report of trowulan museum field trip
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DESCRIPTIONReport of Trowulan Museum Field Trip
Group And Individual Field Trip Reportof Trowulan Museum, MojokertoGroup 2 Cultural Anthropology Class of 2015:Aisyah Jazuli PutriAsri Haji AdamDk Nur Syaima binti Pg Haji Mohamad HassanNurul Nadzirah Binti Haji Mahadin
INTRODUCTIONTrowulanis an archaeological site located in Trowulan Subdistric, Mojokerto Regency inEast Java. The city is the only Hindu-Buddhist classical age site in Indonesia. The museum was built in order to house the artifacts and archaeological findings discovered around Trowulan and its vicinity. The location is one of the more important in Indonesia in relation to tracing the history of Majapahit.Trowulan site has been suggested as the site of the eponymous capital city of the Majapahit Empire. The ancient city ruins at Trowulan had been discovered by the 19th century. Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, reported the existence of ruins of temples scattered about the country for many miles. Most of archaeological relics discovered in Trowulan and its vicinity is stored and displayed in Trowulan Museum which was established by Henri Maclaine Pont, a Dutch architect and archaeologist, and the Mojokerto regent Kanjeng Adipati Ario Kromodjojo Adinegoro. Excavations in and around Trowulan have shown that parts of the old settlement still lie buried under several metres of mud and volcanic debris. Several archaeological ruins lie scattered around Trowulan village. Several are quite damaged, while others have undergone reconstruction. Today the museum not only houses the archaeological relics from Majapahit era, but also collects and displays various archaeological relics discovered all over East Java. From the era of King Airlangga, Kediri, to the era of Singhasari and Majapahit. From the field trip we have passed, here are several items belong to the Trowulan Museum which our group finds to be the most interesting.
DOCUMENTATION OF INDIVIDUAL ITEMSThese are the five of historical items each which placed in Trowulan Museum that have been chosen by all of the group member.
Nadzirahs items1. The Woman Terracotta StatueThe Terracotta statues of women illustrated in the attitude of standing or sitting, lap child, and was picking Wina or play the tambourine. They has assortment of hair style and wearing an assortment of earrings and floral decoration above the ears. Her body was clothed in a tank top that is slung over the shoulder. Its function is for decoration or portrays certain characters in the story. These statues can be used to describe the appearances or status of women at the time of Majapahit. I found this statues are interesting because it is just unique to see how they dressed up in the past especially their accessories and hairstyles.1. The Foreign Terracotta Statue
In the Majapahit period there have been several foreign nations that dwell in Majapahit. They are in the Majapahit as related to economic, political, and religious. The foreign faces are the Chinese and Arabic. Chinese characteristic has slanted eyes, slicked back hair, a mustached, fat body, and wear robes. While the Arab' characteristics are having a sharp nose and wears kopyah. I saw that the foreign terracottaare unique and I was having curiosity how the foreigners in the past were looked like and what kind of foreigners were coming to Majapahit.1. Deformation Terracotta Statue
Terracotta statues face is deformed face statues made worse than the face or countenance in general, for example, an ape-faced, chubby-cheeked child-like, thick lips, narrow eyes, and scrub nose. Its function is thought to describe the characters clown-faced for funny, whereas for monkey-faced monkeys depicting characters in the Ramayana. The characters face like this, among others, found in narrative reliefs Bubuksah or Gagangaking Sorowono and reliefs Panji stories in the temple of Mount Penangunggan. I have chosen this terracotta because it is funny to see their deformed faces and to see how a human having a weird face.1. Hariti Statue
In Buddhist mythology is told that in the beginning Hariti is a giant woman named Abhirati Satyagiri the joy of the kingdom of flesh devouring small children. This makes the fear of the people, by the Buddha, Hariti given a sermon on Buddhism. When she realized, she was ordained a Child Protective Goddess or Goddess of Fertility. Typically, large-breasted statue depicted Hariti and surrounded by small children. The functions of Hariti mythological creatures are to protect children, provide comfort during delivery, maintaining and caring for children, maintaining conjugal harmony, love, and welfare and security of the family. She is also revered women without children in order to get pregnant. It is interesting to know that a creature like Hariti is existed in the past especially in Majapahit and I was amazed to know how she turned out to be a Goddess.1. Kala
Kala is one of the animals depicted in Hindu mythology. It is described very scary, eyes bulging; mouth grin bared its fang. Kala is used as a garnish or recesses of the temple doorway. Usually Kalas ornament equipped with makara, which is a trunked marine animals that are placed on either side of the door or cheek temple stairs. Kala caught my attention because of its scary faces and it is rarely to be seen in the temple that I have visited as I always see is mostly dragons.
Asris Items1) Nisan Fatimah binti MaimunFatimah binti Maimun bin Hibatullah is a Muslim woman who died on Friday, 7 Rajab 475 Hijrah (December 2, 1082 Masihi). Her tombstone is written in Arabic with Kufic calligraphy style, and it is the oldest Islamic grave marker found in the archipelago. The tomb is located in the village of Leran, Manyar District, about 5 km north of the city of Gresik, East Java.Siti Fatimah, who is also known as Dewi Putri Retno Dewi Swari or Swara, is the daughter of a father who named Maimon from Iran, and the mother goddess named Aminah from Aceh, who was born in 1064. Other sources mention that Siti Fatimah bint Maimon comes from the land Kedah, Malacca. Reportedly Siti Fatimah binti Maimon tomb is the oldest Islamic cemetery in the Southeast Asia region. Siti Fatimah is a propagator of Islam in the region Giri before the arrival of Maulana Malik Ibrahim or Sunan Gresik.
In this tomb discovered relics of the Stone Nisan Leran, a tombstone with a carved Kufi calligraphy style, which is a model of writing the oldest among all the calligraphic style. However gravestone Leran has been moved to the Museum Trowulan in 1997. Inscription on gravestone Inscriptions Leran composed of seven lines, which translates:1. In the Name of Allah (the Most Compassionate and Merciful). All existing2. The earth is transitory. And only eternal Essence of thy Lord who has greatness3. and Glory. the tomb of innocent women,4. straight, daughter of Maimonides, the son Hibatu'llah, who died5. Friday eight Rajab (after seven nights passed)6. 475 years, with a grace7. Allah the All-Knowing all the unseen, God Almighty and His Messenger glorious.The first person to find and read the inscription gravestone Leran, according to Mohammad Yamin, is a Dutch researcher named JP Moquette in 1911, then Paul Ravaisse (French nationals) do some repairs. The reason why I found it interesting because I was curious who is Fatimah binti Maimun and her related with the Majapahit kingdom.2) Arca Wisnu Naik Gajah
Look from the legacy, King Airlangga is Vishnu Hindu Sect. This is evident in the statues in the temple Hemisphere manifestations characterized by vehicle of Lord Vishnu in the form of an eagle and the statue of Goddess Lakshmi or Dewi Sri who is also the wife of Lord Vishnu. There is a separate story about the Garuda which became a vehicle of Lord Vishnu. Told about the life of the Winata (Garudas mother) who is a slave Sang Kadru (mother of the Dragon), since losing bets on horse Uchaisrawa color. Horse Uchaisrawa is initially all white. But on the orders of the Kadru against her (the dragon) Uchaisrawa horse tail at the end sprinkled so that the color change to black. Since then Winata defeat and become slaves to the Kadru. Garuda who felt pity for the suffering of his mother, for helping care the children of Kadru. At the request of Garuda, The Kadru willing to release his mother from being slave with the term given holy water (Amerta). In his quest Garuda met with Lord Vishnu, who then said to Garuda, Hi Garuda, if you want Amerta, let ask me. Meanwhile Lord Vishnu asked that Garuda was willing to be his vehicle. Garuda then managed to break the bondage of suffering mother of Kadru with Amerta Vishnu administration housed in a jug kamandalu. Since then Garuda became the vehicle of Vishnu. I found interesting with Wisnu naik Garuda because it is Universitas Airlangga statue and I just wanted to know the story about it.3) Arca Brahma
Brahma is the creator of the universe and of all beings, as depicted in the Hindu cosmology. The Vedas, the oldest and the holiest of Hindu scriptures, are attributed to Brahma, and thus Brahma is regarded as the father of dharma. He is not to be confused with Brahman which is a general term for the Supreme Being or Almighty God. Although Brahma is one of the Trinity, his popularity is no match to that of Vishnu and Shiva. Brahma is to be found to exist more in scriptures than in homes and temples. In fact it is hard to find a temple dedicated to Brahma. One such temple is located in Pushkar in Rajasthan.According to the Puranas, Brahma is the son of God, and often referred to as Prajapati. The Shatapatha Brahman says that Brahma was born of the Supreme Being Brahman and the female energy known as Maya. Wishing to create the universe, Brahman first created the water, in which he placed his seed. This seed transformed into a golden egg, from which Brahma appeared. For this reason Brahma is also known as Hiranyagarbha. According to another legend, Brahma is self-born out of a lotus f