, allowing the electrons to flow through the material to produce electricity. This process

of converting light (photons) to electricity (voltage) is called the photovoltaic (PV) effect.

Wind turbines use the wind’s kinetic energy to generate electrical energy that can be

used in homes and businesses. Individual wind turbines can be used to generate electricity on

a small scale – to power a single home, for example. A large number of wind turbines

grouped together, sometimes known as a wind farm or wind park, can generate electricity on

a much larger scale. A wind turbine works like a high-tech version of an old-fashioned

windmill. The wind blows on the angled blades of the rotor, causing it to spin, converting

some of the wind’s kinetic energy into mechanical energy. Sensors in the turbine detect how

strongly the wind is blowing and from which direction. The rotor automatically turns to face

the wind, and automatically brakes in dangerously high winds to protect the turbine from

damage.

Hydroelectric energy uses water to produce power. This is the most reliable of all the

renewable energy sources. On the down side, it affects ecology and causes downstream

problems. The decay of vegetation along the riverbed can cause the buildup of methane.

Methane is a contributing gas to greenhouse effect. Dams can also alter the natural river flow

and affect wildlife. Colder, oxygen poor water can be released into the river, killing fish.

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Geothermal energy is the heat from the Earth. It's clean and sustainable. Resources of

geothermal energy range from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few

miles beneath the Earth's surface, and down even deeper to the extremely high temperatures

of molten rock called magma. Almost everywhere, the shallow ground or upper 10 feet of the

Earth's surface maintains a nearly constant temperature between 50° and 60°F (10° and

16°C). Geothermal heat pumps can tap into this resource to heat and cool buildings. A

geothermal heat pump system consists of a heat pump, an air delivery system (ductwork), and

a heat exchanger-a system of pipes buried in the shallow ground near the building. In the

winter, the heat pump removes heat from the heat exchanger and pumps it into the indoor air

delivery system. In the summer, the process is reversed, and the heat pump moves heat from

the indoor air into the heat exchanger. The heat removed from the indoor air during the

summer can also be used to provide a free source of hot water.

Biomass electricity is produced through the energies from wood, agricultural and

municipal waste. It helps save on landfill waste but transportation can be expensive and

ecological diversity of land may be affected. In addition, its process needs to be made

simpler. The use of biomass energy has the potential to greatly reduce our greenhouse gas

emissions. Biomass generates about the same amount of carbon dioxide as fossil fuels, but

every time a new plant grows, carbon dioxide is actually removed from the atmosphere. The

net emission of carbon dioxide will be zero as long as plants continue to be replenished for

biomass energy purposes

Renewable energy in India comes under the purview of the Ministry of New and

Renewable Energy. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy or MNRE is a ministry of

Government of India. The ministry was established as the Ministry of Non-Conventional

Energy Sources in 1992. It adopted its current name in October 2006.

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Chapter 2

Classification of energy

Energy can be classified into several types based on the following criteria: 1. Primary and Secondary energy

2. Commercial and Non commercial energy

3. Renewable and Non-Renewable energy

2.1 Primary and Secondary Energy Primary energy sources are those that are either found or stored in nature. Common

sources are coal, oil, natural gas, and biomass (such as wood). Other primary energy sources

available include nuclear energy from radioactive substances, thermal energy stored in earth's

interior, and potential energy due to earth's gravity. The major primary and secondary energy

sources are shown in Figure 2.1 Primary energy sources are mostly converted in industrial

utilities into secondary energy sources; for example coal, oil or gas converted into steam and

electricity. Primary energy can also be used directly[1]. Some energy sources have non-

energy uses, for example coal or natural gas can be used as a feedstock in fertilizer plants.

Figure 2.1: Major Primary and Secondary Sources. [1]

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2.2 Commercial Energy and Non Commercial Energy

2.2.1 Commercial Energy The energy sources that are available in the market for a definite price are known

commercial energy. By far the most important forms of commercial energy are electricity,

coal and refined petroleum products. Commercial energy forms the basis of industrial,

agricultural, transport and commercial development in the modern world. In the

industrialized countries, commercialized fuels are predominant source not only for economic

production, but also for many household tasks of general population. Examples: Electricity,

lignite, coal, oil, natural gas etc

2.2.2 Non-Commercial Energy The energy sources that are not available in the commercial market for a price are

classified as non-commercial energy. Non-commercial energy sources include fuels such as

firewood, cattle dung and agricultural wastes, which are traditionally gathered, and not

bought at a price used especially in rural households. These are also called traditional fuels.

Non-commercial energy is often ignored in energy accounting. Example: Firewood, agro

waste in rural areas; solar energy for water heating, electricity generation, for drying grain,

fish and fruits; animal power for transport, threshing, lifting water for irrigation, crushing

sugarcane; wind energy for lifting water and electricity generation

Figure 2.2: Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy.[3]

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2.3 Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Renewable energy is energy obtained from sources that are essentially inexhaustible.

Examples of renewable resources include wind power, solar power, geothermal energy, tidal

power and hydroelectric power (See Figure 2.2). The most important feature of renewable

energy is that it can be harnessed without the release of harmful pollutants [2]. Non-

renewable energy is the conventional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas, which are likely to

deplete with time.

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Chapter 3

Energy scenario

3.1 Overall Consumption and Production

3.1.1Electrical Power Consumption The energy consumption in India is the fourth biggest after China, USA and Russia.

The total primary energy consumption from crude oil (29.45%), natural gas (7.7%), coal

(54.5%), nuclear energy (1.26%), hydro electricity (5.0%), wind power, biomass electricity

and solar power is 595 Mtoe in the year 2013. In the year 2013, India's net imports are nearly

144.3 million tons of crude oil, 16 Mtoe of LNG and 95 Mtoe coal totalling to 255.3 Mtoe of

primary energy which is equal to 42.9% of total primary energy consumption. About 70% of

India's electricity generation capacity is from fossil fuels, with coal accounting for 40% of

India's total energy consumption followed by crude oil and natural gas at 28% and 6%

respectively. India is largely dependent on fossil fuel imports to meet its energy demands by

2030, India's dependence on energy imports is expected to exceed 53% of the country's total

energy consumption [3]. In 2009-10, the country imported 159.26 million tonnes of crude oil

which amounts to 80% of its domestic crude oil consumption and 31% of the country's total

imports are oil imports.

Sector wise energy consumption

Sector Percentage power consumption

Industry 49%

Transport 22%

Residential 10%

Agriculture 5%

Others 14%

Table 3.1: Sector wise energy consumption in India. [2]

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3.1.2 Electrical Power Generation

The electricity sector in India had an installed capacity of 254.049 GW as of end

September 2014. India became the world's third largest producer of electricity in the year

2013 with 4.8% global share in electricity generation surpassing Japan and Russia. Captive

power plants have an additional 39.375 GW capacity. Non Renewable Power Plants

constitute 87.55% of the installed capacity, and Renewable Power Plants constitute the

remaining 12.45% of total installed Capacity. India generated around 967 TWh (967,150.32

GWh) of electricity (excluding electricity generated from renewable and captive power

plants) during the 2013–14 fiscal [4]. Total installed Power generation Capacity (June 2014)

is shown in Table.

Source Total Capacity (MW) Percentage

Coal 148,478.39 59.51

Hydroelectricity 40,730.09 16.33

Renewable energy source 31,692.14 12.70

Natural Gas 22,607.95 9.06

Nuclear 4780 1.92

Oil 1,199.75 0.48

Total 249,488.32 100

Table 3.2: Total installed Power generation Capacity (June 2014).[2]

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Sector-wise All India installed capacity There are three sector in which electrical energy is generated, sector wise power

generation in shown in table.

Sector Total Capacity (MW) Percentage State Sector 93,540.7 37.49

Central Sector 68,324.63 27.38

Private Sector 87,622.99 35.12

Total 249,488.32 100

Table 3.3: Sector-wise All India installed capacity.[4]

3.2 Renewable energy scenario in India Renewable energy in India comes under the purview of the Ministry of New and

Renewable Energy. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy or MNRE is a ministry of

Government of India. The ministry was established as the Ministry of Non-Conventional

Energy Sources in 1992. It adopted its current name in October 2006..

According to MNRE survey Gujarat contributed of 39% in total installed capacity which is

2208MW.Second place consist Rajasthan by giving 666.8 MW which is 30% of total

installed capacity [5].UP Takes 8 position in this list according to MNRE with 17.4 MW

installed capacity which is only 0.8% of total installation.

SOURSE INSTALLED (M.W) PERCENTAGE

Wind 21264 67

Small Hydro 3803.65 13

Biomass Power 1471.78 4

Solar Power 2627 8.5

Bagasse Cogeneration 2512 7.5

Table 3.4: Grid connected installed capacity of RE source. [4]

.

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Chapter 4

Solar Energy

4.1 Introduction

Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the sun harnessed using a range of ever-

evolving technologies such as solar heating, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar

architecture and artificial photosynthesis. It is an important source of renewable energy and

its technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on

the way they capture and distribute solar energy or convert it into solar power. Active solar

techniques include the use of photovoltaic systems, concentrated solar power and solar water

heating to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the

Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and

designing spaces that naturally circulate air.

4.2 Energy from the Sun

The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation (insolation) at the

upper atmosphere. Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed

by clouds, oceans and land masses. The spectrum of solar light at the Earth's surface is

mostly spread across the visible and near-infrared ranges with a small part in the near-

ultraviolet.

Earth's land surface, oceans and atmosphere absorb solar radiation, and this raises

their temperature. Warm air containing evaporated water from the oceans rises, causing

atmospheric circulation or convection. When the air reaches a high altitude, where the

temperature is low, water vapor condenses into clouds, which rain onto the Earth's surface,

completing the water cycle[6]. The latent heat of water condensation amplifies convection,

producing atmospheric phenomena such as wind, cyclones and anti-cyclones. Sunlight

absorbed by the oceans and land masses keeps the surface at an average temperature of

14 °C. By photosynthesis green plants convert solar energy into chemical energy, which

produces food, wood and the biomass from which fossil fuels are derived.

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4.3 Solar Photovoltaic Power System

Photovoltaic Systems make use of the ‘photovoltaic effect’ (photo=light and

voltaic=electricity), the basic process discovered by Edmund Becquerel, a French physicist in

1839. He discovered the PV effect while experimenting with an electrolytic cell made up of

two metal electrodes; finding that certain materials would produce small amounts of electric

current when exposed to light. Sunlight is composed of photons, or ‘packets’ of energy.

These photons have various amounts of energy corresponding to different wavelengths of

light [7]. When photons strike a PV cell, they may be reflected or absorbed, or they may pass

right through the surface (causing heat only). When a photon is absorbed, the energy of the

photon is transferred to an electron in an atom of the cell, a semiconductor based material

(such as silicon). With its newfound energy, the electron is able to escape from its normal

position associated with that atom, to become part of the current in an electrical circuit. By

leaving this position, the electron leaves a hole behind. While the electron is negatively

charged, the hole is recognized as a positive charge carrier and contributes to current. The PV

cell has a built-in electric field, providing the voltage needed to drive the current through an

external load, such as a light bulb.

Depending on the functional and operational requirements of the system, the specific

components required may include major components such as a DC-AC power inverter,

battery bank, system and battery controller, auxiliary energy sources and sometimes the

specified electrical load (appliances). Figure show a basic diagram of a photovoltaic system

and the relationship of individual components.

Figure 4.1: a photovoltaic system and the relationship of individual

components.[5]

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4.4 Solar power in India

With about 300 clear, sunny days in a year, India's theoretical solar power reception,

on only its land area, is about 5000 Petawatt-hours per year (PWh/yr) (i.e. 5,000 trillion

kWh/yr or about 600,000 GW). The daily average solar energy incident over India varies

from 4 to 7 kWh/m2 with about 1,500–2,000 sunshine hours per year (depending upon

location), which is far more than current total energy consumption. For example, assuming

the efficiency of PV modules were as low as 10%, this would still be a thousand times greater

than the domestic electricity demand projected for 2015.The amount of solar energy

produced in India in 2007 was less than 1% of the total energy demand [8]. The grid-

connected solar power as of December 2010 was merely 10 MW. Government-funded solar

energy in India only accounted for approximately 6.4 MW-yr of power as of 2005. However,

India is ranked number one in terms of solar energy production per watt installed, with an

insolation of 1,700 to 1,900 kilowatt hours per kilowatt peak (kWh/KWp) 25.1 MW was

added in 2010 and 468.3 MW in 2011 By January 2014 the

Installed grid connected solar power had increased to 2,208.36 MW, and India

expects to install an additional 10,000 MW by 2017, and a total of 20,000 MW by 2022.State

wise solar installed capacity is shown in figure.

Figure4.2: solar capacity in states.

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Chapter 5

Wind Energy

5.1 Introduction Wind power or wind energy is the energy extracted from wind using wind turbines to

produce electrical power, windmills for mechanical power, wind pumps for water pumping,

or sails to propel ships. Large wind farms consist of hundreds of individual wind turbines

which are connected to the electric power transmission network. Wind power or wind energy

describes the process by which the wind is used to generate mechanical power or electricity.

Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power. This mechanical

power can be used for specific tasks (such as grinding grain or pumping water), or can be

converted into electricity by a generator. Energy of wind can be economically used to generat

electrical energy Wind can also be used to provide mechanical power such as for water

pumping. In India generally wind speeds obtainable are in the lower ranges. Therefore,

attempts are on the development of low cost, low speed mills for irrigation of small and

marginal farms for providing drinking water in rural area. The developments are being

mainly concentrated on water pumping wind mill suitable for operation in a wind speed range

of 8 to 36 kmph. In India high wind speeds are obtainable in coastal areas of Saurashtra,

western Rajasthan and some parts of central India.

5.2 Types of Wind Turbines

Wind turbines are broadly classified into two categories. When the axis of rotation

parallel to the air stream (i.e., horizontal), the turbine is said to be a Horizontal Axis Wind

Turbine, and when it is perpendicular to the air stream (i.e., vertical), it is said to be a Vertical

Axis Wind Turbine.

5.2.1 Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) have the main rotor shaft and electrical

generator at the top of a tower, and may be pointed into or out of the wind [9]. Small turbines

are pointed by a simple wind vane, while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled

with a servo motor. Most have a gearbox, which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a

quicker rotation that is more suitable to drive an electrical generator. The basic parts of a

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horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) are foundation, tower, nacelle, Generator, Rotor Blades

is shown in figure.

Figure 5.1: Horizontal-axis wind turbines. [10]

5.2.2Vertical-axis wind turbines Vertical-axis wind turbines (or VAWTs) have the main rotor shaft arranged vertically.

One advantage of this arrangement is that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the

wind to be effective, which is an advantage on a site where the wind direction is highly

variable. It is also an advantage when the turbine is integrated into a building because it is

inherently less steerable [10]. Also, the generator and gearbox can be placed near the ground,

using a direct drive from the rotor assembly to the ground-based gearbox, improving

accessibility for maintenance. The basic parts of a Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) are

shown in figure.

Figure5.2: Vertical axis wind turbine [10].

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5.3 Wind Power in India

The development of wind power in India began in the 1990s, and has significantly

increased in the last few years [11]. Although a relative newcomer to the wind industry

compared with Denmark or the United States, India has the fifth largest installed wind power

capacity in the world. In 2009-10 India's growth rate was highest among the other top four

countries. Wind power accounts for 6% of India's total installed power capacity, and it

generates 1.6% of the country's power.In its 12th Five Year Plan (2012-2017), the Indian

Government has set a target of adding 18.5 GW of renewable energy sources to the

generation mix out of which 11 GW is Wind Energy.

5.3.1State-level Wind Power

There is a growing number of wind energy installations in states across India. As of

31 March 2014 the installed capacity of wind power in India was 21264 MW. Wind energy

generation in states across India is shown in table.

State Capacity(M.W)

Tamil Nadu 7253

Gujarat 3414

Maharashtra 2976

Rajasthan 2820

Karnataka 2409

Andhra Pradesh 753

Madhya Pradesh 439

Kerala 55

Table 5.1: State-level wind power in India. [9]

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Chapter 6

Tidal Energy

6.1 Introduction

The tides in the sea are the result of the universal gravitational effect of heavenly

bodies like sun and moon on the earth. Due to fluidity of water mass, the effect of this force

becomes apparent in the motion of water. It shows a periodic rise and fall in levels. It is in

synthesis with the daily cycle of rising and setting of sun and moon. This periodic rise and

fall of the water level of sea is called tide. These tides can be used to produce electrical

energy. It is called, “Tidal Energy”. When the water is above the mean sea level, it is called,

“Flood Tide”. When the level is below the mean sea level, it is called, “Ebb Tide”. To

harness the tides, a dam is built across the mouth of the bay. It will have large gates in it. It

has low head hydraulic reversible turbines. A tidal basin is formed. It gets separated from the

sea by dam. The difference in water level is obtained between the basin and sea. By using

reversible water turbines, turbines can be run continuously, both during high tide and low

tide. The turbine is coupled to generator. Potential energy of the water stored in the basin as

well as energy during high tides used to drive turbine. It is coupled to generator to generate

electrical energy.

6.2 Types of Tides Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the

gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of the Earth.

6.2.1 Spring Tide When the moon is full or new, the gravitational pull of the moon and sun are

combined. At these times, the high tides are very high and the low tides are very low. This is

known as a spring high tide. Spring tides are especially strong tides (they do not have

anything to do with the season Spring). They occur when the Earth, the Sun, and the Moon

are in a line [12]. The gravitational forces of the Moon and the Sun both contribute to the

tides. Spring tides occur during the full moon and the new moon. Spring tide is shown in

figure.

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Figure6.1: Spring tide .[12]

6.2.2 Neap Tide During the moon's quarter phases the sun and moon work at right angles, causing the

bulges to cancel each other. The result is a smaller difference between high and low tides and

is known as a neap tide. Neap tides are especially weak tides. They occur when the

gravitational forces of the Moon and the Sun are perpendicular to one another (with respect to

the Earth). Neap tides occur during quarter moons. Neap tide is shown in figure.

Figure6.2: Neap Tide .[12]

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6.3 Tidal Energy Conversion The generation of electricity using tidal power is basically the transformation of tidal

power found in tidal motion of water in seas and oceans into electrical energy. This is done

using a very basic idea involving the use of a barrage or small dam built at the entrance of a

bay where tides are known to reach very high levels of variation [13]. This barrage will trap

tidal water behind it creating a difference in water level, which will in turn create potential

energy. This potential energy will then be used in creating kinetic energy as doors in the

barrage are opened and the water rush from the high level to the lower level. This kinetic

energy will be converted into rotational kinetic energy that will rotate turbines giving

electrical energy. Fig shows the process in very simple terms.

Figure 6.3: A diagram showing transformation of tidal energy to electric

energy.

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6.4 Examples of Tidal Power Stations Worldwide

1. The most major tidal power station in operation today is a 240-megawatt at the

mouth of the La Rance river estuary on the northern coast of France (a large coal or

nuclear power plant generates about 1,000 MW of electricity). The La Rance generating

station has been in operation since 1966 and has been a very reliable source of electricity

for France. La Rance was supposed to be one of many tidal power plants in France, until

their nuclear program was greatly expanded in the late 1960's.

2. 254 MW Sihwa Lake Tidal Power Plant in South Korea is the largest tidal power

installation in the world. Construction was completed in 2011.

3. The Indian state of Gujarat is planning to host South Asia's first commercial-scale

tidal power station. The company Atlantis Resources planned to install a 50MW tidal farm

in the Gulf of Kutch on India's west coast, with construction starting early in 2012

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Conclusion

Renewable energy has the potential to generate significant amounts of electricity at

certain sites around the world. The negative environmental impacts of renewable energy are

probably much smaller than those of other sources of electricity. Renewable energy has the

potential to create many opportunities at all levels, especially in rural areas.

1. Innovative financing

2. Mainstreaming of renewable is very essential

3. Energy security, economic growth and environment protection are the national energy

policy drivers of any country of the world.

4. There is a need to boost the efforts for further development and promotion of renewable

energy sources.

5. Promoting renewable energy technologies as a way to address concerns about energy

security and economic growth.

6. Specific action included promoting deployment, innovation and basic research in

renewable energy Technologies.

India’s quest for energy security and sustainable development rests a great deal on the

ability to tap energy from alternate sources or the renewable sources.

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References

[1 ] Overview of Renewable Energy Potential of India, Peter Meissen, President, Global

Energy Network Institute (GENI ) available at http://www.geni.org.

[2] Planning Commission, Govt. of India—September 1995 & September 1996

Projections to 2020–2021.

[3] National Electricity Plan Vol 1 (Generation) Central Electricity Authority, Ministry of

Power, GOI]

[4] Central Electricity Authority, Ministry of Power, Government of India. June 2014.

Retrieved 1 August 2014.

[5] Rai, G.D., Non-Conventional energy sources, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, 2nd

Edition, 2002.

[6] The Solar Energy Book-Once More." Mother Earth News.

[7] Solar: photovoltaic: Lighting Up The World retrieved 19 May 2009.

[8] Annual Report, of Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources, Govt. of India, New

Delhi.

[9] "Technical Specs of Common Wind Turbine Models". Aweo.org.

[10] Jha, Ph.D., A.R. (2010). Wind turbine technology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

[11] "Indian Wind Energy and Economy". Indianwindpower.com.

[12] Developments in Tidal Energy: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Tidal Power,

Institution Of Civil Engineers (Contributor).

[13] Ocean, Tidal, and Wave Energy: Power from the Sea (Energy Revolution) by Lynne.