rhino poaching(revised)

LIFS 4301 Project Rhino Poaching Ken Leung George Tsang Vico Pat

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ecology, conservation, brief introduction


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LIFS 4301 ProjectRhino Poaching

Ken LeungGeorge TsangVico Pat

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Approximately 17 rhino were killed for these horns…


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Rhino Poacher Lost Their Life!!!

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Why we mention conservation of Rhino?

• All Rhinos are threatened by poachers

• Both human and rhinos suffer

• Ecological, social and international problem

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Table of content

1. Introduction of Rhinoceros

2. Threat to rhino

3. Solutions and measures

4. Conclusion

5. Q&A

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• Rhinoceros : Rhino (nose) and ceros (horn)

• Nick name : rhino

• Horn-like appendages on noses

• Five living species of rhinos

• Ungulates, with three toes on each foot

• Herbivorous mammal

Javan rhino

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• Lifespan : 35 to 40 years

• Range : Africa and South Asia

• Habitat: savannas, dense forests in tropical and sub-tropical regions

• Behavior : fight for territories, use horn for defense

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Rhino extant species

Asia1. Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) –VU

2. Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus)– CR

3. Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis)- CR


4. White rhino (Ceratotherium simum) –NT

5. Black rhino (Diceros bicornis) –CR

One of the subspecies of black rhino,Western black rhino was declared extinct in 2011 (ICUN)

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Rhino size

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Global distribution of rhinos

Source: http://www.savetherhino.org/assets/0001/0745/Rhino_pop_map_large.jpg

At the beginning of the 20th Recent population- 500000 rhinos - around 29000 in wild across South Asia and Africa

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Global distribution of rhinosSources:

1. http://www.savingrhinos.org/rhino-species-downloads.html (2011)

2. http://www.savetherhino.org/rhino_info/rhino_population_figures (unknown)

3. Convention On International Trade In Endangered Species Of Wild Fauna And Flora

http://www.cites.org/eng/cop/16/inf/E-CoP16i-51.pdf (2012)

*0 means no data

Javan Sumatran Black Indian White0






48 200









0 0





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Some myths about of Rhino

• Rhino horn is not bone, but composed of keratin

• Horns can be regenerated

• No natural predator in wild for adult rhino

• But human…are their real predator !!!

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Rhino extant species comparison

Species IUCN status No. Of horns

Horns length

Indian rhino Vulnerable 1 20 to 100 cm

Javan rhino Critically endangered

1 26 cm, absent in female

Sumatran rhino

Critically endangered

2 Front horn : 25-79cmSecond horn : 10 cm

White rhino Near extinction ->Near threatened

2 Front horn : averages 90 cm, maximum 150 cm

Black rhino Critically endangered

2 Front horn : averages 50 cm, maximum to 140 cm

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Let’s make a guess…

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African rhinosWhite rhino Black rhino

Larger Smaller

Grazers Browsers

Flat broad mouth Pointed mouth

Do not use skin color to distinguish…

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Main threat : Poaching

• Why?

• How?

• Current situation

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Why poach?

• For the horns as cure for

Hangover (Vietnam)

Aphrodisiac / impotence (Chinese)

Cancer (TCM)

• Dagger (Jambiya) handle (Yemen)

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Horns hunting

• Rude, bleeding and painful

• Poachers cut near

the germinative layer

• Ride helicopters

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Changes in numbers black rhino in Africa 1991-2012 with fitted fourth order polynomial trend lines

Source: IUCN SSC AfRSG data

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Changes in numbers white rhino in Africa 1991-2012 with fitted fourth order polynomial trend lines

Source: IUCN SSC AfRSG data

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Source: South African Department of Environmental Affairs (2013)

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Rhino poaching per day in South Africa by year and by quarter since January 2010

Source: South African National Wildlife Crime Reaction Unit & Dept. of Environmental Affairs

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What countries are doing??


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• Put more effort on security checking

• Stop smuggling

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Training of Guards

• As Rhino Poachers has more advance equipment

• Train specialized ranger • For example:Protrack anti-poaching unit in South Africa Authorized to enforce the law

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Formation of anti-poaching organization

• Giving advice and support to private reserve

• Provide equipment's for Rhino tracking, survey

• Raise Fund through public events

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Click icon to add picture

Source: South African Department of Environmental affairs (2013)

Increase by 68%

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Largely reduce Rhino Poaching

Protect Rhino population

More resources for conservation organization to investigate on Rhino


X Make the prize of Rhino horn in underground market even higher

X Rhino Poacher can use more sophisticated methods

X Ethical issue- Is the value of Rhino even higher than human?

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New approach!!!!!Rhino Horn-farming

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Rhino Horn-farming

• Started in South Africa and China in small scale

• Unlike elephant, Rhino horn can be removed without harming the animals

• Rhino horn can be re-grow

• Ideally, we can periodically collect horn from Rhino

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Rhino Horn-farming


Lower the price of Rhino horn

Decrease the motivation of Rhino Poachers

Protect wild Rhino Population


X Rhino horn is currently illegal for trading

X May increase the number of Rhino horn Consumers

X Difficult to estimate the market size

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Other Extreme Methods !!

• Add potent poison to horn

• Harmless to Rhino

• Kill consumer!!!

• Not Ethical• How about the sharks fin

and Bluefin tuner?

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What we suggest!!

Multiple Use Area Category VI

• For example, Samlaut Multiple Use Area in northwest Cambodia

• Game reserve in transition

area lead to better management

• Poachers are more difficult to enter reserve core Reserve


Buffer zone

Transition area

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• News http://hk.apple.nextmedia.com/news/art/20111116/15805972

• https://www.rhinos.org/25-things-you-didn-t-know-about-rhinos

• http://intlrhinofoundation.wordpress.com/2010/07/12/how-long-can-a-rhinos-horn-grow/

• “Medical” use

• http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/seanthomas/100246187/the-rhino-is-dying-thanks-to-tourists-from-china-and-vietnam-how-can-we-end-this-evil-trade/

• Horn value

• http://www.voanews.com/content/south-africa-legal-auction-rhino-horn/1698120.html

• http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2013/05/why-does-a-rhino-horn-cost-300-000-because-vietnam-thinks-it-cures-cancer-and-hangovers/275881/

• http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-11477508

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• Cambodia

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samlaut_Protected_Area

• http://www.wildlifeextra.com/go/news/rhino-horn-poison.html#cr

• Pictures

Poacher: http://blog.africageographic.com/africa-geographic-blog/files/2012/11/1.jpg

Jambiya: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/Jambiya.jpg

Rhino horn:http://www.rhinoconservation.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/antique_rhino_horn.jpg

Dehorned rhino:


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Rhino and Oxpeckers

-feed exclusively on the backs of large mammals-ticks and other insects-helps rhino to create commotion, make rhino alerts