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Soft RoboticsSelf-organization, embodiment,

and biological inspirationThe four messages of embodiment

Tecnolgico de Monterrey Campus Quertaro22 February 2011

Rolf Pfeifer, Artificial Intelligence LaboratoryDepartment of informatics, University of Zurich, Switzerland

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Thanks to ...

Hajime AsamaRudolf BannaschJosh BongardSimon BovetRodney BrooksWeidong ChenSteve CollinsHolk CrusePaolo DarioRaja DravidRodney DouglasPeter EggenbergerMartin FischerDario FloreanoToshio FukudaRobert FullGabriel GomezFumio HaraAlejandro HernandezOwen HollandKoh HosodaFumiya IidaAuke Ijspeert Takashi Ikegami

Masayuki InabaAkio IshiguroOussama KathibAlois KnollYasuo KuniyoshiLukas LichtensteigerMax LungarellaRen LuoShuhei MiyashitaNorman PackardMike RinderknechtRoy RitzmannAndy RuinaGiulio SandiniOlaf SpornsLuc SteelsRuss TedrakeEsthen ThelenSethu VijakyakumarRuediger WehnerMartijn WisseHiroshi YokoiWenwei YuMarc Ziegler

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

for their ideas

Hajime AsamaRudolf BannaschJosh BongardSimon BovetRodney BrooksWeidong ChenSteve CollinsHolk CrusePaolo DarioRaja DravidRodney DouglasPeter EggenbergerMartin FischerDario FloreanoToshio FukudaRobert FullGabriel GomezFumio HaraAlejandro HernandezOwen HollandKoh HosodaFumiya IidaAuke Ijspeert Takashi Ikegami

Masayuki InabaAkio IshiguroOussama KathibAlois KnollYasuo KuniyoshiLukas LichtensteigerMax LungarellaRen LuoShuhei MiyashitaNorman PackardMike RinderknechtRoy RitzmannAndy RuinaGiulio SandiniOlaf SpornsLuc SteelsRuss TedrakeEsthen ThelenSethu VijakyakumarRuediger WehnerMartijn WisseHiroshi YokoiWenwei YuMarc Ziegler

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Goals

buzzword embodiment

seeing things differently

4

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Contents

Basic ideas: the four messages of embodiment

Applications: Service- and companion-robots

Where are we going? Soft robotics A look into the future: Self-assembly Take home message

5

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Getting into the spirit of embodiment

6

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The spirit of embodiment

7

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The spirit of embodiment

7

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The spirit of embodiment

7

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The spirit of embodiment

7

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The spirit of embodiment

7

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Crazy Bird Morphology, Control

8

loosely hanging feetrubber/plastic

Design and construction:Mike Rinderknecht

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Message 1: Physical embedding

Studying brain (or control) not sufficient: Understanding of

embedding of brain into organism organisms morphological and material

properties

interaction with environmentrequired

9

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Let me be clear

The brain is important!

10

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Let me be clear

The brain is important!

but not the whole story ...

11

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A bit of background

12

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Artificial Intelligence goals

1. Understanding biological systems

2. Making abstractions, developing theory

3. Applications

13

animals

humans

beer-serving robot

vacuum cleanerFreitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Zurich AI Lab robots

Didabot

Famez

Sita

Rufus T.Firefly

Ms. Gloria Teasdale

MorphoFreitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Zurich AI Lab robots

AmouseSahabotI/IIMelissaTrippSamuraiAnalogrobDexterolatorStumpyEyebotMindstormsKheperasMitsubishiForkleg

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Zurich AI Lab robots

Stumpy, Monkey, Puppy, Min-dog, Wheeled Walker, Mini-Stumpy, Wanda, Dumbo, Rabbit

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Zurich AI Lab robots

17

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AI Lab Robots(exploration of morphology)

18

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19

Two views of intelligence

classical: cognition as computation

embodiment: cognition emergent from sensory-motor and interaction processes

Illustrations byShun Iwasawa

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Successes and failures of the classical approach

20

successes

applications (e.g. Google)

chess

consumer electronics

etc.

failures

foundations of behavior

natural forms of intelligence

interaction with real world

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Message 2: Real/Artificial worlds

Understanding of differences between industrial robots and humans/animals and their environments

21

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Industrial environments vs.real world

industrial environments

environment well-known

little uncertainty

predictability

real worldenvironment

limited knowledge and predictability

rapidly changing

high-level of uncertainty

22

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Industrial robots vs. natural systems

23

principles:- strong, precise, fast motors- centralized control- optimization- computing power

Industrial robots

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Industrial robots vs. natural systems

24

principles:- low precision- compliant- control distributed throughout body- reactive- coping with uncertainty

humans

no direct transfer of methods

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Transferring methods

25

Sony Qrio:high stiffness

centralized controlconputationally intensive

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Transferring methods

25

Sony Qrio:high stiffness

centralized controlconputationally intensive

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Transferring methods

25

Sony Qrio:high stiffness

centralized controlconputationally intensive

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Transferring methods

25

Sony Qrio:high stiffness

centralized controlconputationally intensive

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

By comparison: The Passive Dynamic Walker

Design and construction:Ruina, Wisse, Collins: Cornell UniversityIthaca, New York

26

The brainless robot:walking without control

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

By comparison: The Passive Dynamic Walker

Design and construction:Ruina, Wisse, Collins: Cornell UniversityIthaca, New York

26

The brainless robot:walking without control

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

By comparison: The Passive Dynamic Walker

27

The brainless robot:walking without control

self-stabilization

Design and construction:Ruina, Wisse, Collins: Cornell UniversityIthaca, New York

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

By comparison: The Passive Dynamic Walker

27

The brainless robot:walking without control

self-stabilization

Design and construction:Ruina, Wisse, Collins: Cornell UniversityIthaca, New York

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Implications of embodimentSelf-stabilization

28

Pfeifer et al.,Science,16 Nov. 2007

Passive Dynamic Walker

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Implications of embodimentSelf-stabilization

29

Passive Dynamic Walker

Pfeifer et al.,Science,16 Nov. 2007

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Implications of embodimentSelf-stabilization

30

Passive Dynamic Walker

self-stabilization

Pfeifer et al.,Science,16 Nov. 2007

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Short question

memory for walking?

31

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Contrast: Full control hard

32

Sony QrioHonda Asimo

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Extending the ecological niche

Design and construction:Martijn Wisse, Delft University

33

self-stabilization

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Extending the ecological niche

Design and construction:Martijn Wisse, Delft University

33

self-stabilization

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Implications of embodimentSelf-stabilization

34

Denise

self-stabilization

Pfeifer et al.,Science,16 Nov. 2007

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Message 3: Task distribution

Task distribution between brain (control), body (morphology, materials), and environment

35

morphological computation

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Task distribution between brain (control), body (morphology, materials), and environment

no clear separation between control and hardware (soft robotics)

36

morphological computation

Message 3: Task distribution

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Stumpy: task distribution

37

self-stabilization

almost brainless: 2 actuated jointsspringy materialssurface properties of feet

Design and construction: Raja Dravid, Chandana Paul, Fumiya Iida

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The dancing robot Stumpy

Collaboration with Louis-Philippe Demers, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

38

Movie:Dynamic Devices and AILab, Zurich

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The dancing robot Stumpy

Collaboration with Louis-Philippe Demers, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

38

Movie:Dynamic Devices and AILab, Zurich

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Outsourcingfunctionality

Mini-rHexDesign and construction:Robin Guldener, Lijin Aryananda

39

soft, flexible, elastic materials

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Outsourcingfunctionality

Mini-rHexDesign and construction:Robin Guldener, Lijin Aryananda

39

soft, flexible, elastic materials

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The robot frog driven by pneumatic actuators (UTokyo)

40

Design and construction: Ryuma Niiyama and Yasuo KuniyoshiUniversity of Tokyo

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The robot frog driven by pneumatic actuators (UTokyo)

40

Design and construction: Ryuma Niiyama and Yasuo KuniyoshiUniversity of Tokyo

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Grasping

many ways winding spring release exploited by brain

41

outsourcing of functionalitydistribution of control through body

free

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Towards cognitive robots

42

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Adding sensors: generation of sensory stimulation through action

43

knowledge about environment: pressure, haptic, acceleration, vision, ...

knowledge about own body: angle, torque, force, vestibular,

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Message 4: Physical dynamics and information structure

Induction of patterns of sensory stimulation through physical interaction with environment

raw material for information processing of brain (control)

induction of correlations (information structure)

44

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Loosely swinging arm

preferred trajectories biomechanical constraints

(morphology, materials)

45

elbow joint:passive, self-organizes into proper trajectory

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Loosely swinging arm

preferred trajectories biomechanical constraints

(morphology, materials)

46

elbow joint:passive, self-organizes into proper trajectory

purpose?

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Fitting it all together: thestory

exploration

biomechanical constraints (morphology, materials)

preferred trajectories

generation of rich useful data

induction of information structure (self-structuring)

learning

cross-modal associations (predictions)

47

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Compliance, softness: the next steps

48

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The super-compliant robot ECCEDesign and construction:

Rob Knight robotstudio, GenevaRichard Newcombe Imperial College

Owen Holland Essex/Sussex UniversityHugo Marques, Cristiano Alessandro, Max

Lungarella UZH, experiments

49

Anthropomorphic design

ECCE Embodied Cognition in a Compliantly Engineered Robot

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The super-compliant robot ECCE

50

ECCE Embodied Cognition in a Compliantly Engineered Robot

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Techfest 2011, IIT Bombay

51

Embodied IntelligenceSwitzerland

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i-Days, LucerneSwitzerlandSeptember 2010

52

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Hannover Fair, ICT Brussels, Science Fair St. Agrve, France

53

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ECCE with Doris Leuthart, presidentof Switzerland: Innovation Fair 2010

Design and construction:Rob Knight robotstudio, Geneva

Richard Newcombe Imperial CollegeOwen Holland Essex/Sussex University

Jaan Spitz, Pascal Kaufmann UZHHugo Marques, Cristiano Alessandro, Max

Lungarella UZH, experiments

54

Anthropomorphic design

ECCE Embodied Cognition in a Compliantly Engineered Robot

der bionische Roboter

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The super-compliant robot ECCE

55

Anthropomorphic design

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The super-compliant robot ECCE

55

Anthropomorphic design

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The super-compliant robot ECCE

56

Anthropomorphic design

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The super-compliant robot ECCE

56

Anthropomorphic design

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Essence

self-structuring of sensory data through physical interaction with world

physical process, not computational

pre-requisite for learning

57

Inspiration:John Dewey, 1896 (!)Merleau-Ponty, 1963Bajcsy, 1963; Aloimonos, 1990; Ballard, 1991Sporns, Edelman, and co-workersThelen and Smith (developmental studies)

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Contents

Basic ideas: the four messages of embodiment

Applications: Service- and companion-robots

Where are we going? Soft robotics A look into the future: self-assembly Take home message

58

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Applications

classical/algorithmic: chess, search engines, data mining, appliances, control, etc.

embodied/robots in real world:entertainment, education (edutainment), service, medical, hazardous environments, etc.

59

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60

Entertainment robots

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The flute playing robotRoboter WF-4

Design and construction:Waseda University,Tokyo

61

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The flute playing robotRoboter WF-4

Design and construction:Waseda University,Tokyo

61

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Recptionist at last World Expo

Design and construction:Osaka University, andKokoro Dreams

62

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Recptionist at last World Expo

Design and construction:Osaka University, andKokoro Dreams

62

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The robot teacher Saya(Hiroshi Kobayashi,

Univ. of Science, Tokyo)

63

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Support SuitsExoskeletons

64

HAL, the HybridAssistive Limb

Cyberdyne Inc.Exoskeleton

paralyzed individual to climb Breithorn (Switzerland)

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Wheel chair: controlled by brain waives

65Design and construction:Jose del Millan, EPFL, Switzerland

recognition of subjects intentions based on analysis of non-invasive EEG signals

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

First prototype

66

Design and construction:Konstantinos Dermitzakis

AILab, UZH

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First prototype

66

Design and construction:Konstantinos Dermitzakis

AILab, UZH

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Fitness center of thefuture?

67

ten, nine, eight,

Robot development by OsakaUniversity and Kokoro DreamsJapan

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Entertainment and sports ALP: The Adaptive Leg Press

68

Design andconstruction:Max Lungarellaand Raja Dravid

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Entertainment and sportsALP: The Adaptive Leg Press

69

Design andconstruction:

Max Lungarellaand Raja Dravid

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Entertainment and sportsALP: The Adaptive Leg Press

69

Design andconstruction:

Max Lungarellaand Raja Dravid

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Contents

Basic ideas: the four messages of embodiment

Applications: Service- and companion-robots

Where are we going? Soft robotics A look into the future: self-assembly Take home message

70

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Soft Robotics

71

Soft to touch Soft movement Soft interaction Emotions

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Soft Robotics

72

Soft to touch

- materials- soft skin- fur - deformable tissue

Soft movement

- elastic compliant materials for muscles and tendons- variable compl. actuators- expl. passive dynamics

Soft interaction

- soft movements- social and cognitive skills- reactive- soft materials

Emotions

- friendly interaction with humans- facial expression- body posture

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The next industrial revolution

beyond traditional manufacturing

73

hard roboticsnew manufacturingtechnology

new industrial revolution

softbots

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The next industrial revolution

beyond traditional manufacturing

manipulation skills

74

hard roboticsnew manufacturingtechnology

new industrial revolution

softbots

Rodney Brooks

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

New manipulation skills

75

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Contents

Basic ideas: the four messages of embodiment

Applications: Service- and companion-robots

Where are we going? Soft robotics A look into the future: self-assembly Take home message

76

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Self-assemblyShuhei Miyashitas Tribolons

77

light, swimming on water (electrolyte)

magnet and vibration motor

pantograph

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Pizza self-assembly

78

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Pizza self- assembly

79

Design and construction:Shuhei Miyashita, AI Lab, UZH and CMU

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Pizza self- assembly

79

Design and construction:Shuhei Miyashita, AI Lab, UZH and CMU

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Pizza self- assembly

80

Design and construction:Shuhei Miyashita, AI Lab, UZH and CMU

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Emergent functionalitya bicycle

emergent functionality

how does it work?

81

green discs:magnet

no vibration motor

yellow triangle:magnet

vibration motor

basin withelectrolyte

Design and construction:Shuhei Miyashita, AI Lab, UZH and CMU

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Emergent functionalitya bicycle

82

Design and construction:Shuhei Miyashita, AI Lab, UZH and CMU

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Emergent functionalitya bicycle

82

Design and construction:Shuhei Miyashita, AI Lab, UZH and CMU

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Contents

Basic ideas: the four messages of embodiment

Applications: Service- and companion-robots

Where are we going? Soft robotics A look into the future: self-assembly Take home message

83

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Summary and conclusions

Key to soft robotics:

understanding of embodiment

> the four messages

84

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Summary: The four messages of embodiment

Message 1: Physical embedding Understanding brain not enough; morphology materials; embedding

Message 2: Real/Artificial worlds Fundamental differences industrial and real-world environments

Message 3: Task distributionCooperation - brain, body, environment

Message 4: Physical dynamics and information structure Induction of information structure; dependence on morphology and control 85

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Like to know more?

86

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87

Visit us in Zurich

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

or read THE book

88

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or read THE book

what book?!??

89

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Read

90

Rolf Pfeifer and Josh Bongard

How the body shapes the way we think a new view of intelligence(popular science)

MIT Press, 2007

Illustrations by Shun Iwasawa

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Chinese translation

Translated byWeidong ChenShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityandWenwei YuChiba University, Japan

Foreword byLin ChenChinese Academy of Science

91

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translated byKoh Hosoda, Osaka University

andAkio Ishiguro, Tohoku University

to appear soon

How How the body shapes the way we think : a new view of intelligence

How the body shapes the way we think : a new view of intelligence

How

we think : a new view of

R. Pfeifer, J. Bongard

R. Pfeifer, J. Bongard

The Robot Studiowww.therobotstudio.comCronos/ECCE-1EPSRC Adventure Fund and the European Commission 7th Framework Programme

2,900

92

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

93

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

or joinThe ShanghAI Lectures

93

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

or joinThe ShanghAI Lectures

global lecture series on natural and artificial intelligence

video conference with 20 universities 3D virtual collaborative environments for

classwork with 40 universities intercultural cooperation on interdisciplinary

topic

The ShanghAI Lectures, Sept to Dec 2011(from the University of Zurich)

93

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Participating Universities 2010Time Zones

94

Stanford USC UC Irvine

NY Citytech Vermont Michigan

Sao Paolo

Salford Manchester Essex Edinburgh

Algiers

UZH ETHZ EPFL HSG HSLU TU Munich LMU Hamburg Tallinn

Shanghai Beijing Xian Hosei Osaka Chiba Nagoya Tohoku SKKU (Korea) NTU (Singa)

UTAS

Herzlia Jeddah UAE

9am 4pm

5pm8am

7pm

11am

4am1am

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Participating Universities 2011Time Zones

95

Stanford USC UC Irvine

NY Citytech Vermont Michigan

Sao Paolo

Salford Manchester Essex Edinburgh

Algiers

UZH ETHZ EPFL HSG HSLU TU Munich LMU Hamburg Tallinn

Shanghai Beijing Xian Hosei Osaka Chiba Nagoya Tohoku SKKU (Korea) NTU (Singa)

UTAS

Herzlia Jeddah UAE

9am 4pm

5pm8am

7pm

11am

4am1am

3amQueretaro

?

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

The Zurich AI Lab

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Thank you for your attention!

98

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The Zurich AI Lab

1987 Foundation with 2 PhD students

2010 ca. 30 scientific staff (7 Postdocs und 20 PhD students, master students)

http://ailab.ifi.uzh.ch/

Funding:

EU-ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) (Cognitive Systems, FET Future and Emergent Technologies)

University of Zurich

Swiss National Science Foundation

Private Sector, Sponsors

Foundations, CIAN (Club of Intelligent Angels)

99

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Research program

100

dynamic movement and locomotion

biorobotics

learning, developmentneural modelinghumanoid robots

educational technology

designart, entertainment

self-organization,self-assembly

modular robotics

artificial evolutionmorphogenesis

theory ofintelligence

vis

ion

life as itcould be

gra

nd

go

al

theory ofintelligence

vis

ion

life as itcould be

gra

nd

go

al assistive robotics

prosthetics and neural interfacing

applications to business design

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Funding University of Zurich, Switzerland

Swiss FNS:- From locomotion to cognition- Dynamical coupling in motor-sensory function substitution- From morphology to functionality- Swiss National Competence Center, for Research (NCCR) Robotics

EU-FET: - Locomorph- Octopus- Extended Sensory-Motor Contingencies- iCub (finished)

EU-Cognitive Systems:- ECCERobot- Amarsi- EU-Cog II/III

Private funding/others:- CIAN (Club of Intelligent Angels)- Maxon Motor- Festo- Hasler Foundation- Switch- Awtech 101

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Research program

102

dynamic movement and locomotion

biorobotics

learning, developmentneural modelinghumanoid robots

educational technology

designart, entertainment

self-organization,self-assembly

modular robotics

artificial evolution

morphogenesis

assistive roboticsprosthetics and

neural interfacing

applications to business design

LocomorphOctopus

LocognitionMorpho-function

iCubECCERobot

AmarsiRobodoc

Dyn. CouplingALP

Prosthetic hand

REAL

Artists in LabInteractive installations

Scalableself-assemby

PACE

The ShanghAILectures

Industrial designand business

theory ofintelligence

vis

ion

life as itcould be

gra

nd

go

al

theory ofintelligence

vis

ion

life as itcould be

gra

nd

go

al

EU-Cog II

NCCR RoboticsStarted: Dec. 2010

(Switzerland)

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NCCR: 12 year perspective

103

EPFLUniversity of Zurich

ETH Zurich

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The Zurich AI Lab Spin-offs

Neuronics Dynamic Devices Starmind Innovation Enexra inc.

104

(QH[UD

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011

Perception as embodied:The rotating dancer

105

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Outsourcing? Insourcing?

106

Chinese textile workersdiscover their power

Freitag, 4. Mrz 2011