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    RPP CUTE executive report 2014

    December 2014

    Coordinators: Arnaud Bertrand (IRD, UMR EME) Marie Bonnin (IRD, UMR LEMAR) Hamady Diop (CSRP, Senegal) Vincent Echevin (IRD, UMR LOCEAN) Dimitri Gutiérrez (IMARPE, Peru) Coleen Moloney (UcT, South Africa) Executive summary Activities developed in 2014 The RPP CUTE has been officially launched in 2014. The guideline letter from Mr. Michel Laurent, President of IRD, indicated the geographic and thematic priorities of the RPP CUTE. We have been asked to focus, in a first time, on the Tropical Atlantic. Also the letter insisted on the fact that we should focus on the main Axis of the RPP CUTE, the central one (Axis 4 - integrated approach for marine ecosystems sustainability and human development) i.e. the interdisciplinary approach. Following these recommendations we opened an internal call for funding the following categories of activities: - Pluridisciplinary activities focusing on the objectives of the Axis 4 and involving different partners.

    The thematic should be relevant for the local and international communities and funding agency (for further application).

    - Meetings to prepare pluridisciplinary proposals to be submitted to funding agencies. - Research coordination of the RPP CUTE The first call was open to proposal in May and closed in early June. A second call was opened on July 30, 2014 for additional proposals. The following proposals have been selected for funding in accordance to the guidance letter: 1- Workshop on legal interactions on marine environment in the tropical Atlantic (West Africa -

    Brazil), Recife, Brazil. CUTE support: 11000 € (PI: M. Bonnin). Annex 1: p3. 2- Establishment of a coordination unit "Scientific western African fleet", Dakar, Senegal. CUTE

    support: 8000 € (PI: P. Brehmer). Annex 2: pp 4-5. 3- Workshop on coastal embayments in Mexico, Peru and Senegal: high frequency environmental

    variability and ecological dynamics in pelagos-benthos coupling. Dakar, Senegal December 3-5 2014. CUTE support: 11000 € (PI: F. Jean). Annex 3: pp 6-9.

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    4- Workshop on "The negotiated territorial regulation for the co-viability of marine and coastal ecological and social systems between transdisciplinary concepts and experiences, 24 - 28 November 2014, Valleraugue, France. CUTE support: 5000 € (PI: O. Barrière). Annex 4: pp 10-12.

    5- Support to the workshop on Inter hemispheric Climate and Oceanographic reconstructions during the last 2000 years. Interplay between Pacific and Atlantic variability and impacts in Marine ecosystems South America/France/Africa Cooperative project Marrakech-Morocco, 20 - 23 October. CUTE support: 3000 € (PI Abdel Sifeddine). Annex 5: p13.

    Additionally about 1000 € have been used for coordination; in total 70% has been dedicated to mission and 30% to support workshops logistic. Note that almost 1000 € could not be used due to credit reservation at the end of the year that could ne be liberated on time to use the credit (see our comment in the next section on the necessity to be able to start RPP activities at the beginning of the year). The RPP CUTE reached its objective in 2014 (see annexes). All activities involved both North-South and South-South interactions, in particular between Africa and Latin America. Also, the RPP CUTE allowed strengthening interactions between UMR and disciplines. The activities initiated with the support of CUTE include the submission of proposals to agencies and capacity building on thematic at the centre of the RPP CUTE. We are confident that CUTE is currently helping to efficiently structure pluridisciplinary activities and that the seed money will allow us funding a series of project submitted to international and local agencies. In particular, the following proposals will be submitted (note that other proposals are expected to emerge in 2015): - Resubmission of the proposal SMART (human development and conservation targets for a

    Sustainable use of MARine Tropical ecosystems: an integrative monitoring, modelling and management approach) to the International call between the ANR and the Brazilian 'Fundação de Amparo à Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Pernambuco' (FACEPE).

    - Submission of a proposal on oceanic Tropical islands to the 'Centre de synthèse et d'analyse sur la biodiversité' (CESAB).

    - Submission of proposal (Brazilian and agencies) of a proposal and a postdoc fellowship on environmental law and fisheries activities with a spatial approach (see Annex 1); note that a preliminary funding has been obtained.

    - Preparation of proposals on 'environmental variability and ecological dynamics in pelagos-benthos coupled systems' (see Annex 3).

    - Preparation of a proposal on Guyana and Amapá in the framework of the Franco-Brazilian program GUYAMAZON (see Annex 4).

    - Longer-term preparation of a Brazilian / French / Moroccan project on coastal areas with high anthropogenic dynamics: Para and Bahia in Brazil, Agadir in Morocco and the Reunion France (see Annex 4).

    - Project of a collective book on: "Co-viability of Social and Ecological Systems, Reconnect Human with Biosphere" (see Annex 4).

    Activities proposed in 2015 One important aspect that came up from the different activities achieved in 2014 is the need for a better coordination of activities in the Tropical Atlantic in link with other systems. We thus propose organising a CUTE transversal meeting during the first trimester of 2015 in order to better set up future initiatives and finalise proposals. Funding such workshop is currently not possible since credits are only made available in May. We thus ask to benefit of a credit advance in early 2015 to ensure a higher efficacy of the RPP CUTE in 2015. Other activities funded during the RPP CUTE in 2015 are those planned following the initiatives that begin in 2014 (see above and Annexes) and new activities that will be opened to a CUTE internal call for funding in 2015.

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    Annex 1- Interactions juridiques sur l’environnement marin en Atlantique tropical

    Dans le cadre du PPR CUTE, un atelier de travail sur les interactions juridiques qui s’appliquent au milieu marin et côtier a été organisé les 30 et 31 octobre 2014 à l'Université Fédérale Rurale du Pernambuco - UFRPE) à Recife. L’objectif de l’atelier était de développer des initiatives transatlantiques entre des spécialistes du droit de l’environnement marin et des biologistes brésiliens (UFRPE, Université Fédérale du Pernambuco, Université Mackenzie de Sao-Paulo, Ministère de la Pêche et de l'aquaculture, représentant de la Fondation Joaquim Nabuco), africains (Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Sénégal et Université catholique d’Afrique centrale, Cameroun) et français (UMRs LEMAR et EME).

    Les droits applicables à l’espace côtier de l’Atlantique tropical relèvent encore trop souvent d’une approche sectorielle et ceci tant au Brésil, qu’en Afrique de l’Ouest et centrale. Développer une approche intégrée nécessite de dépasser cette approche sectorielle. Cet atelier a permis de présenter des études de cas des deux cotés de l’Atlantique tropical et de faire émerger des axes de coopération transatlantique. De premières actions concrètes sont en préparation sous la forme de réponses à appels d'offres brésiliens associant des équipes de chercheurs en biologie marine et en droit de l'environnement brésiliennes, africaines et françaises. En particulier, une première action focalisera sur la problématique qui intéresse les deux côtés de l'Atlantique: l'exploitation pétrolière (plateformes), leur impact sur les activités de pêche et la biodiversité. Suite à ce groupe de travail, Parfait Oumba de l'Université Yaoundé au Cameroun vient d'obtenir un financement pour un séjour de 2 mois à Brest pour travailler avec Marie Bonnin. Parfait Oumba devrait faire son Post Doctorat au Brésil pour travailler sur l'aspect juridique. L'aspect biologique devant être réalisé au sein de l'UMR MARBEC en collaboration avec des universités Brésiliens. Contact: Marie Bonnin ([email protected], UMR LEMAR, PPR CUTE).

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    Annex 2- Commission flotte océanographie - région nord ouest africaine

    La réunion spécifique sur l'organisation de la flotte océanographique de la région nord ouest africaine s'est déroulée en marge de la première conférence internationale du projet AWA.

    La nécessité de suivre l’état très instable des espèces marines exploitées notamment les petits pélagiques et leur importance économique et sociale dans la région nord ouest africaine crée une forte demande sur l’évaluation des ces stocks. Cette variabilité est liée fortement aux variations des conditions environnementales. Les captures commerciales sur lesquelles se fondent les approches d’évaluations classiques peuvent présenter plusieurs limites qui militent en faveur d’autres approches indépendantes de la pêche. Les campagnes scientifiques fournissent de telles informations qui demandent cependant des moyens et des compétences qui ne sont pas facilement mobilisables au niveau de la région. Depuis plus de 30 ans, plusieurs pays de la région (Maroc, Mauritanie et Sénégal, Guinée notamment) conduisent des campagnes scientifiques qui ont couvert à des degrés divers l’aire d’extension des stocks concernés du nord ouest africain. A la fin des années 1990 et au début des années 2000, ces quatre pays ont bénéficié d’un programme d’aide japonais qui a permis la mise à leur disposition des navires de recherches avec les équipements et appareils adéquats pour l’évaluation des stocks demersaux et pélagiques et le suivi de la dynamique environnementale et de la biodiversité (Cétacés, oiseaux et tortues marins….). Plusieurs campagnes internationales ont également eu lieu dans les ZEE des pays concernés (65 campagnes pour le cas de la Mauritanie entre 2000 et 2014). Elles ont couvert différents domaines océanographiques et biologiques. Dans la zone allant du Maroc à la Côte d’Ivoire en passant par les îles du Cap Vert l'évaluation des stocks halieutiques constitue un objectif prioritaire. Au Maroc et en Mauritanie, la mise en œuvre de ces outils de prospection scientifique occupe une place maitresse dans les stratégies nationales de développement du secteur de la pêche. Leur apport est jugé déterminant pour la politique de gestion et d’aménagement des ressources halieutiques (quota pour le poulpe et les petits pélagiques, période d’arrêt et de reprise de pêche…). Ces campagnes constituent une lourde charge financière représentée par le fonctionnement et l’entretien de ces navires qui pèsent de façon excessive sur le budget de ces institutions de recherche et réduit les moyens financiers déjà notoirement insuffisants. Dans certains pays, la dotation publique ne va guère au delà du versement des salaires et de la couverture des frais incompressibles. Ce manque de moyens financiers affecte les observations sur le terrain et limite considérablement la coopération régionale. Le spectre des recherches pluridisciplinaires susceptibles de contribuer au développement et la protection de l’environnement est très large. De toute évidence, les données collectées en mer sont limitées dans le temps et l’espace (particulièrement pour les premiers stades de développement, la biodiversité, la bathymétrie et la sédimentologie) du fait que les moyens logistiques mis en œuvre ne permettent pas d’échantillonner la région nord ouest africaine de façon continue et exhaustive en raison de l'étendue des zones à explorer et de la forte mobilité des ressources halieutiques. Dans les pays ne disposant pas de navire de recherche (Gambie, Guinée Bissau et Côte d’Ivoire), la conduite de campagnes scientifiques se fait par le recours à des navires étrangers de la région ou d’ailleurs. Ces affrètements coûtent généralement chers. Mais le manque de campagnes ou leur irrégularité reste un facteur limitant pour développer des recherches dans ces pays. Dans un tel contexte, la mise en place d’un comité chargé de la coopération scientifique dans le

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    domaine de la recherche océanographique et halieutique et également dans le domaine de la biodiversité est jugée importante pour créer un cadre de concertation et de collaboration. Ce comité regroupera les différentes institutions concernées de la région (INRH, IMROP, CRODT, INDP, CIPA, CNSHB, CRO) en plus du Fisheries Département de la Gambie. L’adhésion des partenaires techniques et financiers (IRD, JICA, FAO, UEMOA, PRCM) et institutionnels (COMHAFAT, CSRP) est fortement souhaitée. Le mandant de comité doit couvrir toutes les problématiques prioritaires. Les campagnes océanographiques constituent la priorité numéro 1. Les conclusions du groupe de travail indiquent que ce comité doit reposer sur quelques principes de base, qui en conditionnent l’efficacité:

    éviter de créer un structure lourde et budgétivore (15 membres au plus) avec les représentants des projets qui travaillent dans la région (AWA, CCLME….);

    se doter d’une large autonomie (les institutions impliquées doivent prendre en charge les frais de participation de leur scientifique impliqué). L’institution qui accueille les réunions doit supporter les frais du secrétariat et des pauses café

    proposer des campagnes internationales pour couvrir une fois par an, l’ensemble de la zone depuis le nord du Maroc jusqu’au sud de la Côte d’Ivoire (Fridjoft Nansen, Coopération française, Coopération Russe, UEMOA, JICA, COMHAFAT…) et apporter ainsi une économie d’échelle mais aussi disposer de données comparables car collectées suivant le même protocole et à des périodes proches.

    chercher des solutions consensuelles aux problèmes posés pour la région et répondre aux besoins spécifiques de chacun des pays lorsqu’un exprime le besoin (organisation de campagne conjointe, prêt de matériel et d’appareillage scientifique ; mobilisation de compétence…).

    définir un mode de financement pour les campagnes notamment en recherchant des cofinancements (publics ou privés).

    Ce comité présente donc l'avantage de répondre au double souci de rationalisation et mutualisation des équipements, des campagnes scientifiques et des activités de recherche et de renforcement à coût réduit et de façon durable les capacités nationales. Des impératifs qui conditionnent la réalisation du Plan de recherche respectif de chacune des institutions impliquées. Comment s’y prendre

    - La création du comité de coordination chargé de la coopération scientifique de la recherche océanographique et halieutique

    - Rédaction du mandat avec comme priorité les campagnes scientifiques o Rédaction d’un draft de statut et d’un règlement intérieur o Ancrage institutionnel (CSRP, COMHAFAT) pour rendre visible le travail accompli

    pour les scientifiques et le grand public. - Faire un état des lieux

    o inventaire des navires scientifiques et de leur équipement fonctionnel o disponible) o inventaire des équipements des laboratoires o répertoire des scientifiques ayant des profils indispensables à la conduite et à

    l’analyse des données collectées lors des campagnes o inventaire des campagnes nationales, régionales et internationales o protocole de l’acquisition des données o les partenariats existants, leurs avantages et limites respectifs nationaux (public et

    privé), étrangers (ex. Europe, Russie) ; inventaire par pays des possibilités d’affrètement ponctuelle extérieure :

    o Détail des difficultés auxquelles font face les navires de recherche. (d1) logistique, d3) humaine, d4) financière

    - Aspects juridiques liés aux autorisations de travail des campagnes internationales dans les ZEE des pays de la région (harmonisations..).

    Tous ces éléments seront documentés et discutés à travers des échanges mail. La date limite de la fourniture de ces données est fixée au 30 mars pour une réunion prévue vers le 30 juin 2015. Un comité provisoire avec à sa tête Mahfoud Taleb de l’IMROP (Mauritanie) a été constitué. Les membres de ce comité sont : Aka Marcel Kouassi (CRO, Abidjan); Bamy Idrissa LAMINE (CNSHB, Conakry); Yves Gouriou (IRD, Brest); Wahbi Fatima (INRH, CASABLANCA); Massal Fall (CRODT, Dakar); Carlos Santos (INDP, Sao Vicinté, Cabo Verdo); Gambie (Fisheries Department, Banjul); Guinée Bissau (CIPA, Bissau). Contact: Patrice Brhemer (IRD/UMR LEMAR).

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    Annex 3- Workshop on coastal embayments in Mexico, Peru and Senegal: high frequency environmental variability and ecological dynamics in pelagos-benthos coupling

    Scientific context All along the coast of upwelling systems benthic organisms may be submitted to important fluctuations of environmental descriptors of the water column such as temperature, oxygen concentration, phytoplankton concentration and phytoplankton quality (Aguirre et al. in prep). In upwelling ecosystems, numerous bays more or less open to the ocean are influenced by winds, tides, heat fluxes and local circulation which are driving the fate of the high primary production supported by important nutrient inputs by the upwelling. In these bays and in littoral areas some benthic organisms are fished and/or cultured (Argopecten purpuratus and Senilia (Anadara) tuberculosa in Peru; Cymbium spp and Senilia (Anadara) senilis in Senegal; Nodipecten nodosus and Senilia spp in Baja California). In Peruvian bays, results from environmental and biological monitoring showed evidences that hypoxic events, associated to milky waters (H2S precipitation), have a strong influence on benthic population dynamics. In Senegal, recent measurements made in the Bay of Hann have shown evidence of hypoxia events associated to denitrification processes (Machu et al. in prep). Such processes impacting local resources might constitute a socio economic concern for fishermen, sea-farmers and human coastal populations. These hydro-climatic events may be linked to the dynamics of the upwelling (eg in Peru see Sears 1954, Gutierrez 2008, Aguirre et al. in prep.; in Mexico see Levin et al. 2009). All these scientific issues dealing with the influence of upwelling system functioning in coastal ecosystems (hypoxia and processes associated to the nitrogen cycle, H2S precipitation effects, pelagic-benthic coupling and benthic populations energetics/dynamics) are common concerns for the study of and southwestern Africa) though they are poorly documented. However, in the context of global change, those hypoxic events may be more and more frequent in coastal zone, especially along upwelling areas (Bakun 2010, Stramma 2010). However even in tropical highly productive coastal areas distant from any upwelling system, a high frequency variability of environmental parameters such as temperature, oxygen concentration, (. . . ) may have a strong influence on the dynamics of benthos. Composition of the working group Below is the list of persons who have been contacted to participate to the workshop. Those whose name is written in italics could not join us in Dakar but are interested in participating to the working group. Senegal – Malick Diouf (UCAD, Dakar) [email protected] – Hamet Diadhiou (CRODT Dakar) [email protected] – Ibrahima Cissé (CRODT Dakar) [email protected] Peru – Arturo Aguire (IMARPE, Lima / Univ. of Brest) [email protected] – Victor H. Aramayo Navarro (IMARPE, Lima) [email protected] – Dimitri Gutierrez (IMARPE, Lima) [email protected] Mexico – Salvador Lluch (CONACYT/ CIBNOR, Mexico) [email protected] – Raul Martinez Rincon (CONACYT/ CIBNOR, La Paz) [email protected] France – Fred Jean (Lemar, Univ. of Brest) [email protected] – Jonathan Flye-Sainte-Marie (Lemar, Univ. of Brest) [email protected] – Laure Pecquerie (Lemar, IRD, Brest) [email protected] – Luis Tito de Moras (Lemar, IRD, Brest) [email protected] – Eric Machu (LPO, IRD, Brest / Dakar) [email protected] – Edouard Kraffe (Lemar, Univ. of Brest / CIBNOR, La Paz) [email protected] – Xavier Capet (LOCEAN, IRD, Paris) [email protected] The workshop took place at the University Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD) in Dakar, in the Ecole Supérieure Polytechnique.

    DAY 1 – WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 3 On the first day of the workshop we began with some informal presentations by participants to the workshop. The aim was to stimulate scientific discussions.

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    Presentations of the studied ecosystems. - F. Jean, J. Flye-Sainte-Marie, A. Aguire. What did we learned about the functionning of Paracas

    Bay in Peru? What influence on the energetics of bivalves such as Argopecten purpuratus? - M. Diouf, L. Tito de Morais. Presentation of the 2 programs "Femmes et coquillages" and

    "Entrepreuneuriat Féminin" in the Sine Saloum - L. Tito de Morais, M. Diouf. The Sine Saloum in Senegal : Fisheries and environmental protection. During this first day we had in depth discussions to clarify the scientific context and the main objectives of the workshop (see above); presentations were the occasion to discuss and compare scientific contexts and available datasets. We also discussed short term and long term objectives that could be common to the different sites; those discussions helped in understanding the advancement of studies at the ecosystem level of the Peruvian, Mexican and Senegalese sites. The potential influence of upwellings on coastal embayments was discussed, and many discussions were about the knowledge of (potential) links between physics and biology in the near ocean downstream the Sine Saloum. Presentation by Malick Diouf were especially important to allow participants to understand the scientific and socio-economic contexts of his work in the Saine Saloum. Discussions were also an occasion to evaluate the feasibility of using common methodologies to progress in the study of Paracas Bay and Sechura Bay (Peru), Magdalena Bay and Concepcion Bay (Mexico, Pacific coast and Gulf of California respectively) and Sine Saloum (Senegal). In the afternoon all participants attended a seminar presented by Siny Ndoye, PhD student supervised by Xavier Capet at Ecole Supérieure Polytechnique. He presented his results in realistic modeling of the Senegalese upwelling.

    DAY 2 – THURSDAY, DECEMBER 4 Excursion to the Saloum. We spent a whole day boating in areas of interest in the near ocean downstream area of the Sine Saloum. Starting in the harbour of Dangane, we explored the sandbanks and mudflats operated by women in the villages of the islands in the area. Explanations of Malick Diouf were crucial to help participants to understand both the ecological and socio-economic contexts of the fisheries of molluscs operated by women from the villages of the delta. On the way back to Dakar we also visited briefly the flats of the upper Bay of Joal-Fadiouth.

    DAY 3 – FRIDAY, DECEMBER 5

    Debriefing and more presentations. In the morning, we had another set of informal presentations by participants and had discussions about potential links between different studies using same tools and methods: - Raul Martinez Rincon. Time series analysis of remote-sensed Chlorophyll-a and Temperature in

    the Gulf of Ulloa - Eric Machu. Scales and tools for studying the environment variability within the AWA framework - Xavier Capet. Review on upwelling shadow and retention mechanisms in upwelling systems - Laure Pecquerie, Jonathan Flye-Sainte-Marie, Fred Jean, Arturo Aguirre. Dynamic Energy Budget

    modelling: examples and potential contributions.

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    Perspectives for a research project From discussions during those three days, it appears that we actually have common scientific concerns about the link between the dynamics which take place in the inner shelf area and bays along the coast. In Senegal, as in Peru and Mexico, events driven by physical forcings at a regional scale may actually have an influence on the functioning of the ecosystems in coastal bays. In Sine Saloum this influence should be detected through monitoring in the outer part of the delta, near Sangomar Island; this area is also a major spot for molluscs fisheries operated by women from the nearby villages. Species of interest: - Anadara senilis is the most studied bivalve species, interesting the majority of the fisherwomen; - Cymbium spp were given up as they are carnivorous gastropods and as we are not specialists. Sites of interest. Two coastal bays have been identified which could lead to a comparison: In Sine-Saloum – human populations are involved in monitoring the environment and the fisheries in the whole

    area of the Sine-Saloum; – UCAD and CRODT are involved in the management of fisheries; – some data sets from previous studies on populations dynamics are available as a basis for future

    studies In the Bay of Joal-Fadiouth – populations are involved in the management of stocks of Anadara senilis – as in Sine-Saloum UCAD coordinate the participative management; – sanitary risk is higher than in Sine-Saloum; – upwelling shadow influence may be stronger; Field monitoring to begin soon. Some field monitoring could begin very soon with sensors already available in Dakar; however, we will apply together to complementary funding. Monitoring should begin soon in Sine-Saloum, near Sangomar Island, and in Joal-Fadiouth thanks to the implication of local populations. Environmental descriptors: – survey of waters incoming from the inner shelf in the bays; field temperature monitoring in bays

    entrances and survey of satellites data/pictures as it is planned in Peru and Mexico; – temperature monitoring will begin as soon as possible with cheap sensors and data loggers;

    probes will be placed in the sand were bivalves live; – trophic ressources monitoring (phytoplankton cells identification and counting) will begin as soon

    as possible; potential competences of Anis Dialo, Ngasooumanaba and Moussa Bodian; – trophic ressources POM, PIM, etc.: filtration / conservation of samples is a problem, to be solved; – trophic ressources Chlorophyll fluorescence: project of low-cost sensors for a continuous

    monitoring as in Paracas Bay (Peru); – oxygen: could be monitored continuously when sensors and data loggers will be available; as a

    first step measurements at different seasons, at the interface between water and sediment; – metals and microbiology surveys: strong seasonal influence should be monitored; first

    measurements just after first rain, then two sampling events until dry season; – sediment: standard analysis (granuometry, organic matter content) once or twice a year. Biological survey on Anadara senilis’ populations; begin with monitoring of standard biometry parameters: – monitoring of growth (30 ind. per month) in reserve area for several cohorts (Nortène plastic mesh); classical biometry (length, height, wet weight and dry weight, shell weight); keep shells for growth studies. cf M. Carré and Azzoug Any experimental study will need complementary funding: existing installations in IUPA Dakar, IRD Mbour and Bel Air would all need a serious adaptation to be usable. Perspectives in education We explored the potential links between our scientific program and students training and education in Senegal. - X. Capet and E. Machu will be our contacts with the master on conservation and coastal dynamics

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    at ESP in Dakar; courses and students trainings will be proposed; - potential strong connexions with IUPA (M. Diouf); students trainings; - link with the development of CRODT’s coastal laboratories; - link with the DEB course proposed by J. Flye-Sainte-Marie, F. Jean and L. Pecquerie in UBO, Lima

    (IMARPE, Cayetano, LMI DISCOH) and La Paz (Cibnor); a course in Dakar may be possible, using the multimedia course for which funding is asked in UBO.

    - link with IUPA’s master in fisheries and aquaculture sciences (RODT IFAN Ecole Veterinaire IUPA). Funding Several paths have been discussed, taking into account that the research project will be strongly linked to the social development and to the participation of the communities of women operating the Anadara’s fisheries; some keywords are gender questions, improvement of fisheries production, sanitary quality, new markets, communities income improvement, "Less use and better value to the Anadara", sustainability of the fishery, improve understanding of ecosystem functioning. - MAVA: up to 100 k€ / 2 to 3 years; - EU / Senegal development program; Senegalese partners should seek for this; - EU / African Union funds for development; Senegalese partners should seek for this; - AFD may be interested; L. Tito de Morais may help in having contacts in this agency.

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    Annex 4- The negotiated territorial regulation for the co-viability of marine and coastal ecological and social systems between transdisciplinary concepts and experiences

    Minutes of the meeting of 24 to 28 November 14h 2014 Valleraugue (France) The CUTE budget was used to organise a 5 days seminar with 5 colleagues for a multidisciplinary prospective around the concept of co-viability: - Mohamed Benassi, a law professor at the University of Agadir, Marocco; - Voyner Ravena Canete, teacher of anthropolgie at the Fedral University of Para, Brazil; - Catherine Prost, a geography teacher at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil; - Gilbert David, geographer of the sea and islands at UMR 228 Dev Space, France; - Olivier Barrière, Lawyer & Law anthropologist at UMR 228 Dev Space, France; - Laurence Pascale, bio-ecologist UM2, joined us last day, France. This seminar allowed reaching 3 main results: - Preset a research project; - The launch of a collective book project on the concept of co-viability; - Preparation of an international congress on human safety, environmental and coviability. 1- Three main areas were presented for the development of a research project around the territorial regulation - Coastal Agadir combines fishing and tourism development, fishing activity is favored by the

    upwelling of Morocco. This coastline is well anthropized and use conflicts are likely to exacerbate, not on marine resources but on space. The problems of co-viability therefore twofold: in fishing activity for the operation does not exceed the stocks between fishing and tourism for space control, the aim being to minimize conflicts between both activities and maximize synergies, so that tourism is a vector of local development and its knock-on effects could boost fishing.

    - The coastal Para and AMAPA and the Guyanese border area, all littoral located north of the

    Amazon benefits from the contributions of terrigenous organic matter and the river. In fact the effects on fish productivity are quite similar to those produced by upwelling except that the upwelling positively impact especially small pelagic while Amazon impact more demersal species. In general, fish stocks in good condition of Amapa and Guyana attract the greed of fishermen Para whose waters are less productive and overexploitation track stocks. The co-viability concerns both the binomial fishermen / resources in fishing between fishermen of Para and Amapa and Guyana in a geographical context marked by a marine protected Cape orange and the border between Brazil and Guyana / France / Europe. In Para, whose coastline is very different from that of all Amapa Guyana marked by mangrove fronts and it has the highest concentration of silt estuaries of the tropics, the essential problem is that of marine protected hast including of extractive reserves.

    - The coastal south of Salvador, Bahia is also characterized by its extractive reserves which should

    be studied sustainability. The comparison with the Para allows to have a sufficient number of MPAs to try to estimate the criteria for success (actual viability) or failure.

    The reflections on these three fields have two possible opportunities: - End of February, submission of a proposal on Guyana and Amapá with colleague from both

    territories and Para and Bahia states in the framework of the Franco-Brazilian program GUYAMAZON.

    - Longer-term preparation of a Brazilian / French / Moroccan project on coastal areas with high anthropogenic dynamics: Para and Bahia in Brazil, Agadir in Morocco and the Reunion France.

    2- Projet of a collective book (ed. OB, GD, MB, PC, VC, LP with 25 contributors) Co-viability of Social and Ecological Systems, Reconnect Human with Biosphere The book will be published primarily in English by Springer. Purpose of the work: definition of co-viability as an emerging paradigm that enters the territorial stewardship.

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    - Socio-cognitive ontology (cultural) nature-society relations - A scientific concept (biological, economic, geographical, historical, mathematical, socio-

    anthropological, legal, ...) - A regulation principle - A political issue - Ethics Part 1: Development of a definition, transdisciplinary approach Part 2: disciplinary analyzes for an interdisciplinary approach 3- Preparation of an International Congress (co-organized by the Agadir-NRCS-LARGOS University and IRD -UMR Space-Dev, in Agadir, under the leadership of Mohamed Behnassi) November 2015, Agadir, Morocco Conference vision The continuous evolution of risks is considerably altering our understanding and perception of "security". The lives and livelihoods of millions of people around the world are being severely threatened, not only by violent conflicts, but also by emerging risks such as environmental and climate-related disasters, health epidemics, chronic and persistent poverty, hunger, organized crime, human trafficking, sudden economic and financial downturns. The impacts of these complex, interconnected and multidimensional threats reveal our shared vulnerabilities to many growing risks. Whether caused by internal or external factors, today’s risks heighten the recognition that insecurities are widespread, cross-cutting, and increasingly associated to intractable and interrelated crises. This shift is challenging conventional concepts, norms and decision making mechanisms and confirming that efficient management of these crises must recognize and account for real-world system complexity and uncertainty. In an interdependent era, it’s being gradually admitted that the impacts of the growing crises will be felt not just in the immediate regions and by current generations, but also across the international community and by future generations. Based on this evolving situation, researchers and scientists from many fields are starting to question the ability of many existing concepts, paradigms and theories to accurately understand today’s emerging risks and to help acting in the direction of managing them effectively. For instance, although it is clear that growth within the current economic paradigm is environmentally unsustainable, it is less clear whether the adoption of sustainable development can save our planet from environmental collapse. There is an apparent tension between the aspirations of social and economic development and environmental sustainability. Countries are aggressively trying to stimulate their economies, while at the same time it is becoming increasingly obvious that we urgently need to address a range of far-reaching environmental problems that can undermine the development process itself. The viability of human systems, as well as their reproductive capacity, are consequently questioned because of the significant and unprecedented global impact that humans have on the Earth's climate and ecosystems. This viability, depending on an ecological interconnection, is increasingly challenged by environmental abuses and pressures exerted by anthropic actions for the sole goal of reaching resources. In the same vein, many researchers are starting to perceive the concept of "security" more broadly, moving away from the inadequate state-centered concept of national security toward the idea of human and environmental securities. This shift is justified by the fact that the global environmental change in general, and climate change in particular, are raising new, unavoidable questions of human and environmental insecurities. Reciprocally, viewing environmental change through the lens of human security connects many environmental problems to human rights, poverty, vulnerability, equity, redistribution, accountability, etc. This evolution is making the environment, and hence environmental change, a security issue. Broadening existing national and international security concepts to encompass these wider meanings may seem, on the one hand, a simple question of their inclusion. Yet a truly human-security-led approach requires, in its fullest articulation, a conceptual realignment of our understanding of human well-being with a profound impact on the organization of our social, ecological and political priorities. Similarly, although it is crucial to develop specific strategies to directly mitigate and adapt to environmental change, it is a much broader approach, that takes economic and societal strategies into account that is necessary if we are to truly address environmental change and the challenges it presents to human security. While acknowledging that full protection of human security may rely on our capacity to rethink conventional governance

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    frameworks, we are not operating with a tabula rasa without competing approaches and concerns. Thus, without consideration of the complexity of the existing paradigms and dynamics that govern our socio-ecological systems and decision-making processes, it is unlikely that attempts to promote human security approaches can be sustainable. The links between the environment and the security of humans and nature have been the object of considerable research in current decades, but it is only recently becoming an important focus of environmental policy. Our ability — or lack thereof — to make innovative conceptual frameworks, institutional/policy arrangements and/or technological advances for managing the environmental security challenges we face, will increase or decrease global environmental security, and consequently determine the future human security. This approach helps framing a new research agenda, and the potential development of a broad range of answers to many delicate questions. We will consider whose security may actually be threatened by environmental change, and furthermore what options exist for managing issues of change. If more research is focused on environmental change and how it affects human security, we can make better decisions and be more prepared for future challenges. Perceiving security, vulnerability, adaptation, resilience and regulation from a co-viability perspective. The interdependence of human systems with their natural environment promotes a socio-ecological unit that incorporates the concept of security in its multiple dimensions. Thus, the preservation of the co-viability of this interdependent system, on which human and environmental securities remain strongly dependent, is an ultimate objective to be currently reached by societies. The quality of established regulatory frameworks pertained to human and environmental securities, with the aim to maintain the co-viability of socio-ecological systems, remains one of the main requirements to progress on this path. This assumption highlights the importance of involving researchers in law and political science — in addition to other relevant disciplines — in this emerging debate. Adopting the co-viability perspective helps perceiving adaptation differently. Current knowledge of adaptation and adaptive capacity is insufficient for reliable prediction of adaptations; it is also insufficient for rigorous evaluation of planned adaptation options, measures, and public policies. Climate change vulnerability studies now usually consider adaptation, but they rarely go beyond identifying adaptation options that might be possible; there is little research on the dynamics of adaptation and sustainability of socio-ecological systems, the processes of adaptation and relevant decision-making and regulation mechanisms, long term conditions that stimulate or constrain adaptation, and the role of non-climatic factors, etc. from this viewpoint, the co-viability of socio-ecological systems can be a guiding principle as well as the ultimate objective of adaptation activities. Adopting the co-viability perspective provides as well distinctive ways in which socio-ecological vulnerability and resilience can be examined. The socio-ecological systems prove to be quite complex with regard to their vulnerability (exposure, sensitivity, and resilience) to environmental hazards, affected by social and biophysical processes and flows within and across the boundaries of the systems. In each case, external political and economic forces are reshaping regional and local environmental uses and coping capacities. Local stakeholders voice different concerns about these changes and are active agents responding differently based on their individual understanding and capacities. From a regulation perspective, a central argument is that the co-viability of socio-ecological systems will be improved if management and administration of ecosystems are re-focused on local communities, their responsible leaderships, and the security of their livelihoods. This also involves the consideration of existing knowledge, norms, rights and practices ancestrally backed up by these communities. The sessions are being developed. A special session will focus on the marine and coastal area. Contact: Olivier Barrière ([email protected]).

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    Annex 5- Inter hemispheric Climate and Oceanographic reconstructions during the last 2000 years. Interplay between Pacific and Atlantic variability and impacts in Marine ecosystems South America/France/Africa Cooperative project

    The workshop took place in Marrakech-Morocco from 20 to 23th October. The scientific cooperation between IRD and South America (Brazil, Chile, Peru) and West Africa on Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatolgy research has been a priority within the IRD-South American and African scientific cooperative projects. It has been developed with partners of different Brazilian, Chilean, Peruvian, Moroccan and Senegalian universities and institutions working on geochemistry, oceanography and environmental changes. These studies have evolved from a better knowledge of regional climate and Atlantic and Pacific oceanographic changes towards a data-models comparison approach at regional scale. In this evolution, the studies included progressively the participation of other institutions working on past climate and ocean models such as IAG-USP, IO-USP and INPE-USP in Brazil, IMARPE in Peru; Ibno Zohr in Morroco, UCAD University in Senegal and LOCEAN in France. The main goal of our projects (PALEOTRACES (IRD-UFF-UPCH-Uantof-UPMC) and CLIMACTE (IRD-CNPq-APGMV)) is to significantly advance our understanding of the climate change processes and impacts on South America (Both sides), North and West Africa continental ecosystems during the last few millennia and in future climate change CMIP5 scenarios by exploring the relative influence of natural and anthropogenic forcings on climate variability, including extreme events. Those projects are devoting a significant effort to integrate institutions from others African countries members interested in this project to propose the creation an African multidisciplinary group contributing to IPCC and also engaged with policy makers for a better assessment of the environmental and societal impacts of climate change in Africa. CLIMACTE and PALEOTRACES are also promoting the enhancement of the collaboration between climate communities (past, present and future), hydrologist communities and environmental and societies communities (anthropo-systems studies) from the participating countries from South America and Africa. The challenge is to build an information system based on observation and modeling useful for decision making in terms of society protection and natural resources and their management in the context of long The challenge is to build an information system based on observation and modeling useful for decision making in terms of society protection and natural resources and their management in the context of long term climate variability and climate change combined with desertification disaster notably in North Africa. For this, we organized an international meeting in Marrakech –Morocco from 20 to 23th October to discuss the advances of our research activities and plans for future collaboration. In total 25 Researchers participated to this meeting (10 from Brazil, 1 from Chile, 4 Morocco, 2 From Senegal, 2 from Peru and 5 from France).