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Presentation:The Romantic Movement (1798 to 1830)Presented To:Madam Saima Murtaza

Presented By:Ali Afzal

Our presentation is divided in following parts:IntroductionFrench Revolution and Reforms and Impact of French Revolution on EnglandThe Industrial RevolutionThe Napoleonic Wars, Englands Laissez-Faire (Let It Be) Philosophy and DemocracySturm und Drang (German Literary Movement) and Neoclassicism and Romanticism.Characteristics of Romantic Literature

Beauty is truth, truth beauty/ that is all ye know on earth, and all ye need to know."

Introduction

The Romantic Movement(1798 to 1830)

The Romantic period was largely a reaction against the ideology of the EnlightenmentWhereas Enlightenment thinkers value logic, reason, and rationality, Romantics value emotion, passion, and individualityProfessor Chris Baldick provides the following description: Rejecting the ordered rationality of the Enlightenment as mechanical, impersonal, and artificial, the Romantics turned to the emotional directness of personal experience and to the boundlessness of individual imagination and aspiration

The Romantic Movement(1798 to 1830)

This was the big project ofLyrical Ballads, the collection of poetry by Wordsworth and Coleridge that marked the beginning of the Romantic period.

William WordsworthS.T Coleridge

The Romantic Movement(1798 to 1830)

The changing landscape of Britain brought about by the steam engine has two major outcomes: the boom of industrialism with the expansion of the city, and the consequent depopulation of the countryside as a result of the enclosures, or privatisation of pastures. Most peasants poured into the city to work in the new factories

The Romantic Movement(1798 to 1830)

The poor condition of workers, the new class-conflicts and the pollution of the environment causes a reaction to urbanism and industrialisation prompting poets to rediscover the beauty and value of natureThis movement opposed the scientific rationalization of nature. Those instincts in human nature, which Pseudo-classicism disregarded, took the form of a distinct Romantic Revival

The French Revolution

The French Revolution

During the two centuries while England had been steadily winning her way to constitutional government, France had past more and more completely under the control of a cynically tyrannical despotism and a cynically corrupt and cruel feudal aristocracy. The conditions are vividly pictured in Dickens' 'Tale of Two Cities' and Carlyle's 'French Revolution').

The French Revolution

in 1789 the people, headed by the lawyers and thinkers of the middle class, arose in furious determination, swept away their oppressors, and after three years established a republic. It was the first time that the aristocracy had been brought down, and Marie-Antoinette and her husband Louis the XVI had their heads guillotined off.The early Romantic poets tended to be supporters of the French RevolutionIn his youth William Wordsworth was drawn to the Republican cause in France, until he gradually became disenchanted with the Revolutionaries.

The French Revolution

It was a time of huge social and political transformation, which was inspiring to the Romantics, who valued individuality and freedom and rebelled against social and literary conventions of their day.Just like the French revolutionaries, William Blake was really against injustice and inequality. He shows us just how terrible inequality is in his poems "London." and "The Chimney Sweeper."

The French Revolution

The French Revolution

The causes of this threatened revolution were not political but economic. (The unequal distribution of wealth)The invention of machinery at first threw thousands of skilled hand workers out of employment; in order to protect a few agriculturists, heavy duties were imposed on corn and wheat, and bread rose to famine prices just when laboring men had the least money to pay for it.sixteen hours' labor would hardly pay for the daily breadand in every large city were riotous mobs made up chiefly of hungry men and women

The French Revolution

It is only when we remember these conditions that we can understand two books, Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations and Thomas Paine's Rights of Man, which can hardly be considered as literature, but which exercised an enormous influence in England.

Reforms and Impact of French Revolution on England

The destruction of the African slave tradeThe mitigation of horribly unjust laws which included poor debtors and petty criminals in the same classThe prevention of child laborThe freedom of the pressThe extension of manhood suffrageThe abolition of restrictions against Catholics in Parliament

The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution

More and more people were moving to the cities to work in factoriesnew manufacturing processes were being put in placeNew inventions meant mass production of goods could be produced more efficientlypeople were moving further and further away from nature

The Industrial Revolution

Rural workers in cottage businesses and agriculture had little choice but to seek work in factories, mills, and minesWomen and children worked to help support the familyCities became centers of poverty and deprivationBuilding new physical and commercial infrastructure took priority over the individual and nature

The Industrial Revolution

The Romantics were not very enthusiastic about these changes, they were especially concerned about people moving away from nature. Therefore, the Romantic Movement was a movement against industrialization and mechanization.References to The Industrial Revolution are present in:John Keats' Poem "Ode to a NightingaleWhere palsy shakes a few, sad, last grey hairs,Where youth grows pale, and spectre-thin, and dies;Where but to think is to be full of sorrowAnd leaden-eyed despairs; (lines 25-28)

and William Blakes Poem London

The Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars

Napoleon was initially considered a liberator, a symbol of change, and several Romantic writers were in support of revolutionMany saw the rise of Napoleon as a revolutionary figure and bringer of a new freedom, others saw the violent excesses of the French Revolution and Napoleonic War as signs of the apocalypse

The Napoleonic Wars

Romantics became less enthusiastic over the course of the Napoleonic wars with Napoleons increasing cruelty and aggressive imperialismBecause of revolutions and war, there is an undercurrent of tragedy, death and despair in much of the later Romantic literature.

Englands Laissez-Faire (Let It Be) Philosophy

Laissez-Faire (Let It Be) PhilosophyThis philosophy Encouraged people to follow their interests and limited state involvement in economic activity, as a result:Communal land was taken over by individuals, resulting in a large number of displaced peopleThe gap widened between the very wealthy and the very poorWorking conditions were terrible, with long hours, low wages, and child labor exploitation in factories, mills, and minesRapidly growing towns became polluted and overpopulated, disease was rampantFrustrated with the current political and social situation, Romantic poets responded with poetry that was private, spontaneous and lyrical a shift from earlier formal and more public poetry.

DemocracyElection Day 1815

DemocracyIn the late 18th and early 19th century, concepts such as the Great Chain of Being, which had long represented the way humans thought of themselves and their roles in society, crumbled in the wake of new ideas about democracy. Rather than placing themselves above or below other individuals in a hierarchy, people began to believe that all men are equal.

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Sturm und Drang (German Literary Movement)

Sturm und Drang (German Literary Movement)The Sturm und Drang movement pictures an anti-hero, a character dark in appearance, mood, and thought, in rebellion against the restrictions of society. Sturm und Drang, (German: Storm and Stress), German literary movement of the late 18th century that exalted nature, feeling, and human individualism and sought to overthrow the Enlightenment cult of Rationalism. Goethe and Schiller began their careers as prominent members of the movement.

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Sturm und Drang (German Literary Movement)The exponents of the Sturm und Drang were profoundly influenced by the thought of Rousseau and Johann Georg Hamann, who held that the basic verities of existence were to be apprehended through faith and the experience of the senses.The movement borrowed the name from a play by Friedrich von Klinger. Self-discipline was not a tenet of the Sturm und Drang, and the movement soon exhausted itself.

RousseauJohann Georg Hamann

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Neoclassicism And Romanticism NeoclassicismRomanticismuse and imitation of literary traditions from ancient Greece and Romeuse and imitation of literary traditions from the Middle Ages (including the medieval romance)beauty in structure and orderbeauty in organic, natural formsart from applying order to natureart from inspirationheroic coupletslyric poetryfocus on external people and eventsfocus on self-expression of the artistSocial hierarchy/ Great Chain of BeingdemocracyreasonmysticismReason leads to spiritual revelationNature leads to spiritual revelationurban (glorifies civilization and technological progress)rural (sees the evils of civilization and technological progress)values wit and sophisticationvalues primitive, simple peopleHuman nature needs artificial restraints of societyRestraints of society result in tyranny and oppressionThe HeadThe Heart

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Characteristics of Romantic Literature

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