reproduction, heredity and genetics, and prenatal development
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Reproduction, Heredity and Genetics, and Prenatal Development
ReproductionProcess by which organisms create more organisms of own kind. Male and female gametes or sex cells: Sperm and ovum create zygote
Male Reproductive SystemTestes: produce spermPenis: Mans external organ
The Female Reproductive SystemOvaries produce ova.Ovum released approximately every 28 days.Moves through fallopian tubes where it may be fertilized by sperm.Uterus prepares itself for conception.Unfertilized ovum shed; expelled through cervix and vagina.
How and When Fertilization OccursMenstrual CycleOvulationFertilizationMultiple Conception
Conceiving or Avoiding ConceptionInfertility and Assisted Reproductive TechnologyIn Vitro FertilizationEthical Dilemmas of Baby MakingBirth Control Methods a. Contraception b. Abortion
Infertility and Assisted Reproductive TechnologyIn vitro fertilization (IVF)Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)Preimplantation genetic treatment (PGT)Ovarian and sperm cryopreservationSperm sorting (sperm separation)Embryo adoption
Ethical Dilemmas of Baby MakingARTs have significantly improved pregnancy ratesQuestions:How long should embryos develop in lab?Who do embryos belong to?What type of research is being conducted?
Birth Control MethodsAbstinenceContraceptionAbortion
The Expanding Reproductive YearsMenstruation can begin at 8 or 9 years of age; average 11 to 12Advanced technology allows women to choose childbearing after menopause.
Heredity and GeneticsHeredity: our biological inheritanceGenetics: the scientific study of biological inheritance
The Human Genome ProjectThe sequencing of the genetic blueprint of all the genes on their appropriate chromosomesGenome is divided into chromosomesChromosomes contain genesGenes are made of DNA
What are Chromosomes and Genes?ChromosomesGenesDNAHuman genomeMitosisMeiosis
Determination of an Embryos Sex46 chromosomes (23 pairs) 22 are similar in size and shape in both men and women: autosomes23rd pair: sex chromosome, determines babys sex.
Principles of GeneticsGregor Johann MendelDominant and Recessive Characteristics a. Allele (dominant or recessive) b. Homozygous characteristic c. Heterozygous characteristics d. Polygenic inheritance
Phenotypes and GenotypesGenotype: Actual genetic makeup of organismPhenotype: Observable characteristics of organism
Multifactorial Transmission Environmental factors interact with genetic factors to produce traits.Sex-Linked Inherited Characteristics: Genes that are linked or appear on the same chromosome are inherited together: Sex-linked traits.
Genetic Counseling and TestingGenetic Counseling: Helps parents find out risk of passing along a particular disorder or disease.
Genetic and Chromosomal AbnormalitiesDowns Syndrome: Occurs in 1 out of every 800 live births.In 95% of all cases there are three copies of the 21st chromosome: trisomy 21Extra chromosome alters course of development and causes physical characteristics.
Box: Human DiversityPrenatal diagnosis:AmniocentesisUltrasonographyFetoscopyChorionic villus biopsyMaternal blood sampling
Prenatal DevelopmentGerminal Period: From conception to second week.Characterized by growth of zygote and establishment of linkage between zygote and support system of mother.
Embryonic PeriodFrom end of second week to eighth week.Rapid growthEstablishment of a placental relationship with motherEarly structural appearance of all chief organsDevelopment of recognizable human body.
Development during embryonic period
Cephalocaudal Proximodistal Critical Period
Fetal PeriodBegins with the ninth week and ends with birthCharacteristics: Organism called a fetusMajor organ systems continue to develop and assume their specialized functions.
Loss by MiscarriageMiscarriage: organism is naturally expelled from uterus before it is viable.
Prenatal Environmental InfluencesTeratogens: Drugs and other chemical agents that can cause birth defects: Smoking Marijuana Hard Drugs Alcohol Oral Contraceptives Toxins in environment and workplace
Maternal Infectious and Noninfectious Diseases:
Rubella and Other AgentsSyphilisGenital HerpesHIV/AIDSDiabetesMaternal Sensitization: The Rh Factor Maternal StressMaternal AgeMaternal Nutrition and Prenatal Care