r*;r'* - ferguson film studies - ferguson film

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In the shootingstage the director works'to put the film .in the can., As well . . as creatively executing the slrooting of the rth, th" diiectm r*;r'*" keep on budget and on schedule- a Each time thc Gamcra cJtanges position, it is called a set up. set rrys md slrots - arc almost aln ra),s ihe same. But if the action changes, oris condilsi, or ir .the tens changes, it is a diffcrurt shot. when 4,;69 a shot list tre director lus to be a*nare of how mary shots and set op, thrv-o' do per r."o. and per shootingday. The norrral procedure is to discuss-the scene in it's cntiretywith the First eo and cinernatographer, and ffren oudine &e order oia. *i"pr.-roiora-pre ifthere is to be alighting change in the soene the Alrectorwill wantto shoot all ofthe shots with ffre same lightine; beforc the change. obviously this will save time. The direct'or &en blocks dre strot and outlines &e drrration of each shot. tv{any scenes are correrod in master Sots, or two on three rr*;.6oJ], *., are usually widc shots that accorrunodate atl of the action. The director then will shoot particurarshots (close ups, two.r,otr,,*.oe angtes) to cpt with the masters. BLOCKING Blocking the actors Iets the camer4 lighting, and sound personner know how to position for the shot. The strot may mon a dolly or*cking;;. Jhe dqegor may rehearse the actors, or do a last rlnut" *rr-tii."awhile the technical crew ge* ready. whcn ,hry rr" rooio" actors ,*-trrro.,g!, tt " scene, and the technical crew makes last minute "u;*m"ot . They are now rea{y for a take. The first assistant director asks flie unit to stanauy, *o "rlt, for the camera and sound to start.

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Page 1: r*;r'* - FERGUSON FILM STUDIES - Ferguson Film

In the shootingstage the director works'to put the film .in the can., As well .. as creatively executing the slrooting of the rth, th" diiectm r*;r'*" keepon budget and on schedule-

a

Each time thc Gamcra cJtanges position, it is called a set up. set rrys md slrots- arc almost aln ra),s ihe same. But if the action changes, oris condilsi, or ir.the

tens changes, it is a diffcrurt shot. when 4,;69 a shot list tre directorlus to be a*nare of how mary shots and set op, thrv-o' do per r."o. and pershootingday.

The norrral procedure is to discuss-the scene in it's cntiretywith the First eoand cinernatographer, and ffren oudine &e order oia. *i"pr.-roiora-preifthere is to be alighting change in the soene the Alrectorwill wantto shootall ofthe shots with ffre same lightine; beforc the change. obviously this willsave time.

The direct'or &en blocks dre strot and outlines &e drrration of each shot.tv{any scenes are correrod in master Sots, or two on three rr*;.6oJ], *.,are usually widc shots that accorrunodate atl of the action. The director thenwill shoot particurarshots (close ups, two.r,otr,,*.oe angtes) to cpt withthe masters.

BLOCKING

Blocking the actors Iets the camer4 lighting, and sound personner know howto position for the shot. The strot may mon a dolly or*cking;;.Jhe dqegor may rehearse the actors, or do a last rlnut" *rr-tii."awhilethe technical crew ge* ready. whcn ,hry rr" rooio" actors ,*-trrro.,g!, tt

"scene, and the technical crew makes last minute "u;*m"ot

. They are nowrea{y for a take. The first assistant director asks flie unit to stanauy, *o "rlt,for the camera and sound to start.

Page 2: r*;r'* - FERGUSON FILM STUDIES - Ferguson Film

t0il-1-

Whenready, someone from.the Camera department says rollinS andfrom the

sound department says'speed. The Director"iatls action and the action

starts. It does irot.stop until the director yells cut'

At times others yell 'cut' if there is a technical problem. Othenilise at the end

oitn" t L", the iirectormay say it's good, or call for another one. After a

good Ake fhe prooedgrc is to check the technical end of &ings. When it is

Lrn*.a to Ue good for soun4 camer4 and ttre directoe the shot is done

and it is on to the nerd set uP-

CONTINUITY AND COVERAGE

In shooting scenes, ttre director is aware of cohtinuity. This means being

ayyg.e ofthe action axis, screen direction, eye lines, and the dialogue and

rnovement ofperformers. As well the director must know how to overlap the

action and plovide exits and cntranoes in frames forthe editing. The script

superyisor ivill point out any problems But the director has to know how to

block andposition the camera with continurry in mind.

Ttre direclor also has to provide ooverage for thc scene. This is to rnake sure

there are enough shots of any grrcn action to allow the cditor to maximize the

story telting potential for the film. The director may choose to cover material

in sirryrat long takes, or tnay have a style of many short shots. Directors have

to balance and select the wap they choose to cowr the material. Differert

ldnds of scenes call for different ooverage and shot duation.

practicality is also an issue. If the director realizes a long talce isnlt going to

play in it's entir6y, the director maynot botherwi0r additional takes, if they

i"r,frr part they "*t. They may then move the camera to a new angle.

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Page 3: r*;r'* - FERGUSON FILM STUDIES - Ferguson Film

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RUSHES

At the end of the shooting day or mght, the director along with some others,(dependrng on the style of ttre production) will view the nrshes of the prcviousday's shooting. This is an important form of feedback. Various departnentscan check their work. The director can see ttre performanccs, ildsubseque,ntly correct things if needed The director can also begin adialogue with tre editoraboutlhe material. The directormay also be takingnotes about re-s*roots, pick up shots; or second unit material tbat may berequired.

WORKING APPROACHES

Since schedules alter, budgets become problenratic, and Murphy and all of hiscousins love film shoots, the director has to remain flexiblg and the art ofdirecting incorporates within it's realm the art of compromise. Another usefulrequirement for directing is to be decisirrc. A film shoot may have anywherefrom l0 to a 100 people at work. ffthe director is indecisive or consantlychanging their mind, the unit has to wait or constantly switch gean,Indecision and tersion ftom the directorhas an effect on thp morale andefficiency of the crew, aqdusually the film suffers.

Many directors have thcmselves done narious jobs on filrns. They neod tohave an rmderstanding ofthe rarious crew roles and responsibilities, andas in most work situations, mrrual rcspect for people and &eir work hasbe,neficial results.

In terms of the cas! the director strould never berate an actor or revealirnpatierrce or dissatisfaction in front of the crew or other performers. AIIdirection of actos can be done in a positive frshion. Thc director can alsoalways take a cast member aside, or ease the tension by calling for a shortbreak. The director should never'act out' how they want dialogue spoken orsomeone to move. This gives the actor very little room to work.Actors are hired in the first place for what they can b.ing to the part. A smartdirector lets them bring it.

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Page 4: r*;r'* - FERGUSON FILM STUDIES - Ferguson Film

t2a.

Th.ere is a great and wonderfirl tradition in iilm mirking; in ntich mst andcrcw alike ry to give the dircctor u,hat thgy unant personnel realize thedirector is making tre filn, and iflhey do well, ttrc fitn reflects wetl on allwho participated and rnade creative conEibutions. Directori work wittr thisgood will, md it is significant ifth€y lose ig because ofthe way they treatpeople.

Ttrere's ajokeabout fiIn making that ifyou harrc a gpod crew and cas! thedirector can 'phone the shots in' as evEryone can make &e film if you letthcm. The director deals with complex sitrations and taslss that may beoveru&elning. the tey for thc dircctor is not to lose contut of thafiIlrland to c,!l$re you are confiolling it -nothaving it contrrol you.

The ideat direotornot only has a great visual sense and story te[ing sense, butkmows how to fitthese two togcfbcr. Thcy knorv how to work wift people toget the best otrt ofthem. Thcy are floniblc, decisirrc, and are able to tt inf ontheir feet to find creative solutions. Directing is the most difficult task in fi1nmaking, and also ilre most rewarding

Page 5: r*;r'* - FERGUSON FILM STUDIES - Ferguson Film

.o. .l1, *-*POST PRODUCTION

]tolo.o rntrally shoot wit an idq gf how the pieces slrould fit togettrer.They also indicate what akes they like or parrs orarcs ory p*irr?*perfonnance- They also rnay tlave thoughts abil ro*a

"fd*,-J,oi., voiceover or other creative uses sf the sound hack.

The director worls with thc editor on nrtrat is known as the first cut. This is1!e cut that glves the directon fireir artistic choices and vision of the firtfiJfilm.

The director editorrelationship is a key collaborative relationship. Thedirector is not required nor is it necessary for thern to sit in the

"aitmJr**Iooking over the cditor's stroulder Instead the two catr screen the rawTf{t orrougL cril scaes and discuss the noft steps. As weil as statinguttat--tler dri$ the director should listen to ui&at the editor thinks. It is alsopossible to ry things one way and then another, and view the results.,

The director rnay havc spent a great deal of time shooting a particular sho!forexamplca coqptex tacHnishot, and unant to retain it The editor isseeing the film material with more objectivity, and the great shot rnay have tobe editod because the pace is nrong or theriis a beffer way to tefl the story.As one geat director said 'you have to throw artayvo,n uist shots.,

After the director's firstcut, the producers may make sonrc alterations andcharges to the fitn, but ia good working rehdonships the directonis invotvedtq-thit stage as well. The director is also involved io tr selection ofmusic orother sound rnafierial, and may participate or grvc approval for the st5rle oftitles and crodits as well.

At &e end of the day it is the director uAo is the creatirre identity for theaesthetics ofa film- It is fitting therefore that they are in olvd in afl of thecreative decisions.

Page 6: r*;r'* - FERGUSON FILM STUDIES - Ferguson Film

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TTIE DIRECTOR

The -Director is engaged W tlrcProducdr to directthe production of,a modonpicture as the term 'direct' is conrmonly used and rurderstood i; the;otionpictre indusry and whatever is seen or heard in the finished proaucr ttreterqrs Director and directing include all related functions and activitiesrequired for hanslating and'ransferring the script, premise and idea to theaudiovisualimages. - ' ..

The Director's function is unique and requires herpaticipation in all creativephases of the motion picture process, inciuding all creatirrc aspects of soundand picture.

The Director worlcs directly wittr all the creative elements ofthe motionpicture and participates in the molding and integrating ofthem into onecohesive dramatic and esthetic whole.

DUTIES

Survey and approving ofafl locations' Planning and breakdovm of shooting scriptPloring camera angpt and composition within the frameParticipation in determining requirements of the set, costumes,make up, pops, fool their proper perspective and functioning.-Participation in the frnal casting of performersReheaning actorv and any visuar or audio devicesDirecting the actionDirectingthe dialogueMakhg script_changes, as necessary, within her j,ristictionThe right to 'first cut, or Director,s cutDirector will also particlpate in considerations regardingstock footage, plates, miniahrres, background o, otho*"fi",optical or composite images

(Abbcvietcd from rhc DGC)

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